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INDEX

Abbasid dynasty, 1213


Abdlhamid II, 55, 56, 60
Abkhazian, 41
abolition of slavery, 68, 1620, 226,
1234, 127, 129, 131
Africa, 256, 80
Brazilian, 234
British, 1719, 22, 25, 69
Ottoman, 23, 245, 523
Rome (ancient), 78
USA, 23
absenteeism, 22
addictus, 302, 345
aes, 30
africanos livres, 124, 1278
agrarian policy, 1245
agricultural slavery, 67, 9, 13, 26, 94
African, 11719, 141
British, 22
Ottoman, 24
Russian, 45, 478
Akan gold, 10910, 116
Alady, Elizabeth, 77
Alencastro, Luis Felipe, 126, 129
American South, 97, 102, 118
Amerindian, 15
Anatolia, 47, 501, 55
Angola, 17, 110, 11314
Luanda, 113
anti-slavery trade treaties, 54, 60
apprenticeship, 223, 26, 64, 67, 934, 119
versus slavery, 934
Arabs, 589
Aro, 118
Aro Chukwu oracle, 117
artisans, 67, 119

asafo, 66
Asante, 116
asiento contracts, 110, 113
Astrakhan, 434
Athens, 6
Austin, Gareth, 4, 18
Avis dynasty, 106
Aztec, 109
Bacons rebellion, 98
Balkesir, 56
Bank of England, 22, 113
Barbados, 16, 23, 93, 96, 1003, 11113,
119
sugar revolution, 1001
Barbary Coast, 4, 12, 68
Bardhan, Pranab, 4
Bashkir, 43
benevolence, 49, 568, 60, 62
Benghazi, 58, 59
Berber Province, 137
Bight of Biafra, 17, 656, 701, 90, 117
see also Gulf of Guinea
Bight of Benin, 17, 6970, 81, 84, 90, 110
see also Gulf of Guinea
bills of exchange, 113
bio-politics, 56, 58, 62
blackarm, 139
Black Sea, 1011, 13, 412, 445, 47
blood debt, 745
Bobangi traders, 118
Bonny, see Bight of Biafra
Bordeaux, 113
Brazil, 15, 1718, 224, 102, 11114,
11820, 12331
Minas Gerais, 112, 114
traders, 79, 80, 84

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179

180

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

bride wealth, 64, 70


Bristol, 96, 113
Britain, 1618, 21, 23
British America
indentured servitude in, 945
shift from servants to slaves
chronology of, 98100
views of labour supply school, 969
views of planter preference school,
979
British consulates, 53, 5760
British South Sea Company, 113
brokers, 39, 7980, 116
Bukhara, 46
Bulgarian, 10, 41
bullion, see specie
Byzantium, 911, 12, 26, 40, 42, 48
law, 9
Caetano, crioulo Joo, 130
Caffa, 11, 402, 47
Calabar, 70, 71
Cameroon River, 11617
Canary Islands, 11, 43
Cape Town, 17
capitalism, 107
Capitolinus, M. Manlius, 32
captives, 6, 1015, 17, 22, 26, 3942, 448
war prisoners, 10, 45
caravan trade, 11, 42, 116, 118
Cardoso, Fernando Antonio, 130
Caribbean Islands, 1517, 212, 93, 95, 97,
99, 102, 10912, 114
see also Barbados, Cuba, Jamaica, Saint
Domingue
Cartagena, 110
Caspian Sea, 41
Catalonia, 42
Catholic Church, 120
Caucasus, 13, 44, 47
Central Asia, 911, 13, 3942, 448
centralization, 56
Chania, Crete, 54, 589
Charles II, 111
Chesapeake colonies, 16, 93, 957, 98100,
1023, 113, 118
children, 22, 64, 114, 124
enslavement, 105

Muslim, 13
Russian, 467
West African, 117
Yoruba, 778, 8291
labour, 12
pawnship, 1920, 64, 724
China, 46
Chinese, 16, 40, 124
Christians, 26, 68, 108, 11920
as slaves, 1011, 1213, 26
slave converts, 457
views on pawnship, 70, 834, 87
Circassian, 10, 13, 41, 478
citizenship, 6, 30, 345, 125
city-state, 5, 14, 21, 26, 43
Civil War (USA), 5
clan, 1, 39
clientship, 512, 62
cloth, see textile
cloves, 18
coconuts, 18
coerced labour, 26, 47, 48, 107, 1234, 128,
131
coffee, 1718, 118, 1248
collateral, 63, 667, 714, 109, 118, 1201
colons, 9
colonization (colonos), 124, 127
Columbus, 109
Columella, L. Iunius Moderatus, 35
commercial hostage, 63
commercial investment, see finance
commercialization, 105, 107, 109, 11517,
118, 1201
Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to
Africa, 111
compensation, 224, 32, 46, 69, 735, 131
concubines, 1314, 245, 72
Congo, 1415, 17, 110, 118
Constantinople, 1011, 14, 42
see also Byzantium
contracts, 124, 1256, 1278, 1301
copper, 17
Cossack, 44, 47
cotton, 13, 61, 79, 81, 101, 129, 133,
13941
Court of Mixed Commission, 67
Court of Vice Admiralty, 67
cowries, 68, 73, 77, 813, 86, 89, 113

Copyright

Index
credit, 4, 7, 1920, 213, 7791, 1067,
1113, 11517, 11920
mobilization, 812
creditors, 79, 823, 858, 901
Crete, 108
Crimea, 10, 401, 435, 47
see also Caffa, Tana
Crimean khanate, 434
criminal law, 10
Cross River, 116
Crowther, Samuel Ajayi, 70, 823, 90
Cuba, 1718, 118
see also Caribbean
cultural studies, 3
currencies, 20, 24, 78, 81, 89, 106, 113, 129
Cyprus, 108

181

export of slaves, 1415, 1718, 20, 27, 47,


69
famine, 34, 80, 137, 140
Fante traders, 116
figs, 61
finance, 10521
Finley, Moses, 67, 18, 29, 356
foreclosure, 22, 657, 71, 86, 11718
Foucault, Michel, 56
freedom, 124, 12731, 134
free labour, 1235, 127, 128, 12930, 131
Free Womb Law, 124
fur, 10, 41

gabella capitum, 11, 42


da Gama, Eusbio de Queirs Mattoso, 128
Gbebe, 77
Dahomey, 3, 84
gendarmerie, 56
Davatz, Thomas, 1267
Genoa, 911, 1415, 21, 403, 45, 48,
debt
1069
exchange for, 789, 856
see also Genoese
repaying, 1067, 115, 117
Genoese, 106, 1089
debtor, 824, 8591
see also Genoa
domestic slavery, 108, 114
German redemptioners, 95
Dongola Province, 1378, 140
Gezira Scheme, 1334, 13941
Douglas, Mary, 74
Ghana, 13
drought, 17, 110
see also West Africa
Dutch, 15, 17, 11011, 1141, 120
gold, 64, 65, 75, 10810, 11113, 11415,
see also Netherlands
11920
dyestuffs, 108
Gold Coast, 17, 21, 64, 656, 70, 71, 108,
East Africa, 1314, 18, 74, 85
11011, 116
education, 22, 55, 601, 94
see also Elmina
Egbaland, 68
grain, 10, 41, 108, 137, 141
see also Yoruba
Greece, 7, 412, 56, 139
Egypt, 7, 1011, 413, 47, 55
Greeks (ancient), 6, 10, 12
army, 1356
guest-houses, see misafirhane
Ekpe, 66, 71
guild, 10
Elmina, 108, 110, 115
Gulf of Guinea, 14, 110
see also Gold Coast
see also Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra,
emancipation, 49, 504, 5662, 1234, 127,
So Tom and Prncipe, West Africa
129, 131
hajj, 56
see also abolition
harem, 10, 42, 47, 69
English, 11013, 11516
harvest, 3
see also Britain
historiography, 50
English Muscovy Company, 44
Hogendorn, Jan, 74
Erdem, Y. Hakan, 53, 56
estates, 68, 15, 35, 101, 111, 118, 142
Horde, Golden, 43

Copyright

182

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

see also Mongols


household structure, 512, 534
Ibadan, 812, 869
Igbo, 117
immigration, 1246, 1289
imprisonment, 125
Inca, 109
indentured labour, 1516, 234, 46, 67,
937, 101, 111, 126
Indian Ocean, 1, 13, 21, 68, 106
Indians, 16
indigo, 13, 101
Inner Asia, 26, 40, 47
investment, see finance
Iran, see Persia
irrigation, 1089
Islam
law, 467, 72, 74
ShiI, 13
see also Sharia
Istanbul, 44, 545, 5762
iudicatus, 302, 35
ius gentium, 8
ius naturale, 8
Izmir, 54, 56, 58, 601

Kurdufan, 138
see also Sudan
Kwanza River, 110
labour, 612, 12331
shortage, 67, 49, 61, 97, 140
Lagos, 7882, 847, 89
League of Nations, 63
legislation, 1238, 131
Leocadia, Maria, 130
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 2
lex Poetelia, 34
liberated Africans, 67
see also africanos livres
Liberia, 64, 70
Licinian-Sextian laws, 32
liquidity, 1067, 10912, 119
liquor, 17
Lithuania, 13, 434, 467
Liverpool, 113
Livy, 2937
London, 96, 11213
Lovejoy, Paul, 74
luxury, 42, 51

Copyright
Jamaica, 16, 23, 102, 11113
Japanese, 16
Jazira, 133, 1379
Jews, Sephardic, 111, 120

Kalmyk, 436
Karakalpak, 46
Karaosmanolu, 55
Katsina, 73
Kazakh, 43, 46
Kazan, 434
kholopstvo, 46
kidnapping, 657, 69, 70
Kilia, 10, 42
Kitchener, Herbert, 136
Klein, Martin, 74
kola nuts, 64, 116
Kongo, 110
Kosoko, 7980, 84
Koya Cooperative Society, 140
Kuban, 46

Madeira, 14
Maghreb, 689
Mahdist Rebellion, 135, 139
Malaya, 16
Mali, 13
see also West Africa
Mamigonian, Beatriz, 127
Mamluk, 10
mancipatio, 30
see also Roman law
manumission, 6
Brazil, 234, 11415, 124, 12930
Italy (medieval), 910
Ottoman Empire, 23, 245, 51, 534,
567, 59
Rome (ancient), 78, 367
Russia, 456
West Africa, 72, 89
tax, 367
manus iniectio, 2930, 33, 35
see also Roman law
marriage, 6, 9, 1920, 64, 66, 70, 724
Martal, Abdullah, 56

Index
Maryland, 96, 99
Masters and Servants Acts, 23
Mauritania, 14
Mauritius, 16
Maurocastro, 10, 41
Mauss, Marcel, 2
Maximus, Valerius, 35
Maya, 109
Mecca, 556
Medina, 556
Mehmed Ali, 55
Mekteb-i Sanayi, 60
Melanesia, 16
Middle Colonies, 95, 1012
militarization, 11618
military costs, 1069, 116
millet, 13
Mina Coast, 11314
see also Slave Coast
mines, 42
misafirhane, 57, 60
misdemeanours, 22
mobility, 78, 12
monarchies, European, 10611, 113,
11921
money-lenders, 32
Mongols, 10, 401, 43
see also Horde, Golden
mortality, slave, Middle Passage, 110
mortgage, 63, 72
Moscow, 436
murgu, 68
muskets, 116
Muslim, 689, 734
slave trade, 1014, 17, 19, 246
see also Islam
muktaba, 50

183

without loss of citizenship rights, 301


Niger, 1314, 77, 11618
Niger Delta, 11618
Nizhnii Novgorod, 43
Nogays, 436
nomads, 55
Normans, 9, 14
obaeratus, 30, 35
Ojo, Olatunji, 68, 6970
Oroge, E. Adeniyi, 67
Ottoman Empire, 10, 13, 235, 4963
army, 52, 54, 55, 57, 5960, 62
Ouidah, 63, 113
palm products, see vegetable oils
panyarring, 657, 6970, 745
Papirius, Lucius, 33
Paris, 113
patronclient relations, 512, 54, 57, 62
Patterson, Orlando, 34
pawnship, 24, 14, 267, 39
West African, 1821, 24, 27, 6376, 78,
8291
peanuts, see vegetable oils
peasants, 89, 12, 25, 445, 107, 119
peculum, 7
Pera, M. Iunius, 35
Persia, 10, 401, 44, 48
piracy, 12, 68, 128
Pisa, 10, 41
plantations, 1317, 18, 235, 48, 11920
American, 945, 98, 107
Brazilian, 1249
Caribbean, 1003, 11114
Sudanese, 139
Poland, 424
Polanyi, Karl, 34
Pontic Steppe, 44
Polish, 10, 13, 434, 46
population displacement, 17
Poro, 64, 71
Portugal, 9, 14, 43, 11011, 126
Portuguese, 9, 80, 120
demand for precious metals, 11011,
11214
discoveries, 1067
indentured labourers, 1246

Copyright

Nantes, 113
navies, 107, 110
Netherlands, 43, 111
see also Dutch
New England, 97, 102
nexum, 78
abolition, 29, 33, 357
definition, 30
execution of debtor, 301
viewed as a contract, 30

184

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

involvement in slave trade, 11, 1415, 17,


214, 43, 7980
potlatch, 2
production, investment in, 1067, 10910
proto-industry, 13
public work, 9, 13, 58, 1256
Publilius, Caius, 334
race, 2
rahn, 72
rail, 55, 56, 51
ransom, 1012, 20, 41, 445, 47, 65, 6770,
83, 889
razzia, 17, 19, 40
reciprocity, 2, 4
recruitment, 1245
redemption, 6970
Red Sea, 13, 18, 138
refugee, 17, 47, 61, 110
Rio de Janeiro, 114
Roberts, Richard, 74
Rome (ancient), 2, 58
chattel slavery, 29, 357
consulship, 324
debt bondage, see nexum
Imperial period, 56
law, 89, 2932, 36
patricians, 312
plebeians, 312
population, 356
Republican period, 6, 2938
war captives, 29, 357
Rouen, 113
Royal African Company, 21, 100, 11112,
11920
rum, 11314
Rumanian, 11, 41
Russia, 10, 1213
Ruthenian, 10, 41

Samnium, population size, 357


So Francisco River, 114
So Tom and Prncipe, 14, 110
see also Gulf of Guinea
Saracen, 10, 41
sclavus, 9, 41
Scramble for Africa, 18
seamen, 10, 26
Sen, Amartiya, 3
Senegambia, 14, 17, 21, 65, 90, 108, 118
serfdom, 89, 12, 26, 3940
servants, 9
the Americas, 1416, 93101, 111, 128
customary, 95
domestic, 128
Ottoman Empire, 24, 50, 53, 5861
Russia, 45
West Africa, 73
service class, 46
service in husbandry, 94
sharecropping system, 1267
see also tenant farmers
Sharia, 1213
see also Islam
shayl, 139
sheikh, 589
Siberia, 434, 46
Sicily, 9, 14, 108
Sierra Leone, 64, 667, 701
see also West Africa
silk, 44
Silk Road, 13, 41
silver, 15, 17, 21, 10911, 11314, 119
see also specie
Slave Coast, see Mina Coast
slavers, marginal status, 11314
slave trade, 4954
British suppression, 118
supply, 78, 1417, 35, 100, 1245
Slavery Chancellery, 46
Slavic women, 106
Smith, Adam, 5
Smolensk, 46
social indebtedness, 502, 57, 62
social status, 1
Sokoto Caliphate, 68, 73, 74
Songhay, 13
sorghum, 13, 133

Copyright
Sabines, 31
Sahara, 13, 68, 10810, 118
caravan trade, 14
Saint Domingue, 113
see also Caribbean
Sali Cooperative Scheme, 140
salt, 108
Samnite War, Third, 29, 357

Index

185

Spain, 912, 14, 423, 10811, 113, 1201


Sparta, 6
specie, 107, 10914, 11921
spices, 44
state reform, 545
steamships, 51, 55
subaltern studies, 1
Sudan, 25
agricultural co-operatives, 1401
Anglo-Egyptian tax policy, 135
foreign textiles trade, 1389
Halfa Province, 1378
Kassala Province, 137
Khartoum Province, 133, 1378
The Land Tax and Date Tax Ordinance,
1367
railroad, 1378
sugar trade, 1389
The Title of Lands Ordinance, 1367
Western Sudan, 70, 74
Sudan Plantation Syndicate, 1334, 13940
sugar, 1417, 23, 108, 11011, 11214,
11718, 120
sultan, 10, 424, 526, 60
Surinam, 16

Turkistan, 45
al-Tuwt, Ab-l-Ghayth b. Ahmad, 73

Tana, 10
Tatars, 912, 1314, 39, 415, 47
telegraph, 55
Templars, 14
tenant farmers, 89, 88, 1267, 1334,
13941
see also sharecropping
Testart, Alain, 23
textiles, 15, 17, 79, 81, 113, 1389
Thailand, 16
Thirteen Years War, 46
Thomas, James, 77
Tiber River, 30
tobacco, 61, 99101, 113, 118
Tobacco Coast, 93, 95, 978
Toledano, Ehud, 52, 56
Tripoli, 14, 40
trust, 789, 115

wages, 126, 128, 129


West Africa, 1315, 18, 52, 6376, 78, 85,
90
see also Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gulf of
Guinea
West Indies, see Caribbean
whipping, unacceptable to Roman citizens,
34
widows, 6
Wingate, Reginald, 1356
women, 778, 82, 8591, 1056, 108, 114,
117
wood, 108

Ukrainians, 13, 45, 47


umm walad, 72
United States, 11819
Upper Guinea Coast, 11011
see also Gulf of Guinea
Urabi Revolt, 135
Urbi Cooperative, 140
ushar, 138
Varro, M. Terentius, 30, 35
vegetable oils, 11718
Venice, 5, 912, 14, 403, 48
Vergueiro, Nicolau Pereira de Campos,
1256
Viganigo, Manoel Carlos, 130
vindex, 32
Virginia, 98100
Virginia Company, 93
virgins, 723
Vladimir, 43
Volga, 43, 46
Von Slatin, Rudolph, 135

Copyright
Xinjiang, 46
Yoruba, 1921, 27, 7791
Yorubaland, 68, 6970