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• 1 sebook The Essential Language Guide for Contemporary Iraq Yasin M. Alkalesi. Ph.D.
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• 1 sebook The Essential Language Guide for Contemporary Iraq Yasin M. Alkalesi. Ph.D.

The Essential Language Guide for Contemporary Iraq

Yasin M. Alkalesi. Ph.D.

Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction

xv;i

xv

Abbrev iatio ns

xix

Ch apte r

I

Introduction to Ir aqi Arabic

I raqi A1pha~t and Tran slation

J

1

Consonants

1

4

5

 

Vowds 4 Diphthongs

Wo rd. Stress

Gra mmar

5

Nou ns

5

Adject ives

6

The Article "T he"

7

Pronouns

8

Verbs

10

Negatives

13

Contents

Forming Ques ti ons 14 Prepos itions 15 Co njunctions 16 There Is/Are 16 This/That 16 Composing Basic Sentences 17

Contents

Months of the Year 34 The Four Seasons 34 Past, Present, and Future Expressions 35 Holidays and Fest ivals 36 Relig ious Holidays 36 National Holidays 37 Weather 37

Chapter 2

19

Basic Words and Phrases

38

Getti n g Sta r te d

Colors 39

 

Weights and Measures

40

Socializing

19

Common Signs

41

Basic Vocabulary and Express ions 20 Greetings and Everyday Expressions 20 Timely Greetings 21

Chapter J

Gene r a l Phr ases

43

Small Talk 21 Me eting Peoplellntroductions 22

Traveling to Iraq

43

Say ing Good-Bye 24

At the Airport 43

 

Speaking Arabic 25

 

On

Arr ival

44

Visi t ing a Fami ly 26

Numbers

27

Basic Words and Phrases 27

Cardinal Numbers 28 Counting 30 Ordinal Numbers 31

T i me

31

Basic Words and Phrases 31

On Departure 45 Getting a Porter 46

Accommodations

46

Basic Words and Phras es

46

Finding a Hotel 47 At the Hotel: Checking In 48 Checking Out 49 Requests , Queries, and Problems 49

Telling Time 32

 

Getting Around

51

Parts of the

Day

33

Bas ic Words and Phrases 51

Days of t he Week 33

Asking for Directions and Plac es 52

 

Conunu

Travc:ling

53

 

D air y Produ cts and Drinks 75

 

Basic Wo rd s and Phras~s

 

53

Spices, Legume s. and Grains 76

Buying Travel Tick~ts

54

Kitchen Utensil s 77

Banking a nd Money Matters

55

Typica l Iraqi Di shes 78

I

Basic

Wo rd s and Phr ases

 

55

Shopping

79

At th~ Bank 57 Postage a nd Communication

57

Basic Word s a nd Phras~s 57 At th e POSt Office 58 Calling, Faxing . an d Copying

59

Automotiv~ 60

Basic Words and Phr ases

61

Basic Words and Phrases 79 Bargaining 79 Go in g Shopping 80 Books, Newspapers, and Magazin~s 81

Jewc:l ry, Gifts , and Souve nirs 82 H a ndi crafts and Ho use hold Items

83

Photographic Supp lies 86

Renting a Car 62 On the Road 63 At th e Gu Station 63

 

Electrical Applian ces 89 Pe rsonal Ca re and S~rvices

Music and Vi d eo 87

89

Probl ems and R~pair 64 Accidents 65 Parking 66

Watch Shop 91

Laund r y an d Dry Cleaning 89

 

Food a nd Drink

66

Shoe mak e r 92 Barber / H airdresser 93

 

Basi c Words and Phras es

66

Sightsed ng

95

Looking for Restaurants

68

At the To uri st In formation Office

95

Restaurant Reservations

68

Visit ing Museum s 96

 

At

th e

Res t aurant

69

 

At the Casino/Cafe 69 At the Food Mark~t 71

V~getabl~s 73

 

Trip to Bab ylon 97 Visiting Mosqu es 99

At the Tourist Villag~ of Habbaniya

Lak e

100

Cooking Methods 73

Entertainment

102

Meat and Fish 73

 

Basic Words and Phrases 102 At th~ Ti cket Window 103

 

Fruits 74

AI the Cinema 103

Acknowledgments

As this text was b e ing written, Iraq witnesse d trem e ndous political and milita r y turmoil. Ther efo re , additions to the coment of the book were necessary to cov er some of th e new siruations in th e qu ickly changing political env ironment.

Special thanks go to my frie nd John Spill man Jones for his

patience in re ading th e first draft of the manuscript. I would like to notc h ere that John's dedication to learning Arabic and to under- standing its cultural environme nt is re markable. r would like to thank my fr iends Firas Karim, Saa d lruba ye , and Laila Darw ish for providing me with some of the draw ings in the hook. My since re

appreciation goes to my friend Jacob Arhack for his advice and help. I am also g r ateful to th e people at McGraw- H ili fo r their editorial and production work, especially Chr istopher Brown, Execut ive Edi-

tor, for his

assistanc e and insight.

Finally, to my companion in life, Jyne Paris Springer, I extend sp e cial gratitude for her continual e ncourage ment and enthusiasm. And I am forev e r indebted to my father for c reatin g in o u r home a n enviro nmenl of le arning and knowledge seeking.

Introduction

Arabic is a Semitic language w ri tt e n from right to left. It has two forms: classical (also known as Modern Standard Arabic [MSA]) and

colloquial . Many other languages also have sim ila r divisions betw een formal and informal regist ers. Mod ern Standard Arabic is (h e sta n- dardi ze d language of reading and writing t h roughout the Arab

world. Colloqu ial Arabic, the

spoken language of ev e ryd ay activities,

varies from one Arab coumry [0 anothe r and has many dialects- Egyptian Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Lehan ese Arabic, Iraqi Arabic. and so on. Th e main differe nces between th es e dialects are found in

pronunciation, everyday ex pressio ns, and idiomatic phras es .

This hook presents th e Iraqi diale ct of Arabic , and mot e specifi- cally, the dialect spoken in and around the capital city of Baghdad. It is th e most widely us ed and un d erstood form of the language throughout Iraq. Iraqi Phra u book us es a transcription system of phon et ic writing to expr ess the sounds of Iraqi Arabic (see Chapter I). Arabic script

has

be e n abandon ed in favor of phonetics to

th e Engl ish

sp e ake r to use. Th ere is no nee d

make this book easy for to learn a whol e new

alphab et in order to speak Iraqi Arabie and stan communicating

.,

TURKEY SYRIA IRAN ' '''RIJ_ IRAQ SAUDI ARABIA
TURKEY
SYRIA
IRAN
' '''RIJ_
IRAQ
SAUDI ARABIA
TURKEY SYRIA IRAN ' '''RIJ_ IRAQ SAUDI ARABIA Introduction to Iraqi Arabic I raqi Alphabet and

Introduction to Iraqi Arabic

I raqi Alphabet and Translation

Iraqi Arabic ha s thiny-one consonam

so und s, almoSl all of wh ic h

have equivalents in English and other European languages. Th e few with no equivalents in other lang uages will require more practice by le arners.

Consonants

It is very important

that yo u familiari ze yourself wi th th e phonetic

writing (transcription) and th e sounds of the consonants that follow. Notice that an underlined le tter (such as "t," "z,'" or "s" ) has a differ -

enc sound than "t, " "z," and "s ."

-

-

-

Th e underline repres e nts th e "thick"

version of e ach letter, pronoun ced w ith the tip o f the to ng ue on the roof of the mouth rather than against the teeth. Two underlined let- t e rs (for example, "dh" or "kh") ar e rea d as one so und (" dh " as in "that" and "k h " as in "8 ach"). T he following table prov ides a list of

th e uanscriptions used in this book, as well as a pronunc iation gu id e.

I

I

~

IntrodIlCI;O" 10 Iroq; Arabic TronKriplion

AI In

£Jcomple

 

uh-oh

sa' al

 

9

9aa li (al most sile nt

 

ah, pronounced dc:c:p in th e back of the throat)

 

b

b ird

beir

, h

chair

chamcha

d

d ee d

d,ff

db

t h at

dhaab

f

fathe r

faak ir

g

gog

giliwa

 

Parisien

s!!aali

 
 

h

h"

h.J

h

haa r (voic el ess,

 

stro ngl y whi spered d eep in th e throa t ,

simi lar t o

th e sound

produced by someone who j ust burned h is mouth o n hot coffee)

 

J

judge

jaac

k

kilo

kilma

kh

Bach, au ch

kh.,[

-

I

lid

leila

 

bell

a1Ja (e mphatic " ' '')

 

m

mo m

mahal

n

n oon

nahaac

p

q

,

,

,

, h

,

,h

w

y

,

,

p enc il

Alhambra

sit

dish tight ultra thin well ye ll ow

ttb"

Iraqi Alpltabe!

and Tronllo!iOn

parda qaa l (like the "c~ in

"cool" but produced

farther back in t h e throat) n u u r sarr !2ad (emp hati c ~s,"

simi lar "s um ,"

to th e "s" in wit h the

centra l part of the t o n g u e depressed and the back part

s lightly raised) shaaf ,,,m batt thaa lit h waalid

yoo m zeit ze if (emp h atic sound made by

 

""

p ronounc in g

z

with the tip of t h e

tongue against the roo f of the mouth )

,

Introduction to

Iroqi Arobic

 

Grommor

Vowels

 

Diphthong

As in

Exemple

Iraqi vowels, like all other Arabic vowels, ar e of two t ypes, shorr and lon g. The tim ing of th e length of Arabic vowels is very important,

Short Vowel s

aw/aaw

how, cow

mawja (one wave)/ k aawli (gypsy)

because a. shorr or a long vowel in the sam e word gives qu it e differ _

ay/aay

b y, bright

jaysh (army)/jaay

ent meamngs, as in "jama1~ (camel) and "jamaal " (bea u ty).

 

(coming)

Vowe l

AI I n

Exemple

Word Stress

,

u

"

fit, give

P"'

  • 0 piano

Long Vowels

Vowel

AI In

"

"

father wait

  • ii feet, beet rOOt , coo l

uu

  • 00 dog, fog

Diphthongs

qa lam (pencil) fi lm (p epp er) ruzz (ric e) raadio (radio )

Example

jaab (to bring ) beir (ho use)

din (figs)

nUllr (light)

mooj (waves)

~ip~thongs in Iraqi Arab ic are combinations of a shon ("a") or long ( aa ) vowel and a semivowel (" w" or "y").

4

All Iraqi words have o ne "suess syllable~ that is pronounced m ore

forcefully th an the othe rs. A stress

syllable is on e that conta ins a long

vowel followed by a consonant, as in the word "bar iid, " or a short vowel followed by two or more conso nants, as in the word "huwwa.~

In words with tWO or mor e sy llables, the stress is always on the last syllable, as in "ju 9 a an /ju 9 aan iin /ju 9 aanaat." If the word has none of

these characteristics, then the stress fall s on the word, as in the word " ri kab ."

beginn ing of the

Grammar

Nouns

Iraqi Arabic noun s are either mascul i ne (m.) or feminine if.J in gen-

d e r. Most feminine words e nd w ith the

vowel "a," as in "madrasa"

(school), and mo st masculine words end in a conso nant, as in "mak- tab" (office), although there are C){ccprions. For words that refer [Q people (an imate obj ects), the gender can be changed by simply add in g or om itting the fe minin e en ding -a. Inanimate objects , such as an office or sc hool , can only be masculin e or feminine.

Introduct loll 10 Iroq l A rabic

MOlcul lne

ibin (so n ) ? aJ.ib (st ud ent)

daJiil (gui de) k~b (dog )

Femi n i n e

ibna. (daughter) ~aa1iba (s tuden t)

daliila (gui dd kal ba (dog )

MoS{ noun s h ave thr ee forms: sin g ul a r (Jing.), dual (d!.) , and r al (PO:.Th e most co mmon masculin e plural is made by a ddin g

plu -

th e

suffi x - lin , a nd th e dual is ma de by add ing the s uffix -c in . Th e femi- nin e plur al is mo st ofte n mad e by adding (he s uffix -aat , and the

fem in

ine

du

1 by

Mascu line

$In, ular

mu 9 a1lim fa JJaah

mu darris

muhandis

Fem inine $In,ular

add i ng t he su ffix - t e in .

Masculine dual

mu 9 allrnein falluh ei n mud a r ri se in muhandis ein

Fe mi nine dual

sayyaa ra raal iba mu 9 allima falluha

sayyaa rr ei n taal ibt e in mu 9 a llimt ei n

Adjectives

falluht~in

Masculine plural

m u 9 al l imi in falluh iin muda r ri s iin m uhandi s iin

Feminine plural

sayyaar aat raali baar mu 9 a1lim aat fal luh aat

~n Arabic , th e adj ec tive foll ows the noun and agr ees with its ge nd er , Its number , a nd wh ether it is d efinite o r indefinite (exp la in ed in the n cxt sect ion). Adjectives have differ e nt forms for masculin e, femi -

Grommo.

nin~. an d p lural. Th e masculin e adject ive us uall y ends in a con so nant

(j amiil (bea u tiful)); a nd the p lu ral e nds

th e fe minine e nd s w ith th e suffix · a Gamiila ); in - iin Ga mi ilii n . m.) or -U t (jam iiiaar,j).

An ot her c om mon adjec ti ve plural is th e ~broken plural ," as w ith the

word " kab iira" (big): kabii r (m .), kabirra (fJ, kba a r (m.,f . pl. ).

Masculin e Noun . Adj ective

Sinru/ar

Plu ral

En,lIsh

~aalib jd iid

~ullaab jd aad

new stud~nt1s

aa ni ze in .

ihn a zeini in .

I amlW~ ar~ well.

?ali b ju u 9 aa n

~ullaab ju 9 aanii n

h u n g r y stud e n u s

Feminin e N o un . Adj ective

Sln,ular

Plura l

Enr/Ish

!aaliba jam ii la

~ libaat jamiilaat

~aalibaat ju 9 aa naat

new stud~nt1s

aani zei n a. !aa liba j uu 9 aa n a

ih na ze inaat.

I am/We arc well. hun gry s tud en t/s

Introduct loll 10 Iroq l A rabic MOlcul l ne ibin (so n ) ? aJ.ib

Th~ p

refix il - added to no uru and a dj ect ives is the equivalent of th e

E n gl is h ~the. ~ Wit h some words o " j" in the art icl e may disappe ar or

r co mbinations of word s, th e vo wel sw itc h po sition to make li - . If th e

p rdix il - is add ed t o a word th at begins with the co n so n a m s t , !. th.

  • j. c h . d . dh . r, z , s, sh,~, or n

, th e lett e r "l~ of t h e anicl~ is replace d

b y th e fi rst le tte r of t he wo rd . resu lting in doubl b~ginning of the wo rd.

e consona n ts at t h e

  • Ii 'I

Inr.odu cr lon fa I,oq; ~rab;c Indefinite

qa lam (3 IXncil )

mud iir (3 directo r)

kt aab (3

~saab (a

b oo k) bill )

saa 9 a (a wat c h )

~abiib (a doct o r)

Definite

il-qal am ( th e pc:ncil)

il - mudiir (the direc tor)

li

-k taab (th e

book )

li-~saab (t he

bill)

is-saa 9 a ( th e watch)

i!-~abjib (the doctor )

Pronouns

Pronouns are

dther ind ep e ndent words o r s uffix es artachal. to nouns

o r ver bs. Arabic h as n o equival e nt to the p ro noun Kit. "

In Arabic, ~it"

is exp ress ed by th e pronoun s " huwwa" (he) , ~hiyya" (s he), or

" humma" ((h ey ) , s ince all n ouns are either fe m inin e

or mascu lin e.

Independent Pronouns

Ind ep e n dent pro n o uns are personal

pronoun s a nd are always the su bj ec t of a statem e nt .

E1J,'I,h

I

(m.1f)

yo u

yo u

h,

(m.)

if.>

, h,

we (m.1[)

you (m.1[)

th ey (m.1[)

8

Arabic

aa n i mta inti huwwa hiyya

ihna

mtu

humm a

Example

aani zem.

uni

zei na.

iota

zei n .

inti zei n a.

huwwa zei n.

hi yya zeina .

ihna

ze ini in.

ihna z.cinaat.

intu

z.e iniin .

int u

z.cinaat .

hu mma u in iin. humm a u:inaat.

Meclnln,

I ( m .) am wen .

I if.) am well You ( m.) arc welL You (j) :m well. He is well.

She is well.

We ( m. pL ) arc well.

We ifp!) are wd!.

G'Clmmor

You (m.pL) arc well.

You

<lpl.) a rc well.

The y

(m.pl.) arc wel l.

They ifp/.) arc well.

Pronoun Suffixes Pronoun suffixes are attache d to n ou n s, ve r bs, and some ot her words such as prepo sition s. A noun plus a pronoun

suffix indi ca t es possessio n ( Mar y's). A verb plu s a pro n o un suffix

indicates the

object of th e verb.

WIth Noun

my

ou ,

you r

(m.)

your

(fl

yo ur

(pl.)

hi<

h"

thei r

With Verb

m'

"'

yo u

you

you

him

h"

them

Pronoun

-i , - ti, -ni

· n,

. ",

- ich

- kum

.,

·h,

·h um

,

Introd uction to Iraq; Arabic

Grammar

"

12

The Weak-Ve rb : nisa (he forgot)

Pronoun

I , aa n i

w t:, ihna

you

(m.), inta

you

If), inti

yo u

(,pl.), intu

h t:, huww a sh t:, hi yya t ht:y. humm a

Suffix

-t:it

- t:lOa

-t: t(

-t: iri

-d tu

-"

-,w

V, ..

nist:it '

n ist:ina

ni st:ic'

ni st:

iti

ni

st: itu

nisa

ni sat

n ",w

Meanlnl

I forgot

wt: forgot

you forgot

you forgot

you

forgot

ht: forg ot s ht: forgot

tht:y forgot

Present Tense

Tht: conjugat io n s o f the pr es t:nt te ns t: of the four

vt:rb

roots a rc idt:ntical.

The

Regular-Ve rb: yudrus (h e studies)

Pronoun

Prefl· /Sufflx

V...

Mean /nl

The Future Tense In Iraqi Arab ic. tht:re arc~ twO ways to form

the fu tu rt: t e n $(:. Add ont: of two prd ixt:s,

r~- o r ~a- (will, sh all,

goin g to).

to rh e

p r(:5("nt tt:n S(: form .

rah- a dru s/ h a-d r us. rah - n saa fir / ha -ns aafir.

  • I will study.

We will rr avd .

The Prefix da~ (-ing) In Engli sh , tht: suffix - in g is u sw to indi - catt: a progressivt: action-that is, somt:thing that is ongoing or pr(:5(" nri y occ urrin g. In I raqi Arabic, tht: prdix d a- plus the pr(:5("nt

rt: n S(: forms the p ro g ress

ive.

da -yudr u s.

d

a- n saa fir.

da -ashrab c haay.

H t:

is stud yi ng .

Wt:

art: u avd in g .

  • I am drinkin g (t:a.

  • ,- adr us nudr us ru d r us ' t udursiin rudursuun yud ru s tudrus' yudurs uun

n / ni / nu tlti/ tu tl t i/tu ... tlciltu

.

..

iin

uun

y/yi/ yu

tftiftu

I study w e s tud y you study y ou s tud y you study h e studies sht: studies th ey study

Negatives

w,

you (m.)

youlf.J yo u (pl.)

I"

,h,

Th t: r e are fou r basic n egat ion words in Ira q i Arabic: " muu " (nor) , "maalma - " ( not) , ~Iaa/la" ( no), and "wala" (nor, no t) . Tht:y precede lht: words to bt: negated. " Muu " is used to nt:ga re adj t:Ct iv(:S and advt: r bs; "m aa" is USt:d to n egate verbs. "Laa/ la" a nd "wal a" art: used in d iffert:nt co n stru c ti o n s.

  • I am nOt a n Iraqi. Ht: is not hungry. Sht: is not t raveli n g. Art: you an Amt: rican ?

No.

rh t:y

y/yi/yu

uun

 

aani muu 9iraa qi.

huww a muu juu 9 aa n . h iyya ma -tsa.a fit. inta Amriiki? laa. (rt:p ly)

aa ni muu ju 9 aan wala ta 9 baa n.

  • I a m nt:it ht:[ hungr y no r tired.

Introduction

to I, oqi A,abic

Forming Que st ion s

As in English, questions in Iraqi Arabic are formed either by chang- ing th e inflection of a sente n ce or by adding an interrogative word to it. The following are some of the most common interrogative words .

What?

shunu/s h- :

What is your nam t?

shunu ismak?, shi-smak?

Where?

wein?

Whm ' is Babyion?

wdn Baahi!?

How m uch/ lo ng /far?

shgad d?

How

long did you study Arabic?

shgadd dirasat 9arabi?

How

much is an t kilo of mt at?

shgadd kilo '-la~am?

When?

shwa ki e

Wh m did you drillt th ( car?

shwakit liqit is-sayyaara?

Which?

ay?lyaa?

Which post a/flu is ntar?

ay bariid qariib?

How much?/What time?

beish?/ibbeish?

How much is tht bur?

b~ish ii-biira?

What timt is it?

ibbtish iHaa'a?

How many?

 

kam?lcham?

How

many mustums in BaghdtJd?

kam mat~af ib-Bat!!.daad?

How?

sh loon?

How art you?

 

shioonak?

Why?

leis h?

Why art you UpUI?

/tish zaYlaan?

Is ...

?lAre

..

?

hal?

Art you (m.) from Amtrica?

hal inta min Amriika?, inta min Amriika?

Whe re from?

Wh~r~ did you com~ from?

Who?/Whom?

Who is sh~?

Whose?

whou passport is this?

Prepositions

mn e in?

mn~in ijtit?

minu?

m;nu hiyya?

maalman?/ilman?

G,ammor

maalman ii-paasport?

Th e main prepositions in Iraqi A rabic are liste d h ere for re ference. Th es e prepositions may ap pear by themselves, with attached pro- nouns, or as pre fix es at the begi nn ing of words.

at [someone'sl plac e aft er before b ehind between in, at, by in fr ont of ins id e on. upon, about over, above to, for unde r with

9ind

ba 9 ad gabul wm

bein

b-/bi-

giddaam jawwa. daakhil 9 a laf9a-

foog 1-/li- , iii

,,)u

ma 9 a. wiyya

,

IntroduCI;On

10 Iraq; ArCl!lic

Sentences

Se nt ences have verbs, sub jec ts, and some tim es objects.

  • I visite d Ir aq.

He works in a hi g office. She drove the car. H e is thinking.

ririt iJ-9iraaq .

yush[U~ul b-maktab chibii r.

saaqat is-sayyaara.

h UWW3 y fakkir.

Getting Started

<

"

Socializing

Arabs ge nerall y use elabo rate sers of gree tin gs and sio ns wh en mee tin g one anothe r. There are formal

courteo us o:pres- gree tin gs among

strangers an d in formal greetings among friends. Greetings always

incl ud e an inqui r y about the well-be ing

of the members

of th e other

perso n's fami ly a nd friends. A s in the Weste rn world, it's customary

ro sha ke hands whe n yo u meet p eople. When you sir down, yo u are

always greete d wit h th e whi ch you shou ld reply

ex press ion "aiJ aa bi l_kheirH (G od bless), to with th e same phrase. Travelers are adv ised

to st

ick to one of th e standard greetings . Ce rtain cir cumstances

requ ire a specific set of words and exp ress ion s that should be learned

and used

Note:

app ropri ately. Most oft en . only mascul in e forms

of words and phrases are

used througho ut thi s tex t. For t he feminin e

or plural, see t he diction-

ary in C hap te r 5. Mult ipl e translations fo r the same word are rated with a com ma. When th e plural is give n . the words are sepa rated wit h a slas h (I).

sepa-

19

Geuilll S t or U d

Basic Vocabulary and Exp re ssions

  • M •.

saryi d

  • M saryKla

rs.

  • M aanisa 9an idhnak . tfazul.

Exc use me.

Exc usro. (re pl y)

yes

(forma l)

yes ( informal ) no

OK pl ease (req uest

Ple ase. ( repl y) So rr y., Pa rdo n me.

God willi

Co ngratu lati ons.

Th a n ks. (re ply)

H urry

up .

Hurr y

up a nd go .

Hell o. (i nform al)

H

ell o. ( re pl y)

H ell o. (fo rm al)

H el lo. ( repl y) H ow a re you (m.)?

in g so meth in g)

God wi ll ing (a ver y co m mon express ion )

ng, I w ill vis it yo u.

'i i

iss

I" may khaali f min fazl ak , rajaa' a n tfazza l. 9a fwa n. insh aalla

ins hal la, az uu rak. mabruuk. shu kra n .

ya~a.

ya~a, ruuh.

G reetings and Everyday Expressions (ta !!iyyaat)

ma rh a ba .

ma

..

tha

ba.

as-salaa mu 9layku m. (lit. peace be upon yo u) wa 9alay kumu s-sal aam . sh loo na k?

2.

 

I

am we ll , p raise G od .

 

un i ze in, jl-h amd u Ii-Haah .

How are yo u (m Y

(re pl y)