INDEX

Abbasid dynasty, 12–13
Abdülhamid II, 55, 56, 60
Abkhazian, 41
abolition of slavery, 6–8, 16–20, 22–6,
123–4, 127, 129, 131
Africa, 25–6, 80
Brazilian, 23–4
British, 17–19, 22, 25, 69
Ottoman, 23, 24–5, 52–3
Rome (ancient), 7–8
USA, 23
absenteeism, 22
addictus, 30–2, 34–5
aes, 30
africanos livres, 124, 127–8
agrarian policy, 124–5
agricultural slavery, 6–7, 9, 13, 26, 94
African, 117–19, 141
British, 22
Ottoman, 24
Russian, 45, 47–8
Akan gold, 109–10, 116
Alady, Elizabeth, 77
Alencastro, Luis Felipe, 126, 129
American South, 97, 102, 118
Amerindian, 15
Anatolia, 47, 50–1, 55
Angola, 17, 110, 113–14
Luanda, 113
anti-slavery trade treaties, 54, 60
apprenticeship, 22–3, 26, 64, 67, 93–4, 119
versus slavery, 93–4
Arabs, 58–9
Aro, 118
Aro Chukwu oracle, 117
artisans, 6–7, 119

asafo, 66
Asante, 116
asiento contracts, 110, 113
Astrakhan, 43–4
Athens, 6
Austin, Gareth, 4, 18
Avis dynasty, 106
Aztec, 109
Bacon’s rebellion, 98
Balıkesir, 56
Bank of England, 22, 113
Barbados, 16, 23, 93, 96, 100–3, 111–13,
119
sugar revolution, 100–1
Barbary Coast, 4, 12, 68
Bardhan, Pranab, 4
Bashkir, 43
benevolence, 49, 56–8, 60, 62
Benghazi, 58, 59
Berber Province, 137
Bight of Biafra, 17, 65–6, 70–1, 90, 117
see also Gulf of Guinea
Bight of Benin, 17, 69–70, 81, 84, 90, 110
see also Gulf of Guinea
bills of exchange, 113
bio-politics, 56, 58, 62
blackarm, 139
Black Sea, 10–11, 13, 41–2, 44–5, 47
blood debt, 74–5
Bobangi traders, 118
Bonny, see Bight of Biafra
Bordeaux, 113
Brazil, 15, 17–18, 22–4, 102, 111–14,
118–20, 123–31
Minas Gerais, 112, 114
traders, 79, 80, 84

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180

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

bride wealth, 64, 70
Bristol, 96, 113
Britain, 16–18, 21, 23
British America
indentured servitude in, 94–5
shift from servants to slaves
chronology of, 98–100
views of labour supply school, 96–9
views of planter preference school,
97–9
British consulates, 53, 57–60
British South Sea Company, 113
brokers, 39, 79–80, 116
Bukhara, 46
Bulgarian, 10, 41
bullion, see specie
Byzantium, 9–11, 12, 26, 40, 42, 48
law, 9
Caetano, ‘crioulo’ João, 130
Caffa, 11, 40–2, 47
Calabar, 70, 71
Cameroon River, 116–17
Canary Islands, 11, 43
Cape Town, 17
capitalism, 107
Capitolinus, M. Manlius, 32
captives, 6, 10–15, 17, 22, 26, 39–42, 44–8
war prisoners, 10, 45
caravan trade, 11, 42, 116, 118
Cardoso, Fernando Antonio, 130
Caribbean Islands, 15–17, 21–2, 93, 95, 97,
99, 102, 109–12, 114
see also Barbados, Cuba, Jamaica, Saint
Domingue
Cartagena, 110
Caspian Sea, 41
Catalonia, 42
Catholic Church, 120
Caucasus, 13, 44, 47
Central Asia, 9–11, 13, 39–42, 44–8
centralization, 56
Chania, Crete, 54, 58–9
Charles II, 111
Chesapeake colonies, 16, 93, 95–7, 98–100,
102–3, 113, 118
children, 22, 64, 114, 124
enslavement, 105

Muslim, 13
Russian, 46–7
West African, 117
Yoruba, 77–8, 82–91
labour, 1–2
pawnship, 19–20, 64, 72–4
China, 46
Chinese, 16, 40, 124
Christians, 26, 68, 108, 119–20
as slaves, 10–11, 12–13, 26
slave converts, 45–7
views on pawnship, 70, 83–4, 87
Circassian, 10, 13, 41, 47–8
citizenship, 6, 30, 34–5, 125
city-state, 5, 14, 21, 26, 43
Civil War (USA), 5
clan, 1, 39
clientship, 51–2, 62
cloth, see textile
cloves, 18
coconuts, 18
coerced labour, 26, 47, 48, 107, 123–4, 128,
131
coffee, 17–18, 118, 124–8
collateral, 63, 66–7, 71–4, 109, 118, 120–1
colons, 9
colonization (colonos), 124, 127
Columbus, 109
Columella, L. Iunius Moderatus, 35
commercial hostage, 63
commercial investment, see finance
commercialization, 105, 107, 109, 115–17,
118, 120–1
Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to
Africa, 111
compensation, 22–4, 32, 46, 69, 73–5, 131
concubines, 13–14, 24–5, 72
Congo, 14–15, 17, 110, 118
Constantinople, 10–11, 14, 42
see also Byzantium
contracts, 124, 125–6, 127–8, 130–1
copper, 17
Cossack, 44, 47
cotton, 13, 61, 79, 81, 101, 129, 133,
139–41
Court of Mixed Commission, 67
Court of Vice Admiralty, 67
cowries, 68, 73, 77, 81–3, 86, 89, 113

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Index
credit, 4, 7, 19–20, 21–3, 77–91, 106–7,
111–3, 115–17, 119–20
mobilization, 81–2
creditors, 79, 82–3, 85–8, 90–1
Crete, 108
Crimea, 10, 40–1, 43–5, 47
see also Caffa, Tana
Crimean khanate, 43–4
criminal law, 10
Cross River, 116
Crowther, Samuel Ajayi, 70, 82–3, 90
Cuba, 17–18, 118
see also Caribbean
cultural studies, 3
currencies, 20, 24, 78, 81, 89, 106, 113, 129
Cyprus, 108

181

export of slaves, 14–15, 17–18, 20, 27, 47,
69
famine, 3–4, 80, 137, 140
‘Fante’ traders, 116
figs, 61
finance, 105–21
Finley, Moses, 6–7, 18, 29, 35–6
foreclosure, 22, 65–7, 71, 86, 117–18
Foucault, Michel, 56
freedom, 124, 127–31, 134
free labour, 123–5, 127, 128, 129–30, 131
‘Free Womb’ Law, 124
fur, 10, 41

gabella capitum, 11, 42
da Gama, Eusébio de Queirós Mattoso, 128
Gbebe, 77
Dahomey, 3, 84
gendarmerie, 56
Davatz, Thomas, 126–7
Genoa, 9–11, 14–15, 21, 40–3, 45, 48,
debt
106–9
exchange for, 78–9, 85–6
see also Genoese
repaying, 106–7, 115, 117
Genoese, 106, 108–9
debtor, 82–4, 85–91
see also Genoa
domestic slavery, 108, 114
German redemptioners, 95
Dongola Province, 137–8, 140
Gezira Scheme, 133–4, 139–41
Douglas, Mary, 74
Ghana, 13
drought, 17, 110
see also West Africa
Dutch, 15, 17, 110–11, 114–1, 120
gold, 64, 65, 75, 108–10, 111–13, 114–15,
see also Netherlands
119–20
dyestuffs, 108
Gold Coast, 17, 21, 64, 65–6, 70, 71, 108,
East Africa, 13–14, 18, 74, 85
110–11, 116
education, 22, 55, 60–1, 94
see also Elmina
Egbaland, 68
grain, 10, 41, 108, 137, 141
see also Yoruba
Greece, 7, 41–2, 56, 139
Egypt, 7, 10–11, 41–3, 47, 55
Greeks (ancient), 6, 10, 12
army, 135–6
‘guest-houses’, see misafirhane
Ekpe, 66, 71
guild, 10
Elmina, 108, 110, 115
Gulf of Guinea, 14, 110
see also Gold Coast
see also Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra,
emancipation, 49, 50–4, 56–62, 123–4, 127,
São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa
129, 131
hajj, 56
see also abolition
harem, 10, 42, 47, 69
English, 110–13, 115–16
harvest, 3
see also Britain
historiography, 50
English Muscovy Company, 44
Hogendorn, Jan, 74
Erdem, Y. Hakan, 53, 56
estates, 6–8, 15, 35, 101, 111, 118, 142
Horde, Golden, 43

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Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

see also Mongols
household structure, 51–2, 53–4
Ibadan, 81–2, 86–9
Igbo, 117
immigration, 124–6, 128–9
imprisonment, 125
Inca, 109
indentured labour, 15–16, 23–4, 46, 67,
93–7, 101, 111, 126
Indian Ocean, 1, 13, 21, 68, 106
Indians, 16
indigo, 13, 101
Inner Asia, 26, 40, 47
investment, see finance
Iran, see Persia
irrigation, 108–9
Islam
law, 46–7, 72, 74
Shi’I, 13
see also Sharia
Istanbul, 44, 54–5, 57–62
iudicatus, 30–2, 35
ius gentium, 8
ius naturale, 8
Izmir, 54, 56, 58, 60–1

Kurdufan, 138
see also Sudan
Kwanza River, 110
labour, 61–2, 123–31
shortage, 6–7, 49, 61, 97, 140
Lagos, 78–82, 84–7, 89
League of Nations, 63
legislation, 123–8, 131
Leocadia, Maria, 130
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 2
lex Poetelia, 34
liberated Africans, 67
see also africanos livres
Liberia, 64, 70
Licinian-Sextian laws, 32
liquidity, 106–7, 109–12, 119
liquor, 17
Lithuania, 13, 43–4, 46–7
Liverpool, 113
Livy, 29–37
London, 96, 112–13
Lovejoy, Paul, 74
luxury, 42, 51

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Jamaica, 16, 23, 102, 111–13
Japanese, 16
Jazira, 133, 137–9
Jews, Sephardic, 111, 120

Kalmyk, 43–6
Karakalpak, 46
Karaosmanoğlu, 55
Katsina, 73
Kazakh, 43, 46
Kazan, 43–4
kholopstvo, 46
kidnapping, 65–7, 69, 70
Kilia, 10, 42
Kitchener, Herbert, 136
Klein, Martin, 74
kola nuts, 64, 116
Kongo, 110
Kosoko, 79–80, 84
Koya Cooperative Society, 140
Kuban, 46

Madeira, 14
Maghreb, 68–9
Mahdist Rebellion, 135, 139
Malaya, 16
Mali, 13
see also West Africa
Mamigonian, Beatriz, 127
Mamluk, 10
mancipatio, 30
see also Roman law
manumission, 6
Brazil, 23–4, 114–15, 124, 129–30
Italy (medieval), 9–10
Ottoman Empire, 23, 24–5, 51, 53–4,
56–7, 59
Rome (ancient), 7–8, 36–7
Russia, 45–6
West Africa, 72, 89
tax, 36–7
manus iniectio, 29–30, 33, 35
see also Roman law
marriage, 6, 9, 19–20, 64, 66, 70, 72–4
Martal, Abdullah, 56

Index
Maryland, 96, 99
Masters and Servants Acts, 23
Mauritania, 14
Mauritius, 16
Maurocastro, 10, 41
Mauss, Marcel, 2
Maximus, Valerius, 35
Maya, 109
Mecca, 55–6
Medina, 55–6
Mehmed Ali, 55
Mekteb-i Sanayi, 60
Melanesia, 16
Middle Colonies, 95, 101–2
militarization, 116–18
military costs, 106–9, 116
millet, 13
Mina Coast, 113–14
see also Slave Coast
mines, 42
misafirhane, 57, 60
misdemeanours, 22
mobility, 7–8, 12
monarchies, European, 106–11, 113,
119–21
money-lenders, 32
Mongols, 10, 40–1, 43
see also Horde, Golden
mortality, slave, Middle Passage, 110
mortgage, 63, 72
Moscow, 43–6
murgu, 68
muskets, 116
Muslim, 68–9, 73–4
slave trade, 10–14, 17, 19, 24–6
see also Islam
mukātaba, 50

183

without loss of citizenship rights, 30–1
Niger, 13–14, 77, 116–18
Niger Delta, 116–18
Nizhnii Novgorod, 43
Nogays, 43–6
nomads, 55
Normans, 9, 14
obaeratus, 30, 35
Ojo, Olatunji, 68, 69–70
Oroge, E. Adeniyi, 67
Ottoman Empire, 10, 13, 23–5, 49–63
army, 52, 54, 55, 57, 59–60, 62
Ouidah, 63, 113
palm products, see vegetable oils
panyarring, 65–7, 69–70, 74–5
Papirius, Lucius, 33
Paris, 113
patron–client relations, 51–2, 54, 57, 62
Patterson, Orlando, 3–4
pawnship, 2–4, 14, 26–7, 39
West African, 18–21, 24, 27, 63–76, 78,
82–91
peanuts, see vegetable oils
peasants, 8–9, 12, 25, 44–5, 107, 119
peculum, 7
Pera, M. Iunius, 35
Persia, 10, 40–1, 44, 48
piracy, 12, 68, 128
Pisa, 10, 41
plantations, 13–17, 18, 23–5, 48, 119–20
American, 94–5, 98, 107
Brazilian, 124–9
Caribbean, 100–3, 111–14
Sudanese, 139
Poland, 42–4
Polanyi, Karl, 3–4
Pontic Steppe, 44
Polish, 10, 13, 43–4, 46
population displacement, 17
Poro, 64, 71
Portugal, 9, 14, 43, 110–11, 126
Portuguese, 9, 80, 120
demand for precious metals, 110–11,
112–14
discoveries, 106–7
indentured labourers, 124–6

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Nantes, 113
navies, 107, 110
Netherlands, 43, 111
see also Dutch
New England, 97, 102
nexum, 7–8
abolition, 29, 33, 35–7
definition, 30
execution of debtor, 30–1
viewed as a contract, 30

184

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

involvement in slave trade, 11, 14–15, 17,
21–4, 43, 79–80
potlatch, 2
production, investment in, 106–7, 109–10
proto-industry, 13
public work, 9, 13, 58, 125–6
Publilius, Caius, 33–4
race, 2
rahn, 72
rail, 55, 56, 51
ransom, 10–12, 20, 41, 44–5, 47, 65, 67–70,
83, 88–9
razzia, 17, 19, 40
reciprocity, 2, 4
recruitment, 124–5
redemption, 69–70
Red Sea, 13, 18, 138
refugee, 17, 47, 61, 110
Rio de Janeiro, 114
Roberts, Richard, 74
Rome (ancient), 2, 5–8
chattel slavery, 29, 35–7
consulship, 32–4
debt bondage, see nexum
Imperial period, 5–6
law, 8–9, 29–32, 36
patricians, 31–2
plebeians, 31–2
population, 35–6
Republican period, 6, 29–38
war captives, 29, 35–7
Rouen, 113
Royal African Company, 21, 100, 111–12,
119–20
rum, 113–14
Rumanian, 11, 41
Russia, 10, 12–13
Ruthenian, 10, 41

Samnium, population size, 35–7
São Francisco River, 114
São Tomé and Príncipe, 14, 110
see also Gulf of Guinea
Saracen, 10, 41
sclavus, 9, 41
Scramble for Africa, 18
seamen, 10, 26
Sen, Amartiya, 3
Senegambia, 14, 17, 21, 65, 90, 108, 118
serfdom, 8–9, 12, 26, 39–40
servants, 9
the Americas, 14–16, 93–101, 111, 128
customary, 95
domestic, 128
Ottoman Empire, 24, 50, 53, 58–61
Russia, 45
West Africa, 73
service class, 46
service in husbandry, 94
sharecropping system, 126–7
see also tenant farmers
Sharia, 12–13
see also Islam
shayl, 139
sheikh, 58–9
Siberia, 43–4, 46
Sicily, 9, 14, 108
Sierra Leone, 64, 66–7, 70–1
see also West Africa
silk, 44
Silk Road, 13, 41
silver, 15, 17, 21, 109–11, 113–14, 119
see also specie
Slave Coast, see Mina Coast
slavers, marginal status, 113–14
slave trade, 49–54
British suppression, 118
supply, 7–8, 14–17, 35, 100, 124–5
Slavery Chancellery, 46
Slavic women, 106
Smith, Adam, 5
Smolensk, 46
social indebtedness, 50–2, 57, 62
social status, 1
Sokoto Caliphate, 68, 73, 74
Songhay, 13
sorghum, 13, 133

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Sabines, 31
Sahara, 13, 68, 108–10, 118
caravan trade, 14
Saint Domingue, 113
see also Caribbean
Sali Cooperative Scheme, 140
salt, 108
Samnite War, Third, 29, 35–7

Index

185

Spain, 9–12, 14, 42–3, 108–11, 113, 120–1
Sparta, 6
specie, 107, 109–14, 119–21
spices, 44
state reform, 54–5
steamships, 51, 55
subaltern studies, 1
Sudan, 25
agricultural co-operatives, 140–1
Anglo-Egyptian tax policy, 135
foreign textiles trade, 138–9
Halfa Province, 137–8
Kassala Province, 137
Khartoum Province, 133, 137–8
The Land Tax and Date Tax Ordinance,
136–7
railroad, 137–8
sugar trade, 138–9
The Title of Lands Ordinance, 136–7
Western Sudan, 70, 74
Sudan Plantation Syndicate, 133–4, 139–40
sugar, 14–17, 23, 108, 110–11, 112–14,
117–18, 120
sultan, 10, 42–4, 52–6, 60
Surinam, 16

Turkistan, 45
al-Tuwātī’, Abū-l-Ghayth b. Ahmad, 73

Tana, 10
Tatars, 9–12, 13–14, 39, 41–5, 47
telegraph, 55
Templars, 14
tenant farmers, 8–9, 88, 126–7, 133–4,
139–41
see also sharecropping
Testart, Alain, 2–3
textiles, 15, 17, 79, 81, 113, 138–9
Thailand, 16
Thirteen Years War, 46
Thomas, James, 77
Tiber River, 30
tobacco, 61, 99–101, 113, 118
Tobacco Coast, 93, 95, 97–8
Toledano, Ehud, 52, 56
Tripoli, 14, 40
‘trust’, 78–9, 115

wages, 126, 128, 129
West Africa, 13–15, 18, 52, 63–76, 78, 85,
90
see also Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gulf of
Guinea
West Indies, see Caribbean
whipping, unacceptable to Roman citizens,
34
widows, 6
Wingate, Reginald, 135–6
women, 77–8, 82, 85–91, 105–6, 108, 114,
117
wood, 108

Ukrainians, 13, 45, 47
umm walad, 72
United States, 118–19
Upper Guinea Coast, 110–11
see also Gulf of Guinea
‘Urabi Revolt, 135
Urbi Cooperative, 140
ushar, 138
Varro, M. Terentius, 30, 35
vegetable oils, 117–18
Venice, 5, 9–12, 14, 40–3, 48
Vergueiro, Nicolau Pereira de Campos,
125–6
Viganigo, Manoel Carlos, 130
vindex, 32
Virginia, 98–100
Virginia Company, 93
virgins, 72–3
Vladimir, 43
Volga, 43, 46
Von Slatin, Rudolph, 135

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Xinjiang, 46
Yoruba, 19–21, 27, 77–91
Yorubaland, 68, 69–70

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