Preface Acknowledgements Acronyms Executive Summary 1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3. 4. 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Introduction : e-Leadership and the e-SEE Agenda+ An Overview of e-Governance Services in SEE Services for People Services for Governments Services for Business Underlying Infrastructure Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development Helping and Hindering Factors to information Society Development Addressing the Gender Digital Divide Brief situation scan of Gender Equality in SEE Countries Gender Equality and the Digital Divide Gender Equality and ICTs in the SEE Countries The Path Ahead: Conclusions and Recommendations Successes in progressing the Information Society Prioritising e-Governance Tackling Implementation Issues Exposing opportunities Prioritising the needs Recommendations Research Methodology And Activities Country Assessments e-SEE Agenda+ Revised Deadlines Ministerial Declaration - Draft Prepared by eSEE Secretariat

9 11 17 23 35 41 42 43 44 45 49 57 65 65 67 69 77 78 79 81 84 89 91 107 115 219 227

Annex 1: Annex 2: Annex 3: Annex 4:



Bosnia and Herzegovina. Western Balkans countries should further improve their democratic governance processes and align them with EU standards.1 ICTs are a catalytic and innovative tool to foster human development.undp. e-SEE Initiative members.htm 2 United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) on behalf of Kosovo in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. UNDESA 9 . It is estimated that 60% of all e-Government projects fail3. Romania. insufficient collaboration within government. Furthermore.org/governance/mdgs. as part of reform initiatives. Croatia. They indicate that. 1 http://www. especially in the ICT field which can indeed become one of the most critical tools to foster integration. and public administrations that are more transparent. 3 Gartner. Heets and Bhatnagar. The e-SEE Initiative is the response of South Eastern Europe (SEE) to this agenda. a lack of emphasis on building human capacity and inadequate public consultation limit the possible benefits of these initiatives. By devoting human and financial resources towards implementing the e-SEE Agenda+. Montenegro. effective and responsive to citizen’s needs are areas that need special attention in each SEE country. The importance of Electronic Governance (e-Governance) for development cannot thus be underestimated. Although e-Government has been adopted by governments in SEE. The findings of the research presented in this report are based on the analysis of good practices and the identification of gaps and challenges in the implementation of e-SEE Agenda+. Serbia and UNMIK/Kosovo2 have indeed demonstrated their solid commitment. promote democratic governance and drive international cooperation. Citizen participation in policy making. the region’s European accession process requires increased intra-regional cooperation among SEE countries in many areas. the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The EU positioned ICTs at the core of its priorities since the 2001 Lisbon agenda.PREFACE The strategic use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in governance processes has become instrumental in providing an “enabling environment” for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). which include Albania. the fight against corruption. while making visible progress. and worldwide. Moldova. There are many examples of innovative use of ICTs in raising productivity and improving interaction between governments and both citizens and businesses. the findings suggest that an over-reliance in technology. A quarter of EU GDP growth and 40% of productivity growth are the result of investments on ICTs.

RCC will closely cooperate with the United Nations Development Programme. A critical issue that can be a powerful driver for development agendas is that of gender equality in the Information Societies of South Eastern Europe. In this context. By the same token. This shift is also at the core of the e-SEE Initiative which is the only intergovernmental regional ICT platform and Community of Practice in the sub-region. The report offers fresh insights for policy makers and also serves as an advocacy tool for the champions of e-Governance development agendas in the context of the EU integration process. ICTs have great potential in enhancing choices for persons with disabilities. citizens. to enhance the scope of Electronic Governance initiatives by adopting a multi-disciplinary. The issue is however often underestimated on the assumption that ICTs lead to gender equality on their own. Hido Biščević. RCC has reiterated its recognition and commitment to promoting the development of ICT in SEE through its new strategy and work program 2011-2013. Secretary General Regional Cooperation Council 10 . This report thus places a special emphasis on the subject and brings to the forefront innovative ways to tackle gender issues with ICTs in an effective fashion. multi-stakeholder and community-oriented approach. It is thus important for future success of the e-SEE Initiative and its ICT oriented reforms. The timing of this publication is appropriate in the light of the preparations for the next Ministerial conference and the related process of extending the e-SEE Agenda+ deadlines. This publication therefore reaffirms the need to create and implement the e-Accessibility agenda by promoting the use of assistive technologies throughout the process of building an Information Society. which hosts the secretariat of eSEE in Sarajevo to advance and monitor the implementation of the eSEE Agenda Plus. the e-Leadership Programme sees technology as a means towards an end and instead focuses on strengthening human capacity as a critical agent for driving the process of change. in addition to the technical and organisational perspectives.For this reason. businesses and civil society (Electronic Governance). This publication echoes the pressing need to shift the focus from technology-enabled improvements in government operations (Electronic Government) to improvements in interactions between government.

Project Assistant Dženan KAPETANOVIĆ. Public Relations Nermina TRBONJA. UNDP. DG Cluster Associate Expert review: Raul ZAMBRANO. Senior ICT for Development Policy Advisor Bureau for Development Policy.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Supervisor: Peter van RUYSSEVELDT. Programme Manager/Head e-SEE Secretariat Asja ČENGIĆ. Head of Economic and Social Development Unit. Sanjin ARIFAGIĆ. The publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Development Programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Communications Analyst. Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) Yuri AFANASIEV. Project Manager Authors: Seán Ó SIOCHRÚ Rebecca TECLEMARIAM-MESBAH Nera NAZEČIĆ Klelija BALTA Nermina TRBONJA Publication Review Team: Mr. Democratic Governance Cluster Coordinator Team Leader: Nera NAZEČIĆ. Assistant Resident Representative Klelija BALTA. Nand SHANI. UNDP Deputy Resident Representative Klelija BALTA. Expert for Economic and Social Development. Democratic Governance Cluster Coordinator Nera NAZEČIĆ.Resident Coordinator Peter van RUYSSEVELDT. UNDP New York This Publication was produced within e-Leadership for the Western Balkans UNDP Project.Resident Representative . Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) Mr. UNDP Deputy Resident Representative Armin SIRČO. 11 . UNDP .

Head of International Cooperation Division. University of Sarajevo Croatia: Ivana ANDRIJAŠEVIĆ. National Agency on Information Society Bosnia and Herzegovina: Božidar ŠKRAVAN. Ministry for Information Society Serbia: Petar JANJIĆ.Country Assessment Review Team: The authors gratefully acknowledge the following members of the review team of Country Assessments for their significant contributions: Albania: Irena MALOLLI. Diana ŠIMIĆ.dr. Adviser. Associate. Head of Cabinet of the State Secretary. Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society 12 . Ministry of Communications and Transport Šadi MATAR. Chief of Staff. Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia Marina ŠKRINJAR-VIDOVIĆ. Chairperson of the e-SEE Initiative Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Blagica ANDREEVA. Expert Advisor for Information Society. Adviser to the Minister. Head of International Department. Ministry of Information Society Moldova: Vitalie TARLEV. Ministry of Information Technology and Communications Montenegro: Ružica MIŠKOVIĆ. Director of Business Academy at the School of Economics and Business. Director of Strategy & Legislation. Operational support for conducting IS development policies. Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia Prof. Ministry of Communications and Transport Tarik ZAIMOVIĆ.

National Agency on Information Society. Ministry of State for Reforms and Communications with Parliament Ms. Ms. Endri Hasa. Directress of the Directory of Policy of Post and Telecommunication. University of Sarajevo. Ms. Adviser to the Minister. Ministry of Public Works Transport & Telecommunications. Electronic Communication and Postal Authority/Agency for electronic regulations. Ministry of Education and Science.E. UNDP. Minister of State for Reforms and Communications with Parliament. General Directorate of Custom. Director of Strategy & Legislation. Ms. Mr. Ministry of Security. Dženan Kapetanović. Mersiha Ćurčić. Devis Fecani. Mr. Mr.UNMIK/Kosovo: Agim KUKAJ. General Directorate of Custom. Božidar Škravan. National Agency on Information Society. Ms. Arben Fagu. Denis Roka. Genc Pollo. Ministry of Education and Science. Ministry of Transport and Communications The authors are most grateful to the following experts who gave generously of their time and valuable inputs for this publication: Albania: H. Mr. Šadi Matar. Ministry of Economy Trade and Energy. Endri Pema. Advisor for Standards and Technique. Democratic Governance Cluster Associate. Research and Development Project Manager a. Tefta Demeti. Andia Pustina. Adriana Sula. Perparim Shera. Nejra Šurković. Ms. National Licensing Center. Head of SME Policy Unit Business Promotion Department. Civil National Registry. Mr. National Agency on Information Society. Ministry of Internal. Gazmir Isakaj. Mr. Ministry of Economy Trade and Energy. Mr. Mr. Ms. State Ministry of Communications and Transport. Endri Raco. Olsi Lafe. Adviser to the Minister. Mr. Chief of Cabinet of Executive Director. Mr. Head of Policy and Strategy Department. IT Director. Mr. Klelija Balta Democratic Governance Cluster Coordinator/Gender Advisor.i. General Director of Custom. Specialist Lawyer. Irena Malolli. United Nations Development Programme. Fisnik Kruja. State Ministry of Communications and Transport. Mr. Head of Department for Networks and Telecommunications. Director of Business Academy at the School of Economics and Business. Director. Ms. Business Promotion Department. Ms. Eneida Guria. Ministry of Internal. Deputy General Director. General Directorate of Taxation. Head of ICT Department. Tarik Zaimović. Expert Advisor for Information Society. Director of IT. Expert Adviser for 13 . Bosnia and Herzegovina: Mr. IT Director. Alketa Malka. Amir Husić. Mr. Mr. Ministry of Education and Science. Mr. Chief of Information Technology. Director of ICT. Mr. Alketa Mukavelati. Ilir Kurti. Ms. Director of the Directorate for National Heritage. Ministry of Tourism Culture Youth and Sport.

Department for Identification. Database Administrator. Bosnian Association of IT (BAIT). Head of Unit. Agency for Real Estate Cadastre. Ministry of Culture. President/Professor. Merdita Saliu. Mr. Maida Ćehajić. Ms. International Cooperation and Administrative Affairs.E. MARNET. EU-Desk and Decentralized Co-operation. Ministry of Information Society. The Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kika Babić-Svetlin. Mr. Directress. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Director. Pavel Sincariuc. Ministry of Culture. Mr. Metamorphosis. Project Manager. MASIT . UNESCO. Ivan Mitrevski. Expert. Embassy of the Republic of Italy in BiH Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Ms. Mr. Moldova: H. Ministry of Information Society. Associate. Ministry of Culture. Vitalie Tarlev. Mr. Ministry of Communication and Transport. Ms. Italian Development Cooperation Office. Programme Officer. Biljana Zarkova. Vladimir Šimić. Executive Director. Ms. Mr. Protection and Use of Cultural Heritage. Mr. Ms. Mr. Ministry of Security. Angela Ilioska. Advisor on Cultural and Historical Heritage. Dimitar Mitrevski. Assistant Professor/ Head of the Laboratory for Digitalization of Cultural Heritage. Ion Munteanu. Ministry of Information Technology and Communications. Monitoring and Evaluation. Rozalinda Stojova. Programme Officer. Adviser for Electronic Communications. Ministry of Transport and Communication. Mr. Blaško Gorgiev. Mr. Ms. Ms. Directorate for EU Integrations. Jasmina Stojčeva.Telecommunications. General Director of the State Enterprise “Center for State Information Resources “Registru”. Exploring Bosnia and Herzegovina. Selma Rizvić. Ms. Eugen Ursu. BHARNET. Director. MASIT ICT Chamber of Commerce. Siniša Šešum. Head of the Department for Documentation. Filip Stojanovski. Faculty of Electrical Engineering Sarajevo/ Sarajevo School of Science and Technology University of Sarajevo Mr. Alzemina Vuković. Vladimir Molojen. Valentina Pellizzer. Mr. Agency for Electronic Communications. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy. Deputy Minister of Culture. Head of Department. The Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Minister of Information Technology and Communications. Head of International Cooperation and European Integration Division. Ministry of Culture. Agency for Real Estate Cadastre. Foundation Oneworld Platform for SEE. Margita Kon-Popovska. Alexandru Oleinic. Mr. Kristina Biceva. Ministry of Information Technology and Communications. President. Goran Nikolov. Mr. Viktorija Apostolova. Ms. Mr. Mr. IT Engineer. Operational support for conducting IS development policies. Blagica Andreeva. Documentation and Informatics. Mr. Ms. Zlatan Mulabegović. Expert Adviser for Planning. Director of General Directorate for Information Society Development. IT Advisor. Mr.ICT Chamber of Commerce. Zoran Pavlov. Ms. Head of Sector for equal opportunities. Department for Communications. Marco Chimenton. Mr. Member Relations Coordinator. Ms. Head of Department of Registration. Goce Gruevski. Deputy General Director of the State Enterprise “Center for State Information Resources “Registru”. Vasile 14 . Ms. Saša Krstevski. Head of IT Department.

Mr. Mr. Igor Cojocaru. Mr. Senior Advisor for ICT-Head of Department. Rajko Markuš. State Polytechnic University of Moldova. State Enterprise “Centre for Special Telecommunications”. Customs Service. Chief of the FiscServInform Centre. Director. Chief of the Information Resources Department. Mr. Ministry of Culture Sport and Media. Dejan Abazović. Foreign Affairs and Partnership Development. Vitalie Coceban. Mr. Senior Legal Advisor. Igor Vučinić. National Centre for Radio Frequencies. Dean of the Information Technology Department. Mr. Ms. Mr. Ministry of Education. Marian Mamei. Mr. Deputy General Director of the State Enterprise “Center for State Information Resources “ Registru”. Director of the State Enterprise “MoldData”. Director of the Institute for the Development of Information Society. Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Gheorghe Belinschii. Smiljana Radusinović. Mr. State Enterprise “Centre for Special Telecommunications”. Irena Bošković. Mr. Andrei Andrieş. Deputy Minister-Department for Electronic Communications and Post. Director. Broadcasting Agency of Montenegro. Deputy Technical Director. Ms. Mr. Broadcasting Agency of Montenegro. Srdjan Mihaljević. Institute for Mathematics and Informatics. Ministry for Human and Minority RightsDepartment of Gender Equality. Deputy Chief of the General Directorate for Investments and Development. Ministry for Human and Minority RightsDepartment of Gender Equality. Svetlana Cojocaru. Mr. Alexandru Besliu. Mr. Sandra Veličković. Mr. 15 . Luka Filipović. Mr. Ms. Mr. Ministry for Information Society. Abaz-Beli Džafić. Secretary of the Ministry. Ružica Mišković. Mr. Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Adviser. Pavle Mijušković. Ion Cosuleanu. Djordje Vujnović. Advisor on Cultural Heritage. Adviser. Main State Tax Inspectorate. Mr. Mr. Adviser to Minister. Mr. Ljiljana Pešalj. Adviser Independent. Coordinator of UNDP Moldova Project “Support for building e-Governance in Moldova”. Ministry of Transport Maritime Affairs and Telecommunications. Ministry of Transport Maritime Affairs and Telecommunications. Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services. Montenegro: Ms. Chief of the VamServInform Centre. Isidora Tomašević. Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services. Senior Adviser. Head of the Business Development Department. Ms. Ministry for Information Society. Mladen Koljenšić.Ciornii. Ms. Co-president. Mr. University of Montenegro. Adviser. Eleonora Graur. Pavel Chirev. Deputy Executive Director. Senior Adviser for Tariffs. Ms. Darko Kovačević. Professor. Vice-president. Ministry of Education and Science. Božo Krstajić. Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Ms. Ministry of Finance. Mr. Research and Educational Networking Association of Moldova. Ministry of Culture Sport and Media. Ion Tighineanu. Alexandr Dashkevich. Mr. University of Montenegro. Manager for Internet and IP-based Services. Ministry of Finance.Department for Electronic Communications and Post. Ministry of Economy. Olga Savin. Ministry for Information Society. Eugeniu Sestacov. State Enterprise “Centre for Special Telecommunications”. Professor. Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services. \Gherghe Beiu. Ms.

Manager of e-Infrastructure. Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society. Adviser for Capacity Development Facility. Belgrade University Computer Center. National and University Library of UNMIK/Kosovo. Deva Burbuqe Bakija. Zoran Jovanović. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ministry of Transport and Communications. Mr. Mr. National and University Library of UNMIK/Kosovo. Mathematic Institute SANU. Ms. UNMIK/Kosovo: Mr. Ministry of Education. Besim Kokollari. Xhafer Ahmeti. Slobodan Marković. Belgrade Open School. Ms. Mr. Science and Technology. Head of the Section for Project Management. USAID Coordinator. UNDP. Milorad Bjeletić. Valbona Dermaku. Chief of Frequency Management Department. Deputy Director. Executive Director. Head of ICT Department. 16 . Board Manger. Secretary/Head of ICT Division. Nebojša Vasiljević. Besnik Berisha. Ministry of Transport and Communications. Chief of Staff. Mr. Equal Opportunities. Ms. Adrian Zajmi. Mr. Ministry of Education. Mr. Agim Kukaj. Jeton Morina. Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society. Mark Walter. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Special Advisor. Serbian Chamber of Commerce Association of Information and Technologies. Mr. Jovana Tripunović. Project Manager. Mr. Velibor Popović. Mr. Mr. Director of the Department of IT. Mr.Tanja Milovanović. Skender Gashi Permanent Secretary. Mr. Ilir Z. Telecommunication Regulatory Author Project Coordinator IDEPity. Natasa Gospić. Ministry of Public Administration.Emrush Ujkani. Director of the General Directorate for EU/Directorate for Regional Initiatives. Mr. UNDP. Mr. Ms. Programme Specialist Governance and Media. Belgrade Open School. Scientist. Parliament Assembly. Belgrade Open School Centre for Research of Information Technologies – CePIT. Head of IT Division and other Technical Services. Deputy Minister. Mr. Project Coordinator IDEP. Sali Bashota. Vullnet Kabashi. Science and Technology. Chief of Minister’s Cabinet. Project Manager. Slavko Gajin. Ministry of Public Administration. Cluster Coordinator. Ms. Head/Professor. Zoran Ognjanović. Project Assistant. Isa Krasniqi. Telecommunication Regulatory Authority. Jelena Jovanović. UNDP. Petar Janjić. Mr. Ministry of Transport and Communications. Mr. Head of Aleph System.Serbia: Mr. Ms. Imeri. Andre Durr. Mr. Ministry of Transport and Communications. Enver Basha. Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society. Director.

ACRONYMS ADSL AISS AMREJ AMRES ANOFM ANRCETI ANRTI AOGG ASYCUDA BAM BDMS BiH BIHARNET bSEE CAD CAM CARNet CCN/CSI CEC CeGD CIDA CIPS CMIS CO Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Agency for Information Society Services Academic Research Network of Yugoslavia Academic Network of Serbia National Agency for Occupation and Labour National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology National Regulatory Agency for Telecommunications and Informatics Advisory Office on Good Governance. Human Rights. Equal Opportunity and Gender issues Automated System for Customs Data Currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Budget Development Management System Bosnia and Herzegovina Academic and Research Network of Bosnia and Herzegovina Taskforce for Broadband in South East Europe Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacturing Croatian Academic Research Network Common Communications Network / Common Systems Interface Central Electoral Committee Regional Centre for e-Government Development Canadian International Development Agency Citizen Identification Protection System Case management Information System Country office 17 .

CODES CoM CRA CSC CTS DFiD DKMS DMS DTT DVB-T EBRD ECDL ECS EDMS EDUBUNTU EFTA EMCS ENP e-SEE e-SEE Agenda EU EULEX FBiH FOSS FTH FYROM GDSS GEA Commission on Equality of Treatment for Men and Women Council of Ministers Communication Regulation Authority Citizen Service Centre Centre for Special Telecommunications UK Department for International Development Document and Knowledge Management System Document Managing System Digital Terrestrial Television Digital Video Broadcasting .Terrestrial European Bank for Reconstruction and Development European Computer Driving Licence Export Control System Electronic Document Management System Educational Linux-based operating system European Free Trade Association Excise Movement and Control System European Neighbourhood Policy Electronic South East Europe Cooperative effort to develop the Information Society in SEE European Union European Union Rule of Law Mission in UNMIK/Kosovo Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Free and Open Source Software Fibre to Home Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Group Decisions Support System Gender Equality Agency 18 .

Registers and Data exchange Integrated Health Information System Informatics Research Institute in Greece Institute for Statistics Instrument for Pre-Accession Information Society Information System Elections International Standards Organisation Internet Service Provider Indirect Taxation Authority Information Technology and Media Services International Telecommunications Union UNMIK/Kosovo Police Information System Local Area Network Learning Management System Long-term evolution Membership Action Plan Macedonian Academic and Research Network Macedonia ICT Chamber of Commerce 19 .GEANT GIS GPRS GRNet GTZ HRK i2010 ICT ID IDDEEA IHIS INA INSTAT IPA IS ISE ISO ISP ITA ITMS ITU KPIS LAN LMS LTE MAP MARNET MASIT Gigabit European Advanced Network Technology Geographic Information System General Packet Radio Service National Research and Education Network of Greece German Technical Cooperation Currency of Croatia. Kuna European Programme for Information Society for growth and employment Information and Communication Technology Identification Document Agency for Identification Documents.

MCC MCIS MCIT MDGs MEIS MEM MEST MFPGI MIRA MIS MITC MOES MoHRR MPA MPH MREN MTC MTPT MVNO MVNO NAIS NATO NBS NCRT NCTS NGN NGO NIRDI Millennium Challenge Corporation Ministry of Communication and Information Society Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Millennium Development Goals Montenegro Educational Information System Ministry of Energy and Mining Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning Ministerial Focal Point on Gender Issues Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform Ministry of Information Society Ministry for Information Technology and Communications Ministry of Education and Science Ministry of Human Rights and Refugees Ministry of Public Administration Ministry of Public Health Montenegrin Research and Education Network Ministry of Transport and Communications Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications Mobile Virtual Network Operator Mobile Virtual Network Operator National Agency for the Information Society North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Bureau of Statistics National Council for Radio and Television New Computerized Transit System Next Generation Network Non-Governmental Organisation National Institute of Research and Development in Informatics 20 .

NLC OHR OJS OSCE OSI PAR PC PDF PHARE PIN PKI PTK RATEL RBEC RCC REGATA REGISTRU RENAM RIO RoEduNet RS RTV SAA SDH SEE SEEGRID SEEREN National Licensing Centre Office of the High Representative Open Journal Systems Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Open Systems Interconnection Public Administration Reform Personal Computer Portable Document Format European Union’s main instrument of financial and technical cooperation with EU member candidates in Central and Eastern European countries Personal Identification Number Public Key Infrastructure Post and Telecom of UNMIK/Kosovo Republic Telecommunications Agency Regional Bureau for Europe and the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) Regional Cooperation Council Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce State Information Resources Centre Research and Educational Networking Association of Moldova Reference Interconnection Offer Romanian National Research and Education Network Republic of Srpska Radio and Television Stabilization and Association Agreement Synchronous Digital Hierarchy South East Europe South East European Grid Enabled Infrastructure Development South East European Research and Education Networking Project 21 .

threats TAIEX Technical Assistance and Information Exchange TARIC Integrated Tariff of the European Communities TRA Telecommunications Regulatory Authority UNCTAD United Nations Conference for Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Education. weaknesses. other TV appliances) STC Special Telecommunications Centre SWOT Strengths. Science and Culture organisation UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund For Women UNMIK United Nations Mission to Kosovo UPC Urban Permit Centre USAID United States of America International Development USB Universal Serial Bus VAT Value-Added Tax VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol VPN Virtual Private Network WAN Wide Area Network WARC Web Archive File Format WIMAXWorldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access: a wireless standard 3-D Three dimensional 3G Third Generation 22 .SEMM Electronic Labour Mediation Service SIDA Swedish International Development Agency SME Small and Medium Enterprise SMS Short Message Service STB Set Top Box (VCR. cable box. opportunities.

For example. the development of interoperable databases within government institutions facilitates the provision of e-services. despite the central place given to them in i2010 and the EU Digital Agenda. birth and other certificates. E-services have a high profile in EU accession and the EU is constantly underlining them. so they can make greater use of existing e-services. elimination of duplication within government. Some citizen-centric e-services are delivering benefits to both government and the public. thus fostering greater government transparency while reducing bureaucracy and duplication. Most are also advancing steadily in infrastructure and access. To some degree these are prerequisites to offering services to business and citizens. For instance. e-government services to citizens have yet to receive adequate priority in terms of implementation. But on the other hand.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY South East European countries have made commendable progress towards the Information Society in the last few years. 23 . they in turn will serve as the basis for further investment in citizens’ e-services. such as the processing of passports and identity cards. including many which align with the EU i2010 and the Digital Agenda. drivers’ licenses and civil registration. the key legal and institutional underpinnings are already in place in almost all countries. and increased effectiveness in tackling corruption. while e-governance has been rapidly advancing in all countries. red-tape reduction. A second prominent area is e-business services such as business registration. revenuegenerating e-services for business that create income and foster economic growth are being prioritized. Several factors may lie behind this. Ministries and businesses now have improved internet access. New services such as broadband networks are available to ministries and public institutions as well as Electronic Document Management Systems and management tools -including parliament. and access to government information and documentation. For starters. with a few exceptions such as education. Prioritising e-Governance However. Benefits are undeniable in a number of areas.

Monitoring and evaluation of emerging issues and benefits is usually not systematic or planned from the start.Furthermore. There is little consultation and research on which services are most needed and how they address real gaps. And they contribute to better quality of life which is a growing factor in attracting investment. 4. Priority investment areas can thus be misdirected. Opportunities for further sharing of experience among the countries of South East Europe and between them and the rest of the EU or even wider are not being pursued on a sustainable basis. and are central to delivering visible benefits to the final users. Critical areas identified by the Information Society process are given little attention and are not well understood . Tackling Implementation Issues A number of concerns have arisen in relation to the implementation of e-services programmes and projects. it is possible to conclude that in most countries the trade off between prioritising e-services for government. public uptake can be rapidly boosted at low cost through ‘one-stop-shops’. Initial project implementation is not usually supported by a follow-through strategy which addressed issues of maintenance and sustainability. for business and for citizens should be rebalanced towards a more citizen-centric approach. They include: 1. Informed public discussions and understanding of the Information Society agenda and its implications is not taking place on a systematic basis. In sum. yet is critical to project management and capturing lessons learned and good practices. 6. 2. Many e-services are primarily treated from a technical perspective – ICTs as an end in themselves – rather than seen as social interventions to expand and improve public service delivery. Such eservices are also critical for generating the legitimacy of the overall Information Society project. The emphasis should rather be placed on content and higher academic standards for students. The concept of Information Society is sometimes politicised and turned into an electoral issue where the focus is only on short term goals. 24 . A good example here is e-education where delivering computers and access to the Internet is sometimes seen as the final goal.such as digital terrestrial television which could transform the broadcast environment. 5. 3.

ICT expertise is relatively scarce. are critical gaps. ICTs can be used for this purpose. 25 . with appropriate prioritisation? Various approaches for enabling direct participation of citizens and civil society organisations can be deployed to assess needs. as well as of their actual implementation. Best practice elsewhere may be particularly useful here. and to actively participate in them at different levels.One key factor underlies most of the above issues. on effective procurement and programme implementation. and public sector programmes must compete with a private sector that offers higher monetary rewards. and on harnessing different stakeholders to work together towards building the Information Society. Questions worth addressing include: 1. 4. as well as the creation of opportunities for people to understand and explore Information Society policies and policy making (and later other policies). but also to enhance service delivery. In addition. Maximizing opportunities The above conclusions relate to the process of building the Information Society. For starters. human capacity on Information Society strategy and policy design and oversight. from primary schooling up. Can ICTs be used more effectively to improve governance and enhance participation in governance processes by the public? This includes transparency of decision making. 2. What kinds of target group consultations would ensure that e-services address real needs. Another area is gender equality in e-education and in the provision of assistive technologies at all levels. A number of areas were also identified as opportunities that could reinforce its emergence. and are particularly noticeable in the smaller and poorer SEE countries. How can we ensure that gender equality and people with disabilities are part and parcel of ICT strategies and Action Plans? A comprehensive examination from the perspectives of gender equality and people with disabilities of Information Society strategies and action plans is needed. if acted upon effectively. The research undertaken by this report clearly shows that limited human capacity is the most important issue that needs to be addressed for moving the Information Society forward in South East European countries. How can government and senior public servants be informed and persuaded of the benefits of using ICTs in public institutions? Innovative ways are needed to bring home the benefits of ICTs to policy makers and public servants. 3.

other stakeholders should also play a critical role. The e-SEE Agenda+ already commits governments in South East Europe to specific targets in these areas. digital terrestrial television. The first and main set of recommendations is directed to governments.se/wp-content/uploads/Ministerial-Declaration-on-eGovernment. flexible and collaborative in their delivery of public services”. Nevertheless. and suggest ways for facilitating convergence with the EU’s approach on the Information Society. Advancing the digital agenda therefore entails balancing such relationships. stakeholder’s engagement development processes and infrastructure resources. it comprises a complex set of relationships between policy agendas. the recommendations of the report highlight and emphasise the benefits that the implementation of the Information Society has for citizens. Within this context. so a second set of recommendations focuses on them. Can relatively small countries innovate in areas such as universal service policies. Experiences in other countries could also be relevant here. The answers to these questions will vary from country to country.pdf 26 . Recommendations e-Governance goes well beyond the use of ICTs in public administration. In a nutshell. EFTA and EU candidate countries commits countries to making progress in areas that will make governments more “open. and for such services to empower people. but in any case an exploration of each could prove beneficial.egov2009. 4 http://www. A recent Ministerial Declaration on e-Government4 signed by EU. who should take the lead and create the adequate environment for the Information Society.5. and the digitisation of cultural heritage? Because of their scale. Progress is indeed being made. small countries have unique opportunities to innovate and experiment.

1. identify skills needed. Special attention should be devoted to those in leadership positions in e-governance programmes. In this context.Recommendations for Governments 1. Governments should support in substantive ways priority actions pertinent to the implementation of Chapter 10 of the EU Acquis on Information Society and Media. Gender equality issues should be addressed from the start and persons with disabilities issues should be included throughout. and lessen the burden of bureaucracy. Regulation and Management 1. technical assistance and others. industry. e-Leadership becomes critical and should be the number one priority for the advancement of the Information Society in e-SEE countries. the implementation of projects and programmes and subsequent support. etc. Strong consideration should be given to raising the priority and enhancing the profile of citizen-centric e-governance services. and implement joint projects in the area of e-Governance between SEE countries. e-governance strategies alone are not sufficient for effective implementation of priorities. Further systematic efforts should be made to exchange experiences and skills. Although necessary. and need to be integrated with the country’s long-term development strategy and aligned with sectoral (health. These might include short focused training courses.) strategies and priorities. 27 . contribute to transparency and efficiency of public administration. study visits. education. Policy. resources packs. 2. 2. document good practices and implement collaborative programmes. Indeed. especially those that deliver tangible benefits to them. An online platform could be considered as a means to share experiences. strategies should go beyond e-services per se. Capacity Development The limited supply of skills and experience has been identified as the main current bottleneck for the effective identification of services. Capacity development for public servants and Ministry staff. civil society and private sector actors should become central in any of project or programme that fosters the implementation of the Information Society. This will enhance legitimacy and support among the public for the Information Society and align national efforts with EU priorities. 2.

and to content and services that will be effectively used by the public. focus groups. and virtual internet platforms that allow citizens to. which creates the conditions for the free movement of television broadcasts within the EU. which is dealing with the issue of fostering social inclusion through ICTs. information society services. 3. These could include public information and publicity activities. the stress is on legislative alignment with the Television without Frontiers Directive. countries should focus on the establishment of a transparent. Linked to the above. Developing Information Society services goes well beyond the deployment of ICTs. countries should eliminate obstacles that prevent the effective operation of internal markets for telecommunications services and networks. Developing the e-Accessibility agenda. 2. Change management capacity building for public administration staff must be included from the onset of e-service design. ICT programmes have tremendous potential for enhancing choices for persons with disabilities. On electronic communications.with a focus on electronic communications. Similarly. in line with European standards. On audio-visual policy. Mechanisms for stakeholder participation in policy development and the programme implementation should be developed and institutionalised. should be tackled head on. predictable and effective regulatory framework for public and private broadcasting. debate and express preferences over priority public services. There are several comprehensive and readily available methodologies that can be used to quickly achieve this goal. Moreover. Strong attention should be paid to priority needs that respond to citizens’ demand. associated with the switch to digital terrestrial transmission. The development and implementation of Information Society policies and strategies should be ‘gender-proofed’. 3. surveys. 28 . consideration should be given to enhance and expand consultation processes with the public. and on delivering the ‘Digital Dividend’ to citizens. and audiovisual services. exchange ideas. especially in the area of e-governance services. Social Inclusion: Participation and marginalized groups 1.

3. such as increased transparency. Recommendations for Private Sector Associations The private sector has played a critical role in supporting the Information Society and generating e-Services. ongoing maintenance and evolution of services. and learning lessons. thus contributing to creating effective demand for services. Technology and Applications Specialist areas identified as needing attention include: switchover to digital terrestrial broadcasting especially in terms of the economic.4. 29 . BAIT. is critical for long term success and sustainability. and tangible improvements such as more efficient delivery of public services. Promoting the use of e-Services among SMEs. Monitoring and Evaluation The follow-through of Information Society projects. innovations in the implementation of universal service policy. social and institutional aspects. Lobbying for and supporting the introduction of e-Services for business in strategic areas. Identifiable and measurable indicators to assess the success of e-governance projects should be formulated in terms of both intangible benefits. Whenever possible they should try to support: 1. Advocating for corporate social responsibility initiatives and inclusive business models using ICTs to tackle exclusion and poverty. Partnerships to develop and promote e-Services. and “expanding economic opportunity”. Existing regional and national platforms (ICT Forum. empowerment through access to information.) to develop publicprivate partnerships and thus accelerate the deployment of high bandwidth telecommunications networks available to all. and the digitalisation of culture. 5. 2. etc. 4. MASIT. 5. in terms of evaluating effectiveness.

print or broadcast. Maximize the power of the Internet to mobilise community networks. 6. 2. Use modern technologies to foster reconciliation and regional dialogue in SEE. Strengthen developing countries voices in international negotiations on ICT issues. Analyse whether academic curricula fits future needs. Where relevant. Actively engage and with governments and Ministries in defining needs. lobby and support Information Society policies in the wider public interest. 4. 2. traditionally have a ‘watchdog’ role in society. but they can also greatly educate and inform (or misinform) public opinion. Recommendations for Media Media. Contribute to enabling informed critical public debate through investigative journalism. Media should: 1. Make greater efforts to educate those on ‘the other’ side of the digital divide about how ICTs can be used to improve standards and quality of living. Research. 3. design and provide e-services especially to disadvantaged sectors of the population. They should: 1. Recommendations for Academia and Research Centers Academia and Research Centres supply society with both the necessary skills and the capacity to objectively analyse social developments. 30 . Raise awareness on the importance of the Information Society across all sectors. and adjust programmes as needed. 3.Recommendations for Civil Society and NGOs Civil Society and NGOs are critical in identifying needs as both intermediaries with the public and service suppliers in their own right. 2. 3. They should: 1. Focus on niche Information Society topics that tend to be neglected as outlined above. generate awareness about policy problems and lobby on behalf of the public interest. Undertake state-of-the-art research on the social impacts of the Information Society. 5.

people with disabilities. 3. Promote participation of SEE representatives at critical Information Society Global and regional fora. Promote common research agendas and the sharing of project results supported by the International Community on ICTs.Recommendations for International Organisations International Organisations can capitalise on the groundwork they already supported for the Information Society by: 1. Initiate multilateral agreements on clear roles and responsibilities for the various multilateral global ICT initiatives and organisations in order to minimise further duplication of efforts. 4. Focus on reaching International Development Targets. Consider support in other areas close to their remit. 31 . 7. 9. including supporting regional actions and SEE to SEE exchange. Reviewing current priorities in the light of the present situation and to overall EU trends. Consider taking a regional approach to the Information Society. and marginalized groups are met using ICTs. Further invest resources and capitalise on the e-SEE initiative mechanisms. 6. rather than just the spread of technology or bridging the digital divide. 8. where gaps still exist and are growing. 5. avoiding building parallel national and regional programmes on the Information Society. Ensure that the needs of the poor people. 2.

The key to creating a positive forward-moving dynamic rests is the way in which such leadership interacts with all other development factors.Final Remarks The interaction between national development agendas on the one hand and the global push towards an Information Society on the other creates a complex mesh of seemingly competing issues that must be reconciled. E-leadership fosters a gradual move from 1) individual champions to 2) institutions that are more responsive and accountable and then to 3) general diffusion among all stakeholders. if readily acknowledged and tackled. Experience has shown that e-leadership can play an essential role here. At the heart of this complexity lies the human dimension which. This type of leadership necessitates new knowledge and skills as it rests on expertise – not on authority. SEE countries are making the first e-leadership leap. This report shows that by moving along the e-SEE Agenda+. can accelerate the advancement of the digital agenda. It is expected that the regional dynamic created by the e-SEE initiative will allow SEE countries to jump to the next stage and reap the benefits of the digital era. 32 .


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and to support leaders and potential leaders among policymakers.2010 COM(2010) 245.europa. hosts the e-SEE Secretariat. UNDP in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH).itu.5 has been internationally recognized as a rapidly emerging global development challenge. and fosters leadership for the Information Society i. 19. according to the World Summit on the Information Society. have demonstrated their firm political will and commitment in accelerating the process of building open information societies and knowledge economies in order to speed up the pace of European integration. the concept of Information Society for All has been and remains a priority for the EU since the 2001 Lisbon agenda6 . -And the impetus and funding for this publication comes from this context.e. INTRODUCTION : E-LEADERSHIP AND THE E-SEE AGENDA+ Electronic Governance is at the core of the emerging Information Society that.pdf 35 . The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was an early supporter of the Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative (e-SEE Initiative).int/i2010 A Digital Agenda for Europe. The project aims to strengthen knowledge and build capacities on ways to effectively design and implement e-governance in the SEE countries.05.europe. by signing up to the strongly EU oriented e-SEE Agenda.eu. Since 2002.1. The initiative also provides substantial support to all e-SEE Initiative member countries through UNDP national Country Offices in implementing the e-SEE Initiative targets through specific projects. http://ec. Similarly.int/wsis Handled by the European Commission’s INFSO DG www. sustain a process by which e-leaders exert influence to accomplish specific objectives in relation to e-SEE Agenda+. Against this background. The e-Leadership Programme for the Western Balkans is the latest in a series of UNDP regional e-Governance projects implemented by the e-SEE Secretariat is. public servants. non-government organisations and end users groups. development practitioners. and is reaffirmed by both the strategic framework European Information Society 2010 (i2010)7 and the emerging Digital Agenda for Europe8 that promote an open and competitive digital society and acknowledges ICTs as a driver for inclusion and better quality of life. nine governments of South Eastern Europe (SEE). with the support of New York and Bratislava offices. Brussels. 5 6 7 8 More information on www. a regional knowledge hub and information resource centre acting as the executive arm of the e-SEE Initiative. The e-Leadership programme is funded by the Italian Government.eu/information_society/digital-agenda/documents/ digital-agenda-communication-en.

Great progress was achieved in the first few years. 2007 11 The e-SEE Agenda+ for the Development of Information Society in SEE 2007-2012 36 . by identifying needs especially in relation to knowledge (including knowledge-sharing) and capacity-building. • Identify practices in the area of gender and ICT • Produce proposals and recommendations that will feed into the next stage of the e-Leadership Programme and will also be of interest to a wider audience. as this report will shown.org 10 ICT Sector Status Report. reported on here. UNDP. and by proposing means to address these. signed on the 29th of October 2007 in Sarajevo. The e-Leadership Programme is a collaborative effort between the Italian Government and UNDP. Many REGATA members are also the national focal points for the e-SEE Agenda+. It is conceived as a means for providing concrete capacity building support for on-the-ground implementation of projects and programmes with a particular focus on e-governance. Its first meeting was held in Sarajevo in October 2008. The e-Leadership Programme got underway in 2008 by establishing REGATA (Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce). deepened this commitment to include the development of specific e-services. 2004. Under the first e-SEE Agenda signed in 2002 the countries in the region a agreed to prioritise the development of legal and institutional frameworks as well as of strategies and policies to build the Information Society. Best Practice Showcase. comprising senior government executives singularly committed to and capable of leading developments in the Information Society.10 The e-SEE Agenda+11 . UNDP. The research component of the e-Leadership Programme. Here too. 9 Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative http://www. got underway in mid 2009. especially in relation to e-governance. It is designed to: • Explore progress on the e-SEE Agenda+ implementation and identify good practice in the region. very significant progress has been made. across a range of areas. • Consider especially the blockages and needs towards further development. an umbrella Initiative of the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC). taking into account the ever closer relationship with the European Union (EU) and the need for interoperability and coherence.The e-Leadership Programme is designed to be fully complementary to the activities of the e-SEE Initiative9 . REGATA is not only a resource and target for the programme but also comprises the advisory group for e-Leadership.eseeinitative.

in line with the e-SEE Agenda+ the research nevertheless also sets it in the context of the wider Information Society development agenda. 37 . Although the primary focus is on e-governance. No aspect of the Information Society can. allowing traders to lodge information with a single body to fulfil all import or export related regulatory requirements. be considered in isolation. accounting procedures. Gender equality aspects of Information Society in South Eastern Europe have been taken into consideration as this is one of the least explored yet potentially most powerful drivers of development. presents the results of this research. e-SEE Mechanism and other relevant stakeholders. including the handling of customs declarations. the efforts of UNCTAD in providing the ASYCUDA computerised customs management system which covers most foreign trade procedures.thus substantively saving time and resources. and the work of UNESCO for important work in the area of digitalisation of cultural heritage and the forming of the Skopje based Centre for digitalisation for South Eastern Europe. combined with the e-Leadership Workplan for 2010. the work of UNIFEM in bridging the gender digital divide.contributing in a major way to preservation of both tangible and intangible cultural heritage in this region. based on the situation scan analysis. This publication acknowledges the work of sister UN organisations United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and their important work on a Single Window system that provides a unique entry for all data and documents. transit and suspense procedures.• • Create a set of proposed actions and recommendations for the Western Balkans on their path to EU accession.contributing in a major way to an increase in transparency and efficiency. Based on consultation with the Government Stakeholders. fostering the spirit of regional cooperation. including eservices to enhance government efficiency and the business environment as well as developments in the area of infrastructure and access. and nourishing joint SEE values and culture. or should. prepare for the e-SEE Initiative members proposals for the first draft of e-SEE Agenda+ revised deadlines This publication.

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The impacts and benefits of these services. enhance participation of people in choice. business and people is a system for qualified electronic signature (e-signature). e-services available to governments. A qualified e-signature is typically validated by the government while an unqualified e-signature is merely a bilateral agreement common between for example banks and their customers. customer service efficiency and business dealings through widespread use of ICT and innovative approaches linked to this. minorities. knowledge-based economy by regionally supporting the development of Information Society. e-Governance services aim at increasing the efficiency of administration and improving public access. However. and regional trends in. And a detailed country by country analysis is provided at the end of this publication. It is a tool for better governance and human development. Hence. business and the public is offered here. for example. Specific legislation is needed to define the terms and scope of utilization of e-signatures. e-SEE Agenda+ has in its Annex 1 prioritised a number of e-Government services based on the joint regional priorities.2. ICT in governance improve quality of governance products and services being currently provided. women. The primary aim of e-SEE Initiative is to better integrate e-governance efforts of SEE countries into the global. as well as factors that helped and hindered their implementation are covered in subsequent sections. implementation can be blocked by political issues. A key component for effective e-services for government. This legislation has been adopted in all of SEE countries. rural populations. 41 . A flavour of the nature and extent of. legal issues such as unpublished implementation acts or insufficient infrastructure. provide new governance services and products. etc. provision of governance products and services and finally bring new sections of society under the governance sphere including those who are most likely to remain excluded. AN OVERVIEW OF E-GOVERNANCE SERVICES IN SEE e-Governance is not simply digitization or automation of governance services.

more than 2000 km of ‘dark fibre’ are available with flexible bandwidth and cost effective transport of high volumes data. A total of 98% of the population has now been allocated a number and issued ID cards. birth certificates and secondary-school degrees. In Croatia. With the support of UNDP. In Croatia it comprises a compulsory 11 digit number and in Moldova a unique 13 digit number is assigned at birth or at border entries to each individual and used by all registers. place and map of residence. Usually run by university staff. the first stage of which is the creation of the Register of voters. and National Centre for External Evaluation of Education 42 . Most are connected to European broadband networks such as GEANT through for instance the SEEREN project.1 Services for People Moldova and Croatia introduced the Personal Identification Number (PIN) on January 1st 2009. several have been or are being constituted as independent entities. Agency for Science and Higher Education. including links to their families. vehicles owned. Thanks to the networking of databases of the Central State Office for Administration and e-Register. The national infrastructure available to them varies. with a particular focus on automating the process of preparation. visas granted. a direct benefit of this PIN system is in the use of the national system12 of applications for university places. processing and counting the votes of elections or referendums. thereby facilitating the emergence over time of a succession of e-services for the public through the integration of databases. In Montenegro. Education and Sport.2. within which the Central Application Office has been established.e-voting for immigrants is of particular interest. the infrastructure is loaned by the National Telecom Company for 15 years at no cost. 12 Project of the Ministry of Science. which contain all the data on grades of students during their entire secondary school education. The Moldovan system enables the tracking of each person across all the databases. Croatian Academic and Research Network.according to some estimates up to one third of its active population is working and living abroad . students no longer need to submit papers such as certificates of nationality.and will gradually replace ID numbers for all companies and individuals. In Serbia. Due to the characteristics of Moldova’s population . the Moldovan Central Elections Commission seeks to improve the management of elections in Moldova. directorships. and more. e-Voting options are being investigated in several European countries. which reduced the cost of maintenance. In all SEE countries Academic Research Networks provide external connectivity and services linking many different institutions.

2 Services for Governments Underlying e-services for governments is the basic infrastructure needed to connect government. All documentation for government meetings and preparatory meetings is being digitized. administration and managing finances. In UNMIK/Kosovo. This ‘electronic highway’ also interconnects eight municipalities. even in difficult circumstances. ministries and public institutions. and are applied in specific areas such as justice and the courts. chemistry. is being implemented in the project of expansion of strengthening of the network to interconnect 32 municipalities with the IT Central System. history. such as the e-Islands project in Croatia that provides educational support to isolated islands using broadband connectivity and multimedia equipment to connect islands to schools in the mainland. implemented by UNDP through the 43 . The data centralized with the Ministry of Education is made available back to the regional and school level. computers. methodology and teacher training for teaching mathematics. Internal government services such as Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS) have been introduced at various levels.e. biology. In Romania. Internet. All regional systems are integrated into a national network connected to the Internet and controlled by SEI Program Management Unit. ICTs allow specific solutions to be devised. teachers and pupils. Most SEE countries have made significant progress. management. In Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most e-services for government relate to improving efficiency of the business of governing. a system for the registry. for instance. Each school in Romania now has at least one computerized educational platform i. Providing computer equipment and access to internet for schools is a priority for all governments beginning with the secondary education level. Albania’s e-schools project adds an Education Information Management System which links regional educational directors to whom schools supply a wide range of data on schools. the SEI national programme for e-learning offers support for teaching–training in undergraduate education with cutting-edge technologies. physics. building on the inherited UNMIK microwave network. Romanian. and reporting of public sector grant assistance is used by the Council of Ministers.e-Education projects are common to every SEE country. etc. multimedia educational content. In Serbia it is fully used for government deliberations. 2. a combination of technology. A microwave network. most central government institutions (90%) are linked by an optical fibre network provided by the Post and Telecommunications of UNMIK/ Kosovo (PTK).

The Croatian government offers a unique portal for businesses13 allowing a large array of services ranging from filing and payment of annual income taxes. the Ministry of Finance has implemented a relatively advanced Budget Development Management Systems (BDMS). Digital registers available to civil servants allow clients to obtain all certificates and file requests for building permits or register a business for example in one place and with reduced processing time. In UNMIK/Kosovo. And a Project Cycle Management System is in the final stages of development. online certification or online payment of taxes and social benefits. In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. access to national business and land registers and more. for use by all Ministries to plan and monitor the stage of each of their projects. to advanced such as filing documents on line. the EDMS is connecting 20 ministries and institutions with a fibre backbone. VAT reports and payments. Bosnia and Herzegovina or Macedonia can be the first major step towards providing efficient services to businesses and citizens. 13 http://www.hitro. The introduction of electronic document management has followed closely the adoption of ISO standards in many local governments in the entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). an online data base allows the public to search decisions of the High Commercial Court or of the Supreme Court. Services available online for businesses range from basic. that enables finance sections to view the complete current state of spending online.e-Government project. The e-justice application such as the Integrated Court Information System covering 33 courts in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia enables automated distribution of cases to judges and ongoing monitoring of cases.hr/ 44 . and are especially useful where internet access and use is limited among small business. on-line registration of employees pension insurance.3 Services for Business The concept of the ‘One Stop Shop’ or Service Centres in municipalities or other local authorities in Serbia. In Croatia. providing downloadable documents. as one of the key innovations for ensuring better service delivery. 2. such as providing information. connecting all Ministries and Municipalities.

sale of land and buildings and eventual mortgages held. transfers are all centralized within a central payment engine. In terms of stream lining payments. telecentres but also in public areas easily accessible such as universities. are strategies that pay off in terms of accessibility. the Romanian State Treasury Electronic Payment System (STEPS) centralized payment system allows all transactions to be performed online in real time. Paying or collecting taxes.4 Underlying Infrastructure At EU level. Governments publish tenders on their websites and most details are available to download. Availability of WiFi hotspots. With one of the highest internet penetration in SEE. The Albanian e-procurement system has introduced sophisticated procedures to further increase transparency.E-procurement systems are highly important for fair and transparent contracting. Croatia has an estimated 15% broadband connection with a very high proportion of households using dial-up access as the only available option to access the internet. expanding broadband access is viewed as ever more critical to establishing the Information Society. parks. and for record keeping by the contracting authorities. 2. 45 . In Romania. the e-Cadastre project digitizes the registration of land and buildings and allows online tracking of requests. tenders can be opened only when all members of the commission have logged in. and all SEE countries still have a lot of room for growth. All customs offices are connected and issue online certificates saving enormous amounts of time for businesses. Once the deadline is passed. This can be attributed to the adoption and implementation of a broadband strategy early on. treasury collections. these hotspots are being put into service progressively since June 2009. The Moldova e-customs system allows for 95% of customs declarations and documents to be completed online. It will go live in 2010 for the Skopje region and will allow access to information concerning ownership. The system alerts bidders if some documents are missing. etc. In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

46 . The switchover strategy in BiH has greatly benefited from the experience of Croatia. Montenegro for example is becoming a leader in testing Next Generation Networks (NGNs). in cooperation with the foundation Metamorphosis. Being a late starter in the development of ICTs has also advantages. Its National Telecom company is conducting pilot studies for a Fibre to the Home (FTH) scheme while a mobile operator is planning to implement Long Term Evolution (LTG) 4G. A National fibre network with extension to neighbouring countries is planned. Digital Terrestrial television strategies exist in all SEE countries in accordance with the EU timetable for complete switchover i. achieving transition from analogue television services to digital TV services and complete cessation of analogue emissions by January 1st 2012. Noteworthy is cooperation between the Institute Open Society and the General Secretary of the Government of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Croatia has also introduced a voucher scheme for users to reduce the cost of purchasing a digital receiver. avoiding pitfalls and assisting solutions. Romania has allocated a budget of €383 million from EU funds to tackle this issue over the next four years. It is also of major importance to future applications when accession to EU becomes reality. EMCS) necessary to exchange data between the European Commission and EU member States upon accession must be incorporated into projects long in advance accession itself. In Serbia. For example systems of information interconnectivity (TARIC. NCTS. Some such as Croatia have digital coverage for almost all its territory already in place.Issues of interoperability and interconnectivity are particularly crucial for proper functioning between institutions. which has produced an interoperability framework outlining the principles for creating ICT standards in public administration.e. several large ministries have set up their own system effectively improving their functioning but interoperability becomes an issue once inter-ministerial communication or collaboration is needed.


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Serbia and UNMIK/Kosovo are potential candidates. provides high quality services and promotes quality of life. And full exploitation may be possible only when accompanied by changes in people’s attitudes. CEC COC(2005) 229. expectations and even skills. all countries have already experienced some benefits. This longer and more complex lead-in process must be taken into account when considering impacts and benefits. The process of the enlargement of the EU14 in the region has a strong Information Society component.htm 49 .3. including the benefits to the quality of life of citizens. however. takes some time to become apparent. 14 Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are already candidate countries. Montenegro.europa. while Albania. one of the major factors in the first place motivating the initial e-SEE Agenda. significant incentives to implementing an Information Society agenda also present themselves to the countries of SEE at the political level. Some such services are relatively straightforward and gains will flow smoothly. With the legal and institutional framework of the Information Society well advanced in most countries. For key documents see: http://ec. and covering everything from the legal framework. 15 I2010: A European Information Society for Growth and Employment 2005. Of specific relevance here is the third of three overall i2010 Objectives: An Information Society that is inclusive. Key aspects of EU accession in relation to the Information Society are based on the i201015 initiative and the new EU Digital Agenda. Unlike roads and railways. IMPACT AND BENEFITS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT The full impact of implementing an information society agenda. and it is reasonable to assume that the return on much of the investment so far will be seen only in the future. the same can be said of the construction of a road or a railway – some returns are immediate but others (such as a boost to economic growth) may take years before manifesting themselves. The e-SEE Agenda+ embraces almost the full set of requirements for candidate countries. from infrastructure to interoperability to services.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/key_documents/index_en. In additional to the social and economic benefits. But reaping the benefits of others might require a possibly extended period of trial and error as needs are fully explored and understood. Information Society services require not just an infrastructural component but also the development of actual services. to digital television. Having said that. to universal access and e-services and has already contributed across this spectrum in advancing the agendas at national level. Bosnia and Herzegovina. the development of services comes to the fore. At one level.

commitments and documents have been made by the Commission. fast and ultra fast internet access. Sustainable and Inclusive Growth 50 .3.500 pages for each of 28 ministers at the weekly meeting – as are a number of ministries in Moldova. boosting trust and security. 16 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament. by member states and candidate countries that both reaffirm and offer more detail in terms of the specific items of the agenda. Therefore. The centrality of the e-Governance is again reaffirmed here. many subsequent declarations. Montenegro and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia both expect to deploy systems in 2010. The i2010 Agenda was updated in May 2010. as one of seven flagships actions of the EU core strategy EUROPE 202017. and given attention to interoperability. http://ec.europa. the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A Digital Agenda for Europe. such as the Budget Development Management System in UNMIK/Kosovo’s Ministry of Finance which enables more efficient and comprehensive monitoring of spending among ministries and municipalities. interoperability and standards. and often both government and business profit from them. and lead to major savings in time and efficiency. e-Service for Government: The introduction of ICTs into the processes and activities of government has benefited governments.05. Brussels. research and innovation. As additional Ministries and institutions are covered. with the Digital Agenda for Europe16 demonstrates the EU’s commitment to constantly pushing forward the Information Society. benefits are likely to multiply. Electronic Document Management Systems in ministries are likely to become the norm everywhere. but also directly and indirectly businesses and citizens. 3.2010 COM(2010) 2020 Communication from the Commission: EUROPE 2020 A Strategy for Smart.eu/information_society/ digital-agenda/documents/digital-agenda-communication-en. Other more specialised systems in government are also delivering returns. there are extensive commonalities of the e-SEE Agenda+ priorities and the EU’s seven priority areas of: building a digital single market. the Council. 19.2010 COM(2010) 245. e-Service to Businesses yield some of the clearest benefits. Serbia is already seeing the benefits in its ministerial meetings – no longer having to copy up to 1.As noted elsewhere in this report. at an ever faster rate. and leveraging the benefits of ICTs for society.pdf 17 Brussels. enhancing digital literacy skills and inclusion.

for instance in Albania and Moldova. enhancing competition and creating a more vibrant and open market. There are major time savings for transport companies. It also saves significant time for businesses and when fully implemented extends the circulation and audience for notices. especially if hard copy alternatives are eliminated as in Albania (though care must be taken with that not to exclude smaller firms with limited internet access). e-Licensing of businesses. and the principal of ‘silent consent’ means a license is issued automatically if the stipulated deadline is not met. facilitating far more trade with the same costs.e-Procurement. UNMIK/Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. businesses and citizens. quality and low cost of delivery. in addition to reducing opportunities for corruption. Over time. Most licenses are issued within two days. Statistical data is also greatly improved in terms both of timeliness and completeness. and wine sectors. especially where they have been introduced comprehensively throughout the system. The benefits include encouraging business formation. 51 . implemented in several countries. Albania. has immediate cost savings for government. legitimate businesses were protected from smugglers and counterfeits (and in the case of wine saw the reopening of the export market to Russia). in the medicines. especially important in perishable goods. Greater efficiency has reduced costs for government. the use of ICTs has transformed them into a model rapid. excise duties collected have risen. e-Customs services have resulted in very significant benefits all round. Though applications to Albania’s National Licensing Centre still require a visit. and smuggling and corrupt payments have fallen. It thereby also enhances transparency and reduces the opportunities for corruption. and consumers were assured of the quality of their purchases. Moldova’s unique barcode labelling system for individual products has brought clear benefits to government. Other e-services benefit both citizens and businesses. importers and exporters. implemented among others in Romania. Returns from VAT more than doubled in the space of a couple of years. But most countries have deployed ICTs to reduce the bureaucracy and time involved in issuing licenses for enterprises. has greatly reduced the time and in some cases the cost of registering a new business. bottled water. facilitating improving policy and planning.

either domestically or via public areas. will have to await both the full development of the e-services and ubiquitous access to the internet. is self evident. is widely accepted as part of secondary and sometime primary education. The expectation is that it will be fairer. less arbitrary and more attractive to those taking the tests. Online e-Services for citizens are. relatively poorly developed in the region. of the judicial system. The convenience of being able to apply for (or even pay for and receive) civic documents online. duplicate passports and ID cards. the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia will be in a position to assess some outcomes of its ambitious programme during 2010 when its secondary school examination system is scheduled to move to a combination of online multiple choice questions and teacher assessment. which is the ultimate goal.e-Cadastre projects. and is now being emulated elsewhere. e-Education has received some attention in every country of South East Europe. marriage and death certificates. with the scope and ambition of programmes varying greatly. Similarly. and that impacts are difficult to pinpoint with precision. Its one-stop-shop for local government to citizens and businesses was critical to attracting inward investment and improving the quality of life for the population. such as birth. The need for an early education in ICTs. But a widespread improvement in the quality of life. Although limited progress overall has been made at municipal level. after ICTs were introduced in schools in recent years. a notable exception is the Inđija Municipality in Serbia. 52 . and their potential for improving education in other subjects. Moldova and UNMIK/Kosovo. Even the limited level of development that exists in the region already benefits some. bring clear advantages in terms of saving time and money. for instance in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. the provision of detailed timely information on the processes of governance. Moldova has also already seen a steep rise in the number of applicants for ICTs courses at third level. Nevertheless. but the benefits of some services are self evident. overall. and enhance transparency through being able to track processes and widespread availability of information on ownership and other factors relating to land and property. and other areas brings additional undeniable benefits in terms of transparency and openness. driver’s licences. Also accepted is that benefits (as in education in general) must be viewed in the long-term.

Sometimes a modest investment can yield good results, such as in Montenegro where an extra-curricular course on Web development unexpectedly took off as one of the most popular of courses of students, with clear benefits to their ICT abilities. Another innovative scheme, in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, introduced computer discount vouchers for final year third level students had the desired effect of boosting PC use among this group. The benefits of the academic and research networks, supported in most countries with high speed internet access, are not always immediately visible and can be difficult to quantify. But it is undeniable that many of the collaborative projects currently underway among universities and research institutes, and with EU countries, would not have been be possible were it not for these networks. These in turn underpin the development of research capacities in the long term. Several areas are relatively underdeveloped in the region, but even here some benefits already anticipate what can be achieved. In Albania, for instance, borders controls access to a Website of cultural artefacts recently resulted in the return a stolen and many more such successes can be expected.






me domain. HELPING AND HINDERING FACTORS TO INFORMATION SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT Insufficient funding to proceed with programmes and projects – some already fully approved – has emerged as a major hindering factor in most SEE countries. the countries of SEE differ anyhow in the amount of resources at their disposal and the extent to which they prioritise information society development alongside other pressing needs. including Croatia. in e-Service development and in ICT services and ecommerce for SMEs. such as for instance Serbia’s Chamber of Commerce e-Services collaboration with Diners Club international. Serbia and Romania. with the European Regional Development Fund investing hundred of millions of euro in broadband. are already reaping the benefits in what is. or keen interest from external investors. and to implement such projects and programmes. A strong private sector. In some instances private sector investment is also being curtailed. 57 . in some respects relevant to being able to access such EU funds. The current e-Leadership initiative includes specifically the issue of capacity building. Yet such opportunities can be grasped only if the capacities are present to fully appreciate their potential. as well as the UNDP Secretariat. Aside from this. in macro-investment terms. to develop appropriate responses and proposals. a relatively short period of time. new opportunities to access funds associated with EU accession and to develop partnerships with the EU are worth pursuing. Romania demonstrates clearly the ultimate financial advantage of EU membership in the area of Information Society. Countries that have invested political and financial capital in information society activities. Such sources include not just Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) but also the many information society programmes in which different level of participation may be possible. and Montenegro’s exploitation of the . There are some encouraging examples. can lead to successful partnerships for service development between the public and private sector. has from the beginning sought to strengthen ties with the European Union. However.4. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. both nationally and from donors and other contributors. Virtually everywhere the current economic climate has significantly affected funding available. and one for which there is no simple remedy. and its success is widely acknowledged. The e-SEE Initiative. with a view to aligning the e-SEE country Information Society agenda to that of the EU and thereby facilitating the process of accession.

Lack of experience and often training in ICT-related skills is one aspect of this. by Ministries and sometime regulators is another area which 58 . such as MASIT (Macedonia ICT Chamber of Commerce). but in implementing such incentives great care must be taken to ensure they are having the desired effect. an example not only of good planning and execution but of encouraging and supporting a public-service orientation among staff – another skill that can have very positive results. A comprehensive knowledge of the sector is needed not simply to implement programmes but to become a persuasive advocate of the potential of ICTs among senior policy makers and politicians who. Evidence abounds of poor programme and project planning. Public employers are sometimes seen as little more than a temporary stop off. and limited follow through and monitoring of outcomes. Part of the problem is that there is sometimes a limited access to training and capacity building in general on recent developments in this fast evolving field. In addition to the difficulty of recruiting suitable people in the first place. one faced by all countries at some stage in their development. A major factor that hinders the growth in e-Services in all kinds of ways is limited human capacity. Many telecommunications regulators are facing the task of market and cost analyses: as markets develop a number of large competing players emerge and interconnection and service unbundling become more complicated. an area in which the e-SEE initiative as well as the RCC play an important role. Although the overall contribution that these might appear to be relatively limited. In few places. is also well placed not simply to offer members services but to develop partnership projects with government and to significantly influence policy. such as Kosovo. At programme management level. may not be aware of such benefits. there is potential to expand these kinds of activities. there are also problems of human capacity. leaving managers frustrated and delayed in their efforts to develop services. In this case significant support is often available from donors and others as the sector is such a major focus of market development. however. There are also successful examples. there are attempts to address this with bonuses or higher salaries.A strong association of ICT firms. understandably. those already employed are often tempted away by higher salaries in the private sector. The development and implementation of universal service policies and actions. such as the Inđija Municipality in Serbia’s one-stopshop centre. thus hindering the emergence of ‘champions’ to take positions of e-Leadership. where experience and training can be obtained on the way to lucrative private sector jobs.

can benefit from innovative thinking and specialist capacities. The developers of the DMS in Serbian Ministries first introduced to senior government people the facility to read documents readily and online. This in turn led to requests to be able to edit them – and from there came the political will. The support of the VAT administration. http://ec. At present little thought has been given to applying some of the innovative solutions that are developing in other regions of the world. Another example from Serbia relates to motivating ministries to participate in a suite of e-services developed by the Chamber of Commerce for businesses. for instance. Apart from the technical challenge.most already struggling to secure full independence and security of income as required by the EU. was facilitated by the fact that 20% of the small fee that businesses pay to make their VAT returns using these e-Services goes to the VAT office itself. One tactic is to gradually draw them in. 18 Brussels. Instead of the ‘digital dividend’ becoming an opportunity to enhance the media landscape. and the impact it might have on the already fragile public service broadcast media . when benefits incrementally become clear. much uncertainly surrounds the appropriate business model for digital broadcasting.2009 COM (2009) 533.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2009/strategy_paper_2009_en. For instance. the lack of research into and understanding of the issues and options may result in the opposite. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2009-2010. the effect it might have on the media landscape in terms of concentration of ownership and the closure of small operators.10. and public service broadcasting are highlighted in almost all seven countries. In some countries the problem lies at the top: parliamentarians and senior officials unwilling to change their ways despite efforts to get them to adopt Document Management Systems (DMS) and other time and resource saving technologies. Yet a glance at the annual EU enlargement strategy reports indicates that the European Commission regards it as a very serious area. the most recent report18 includes issues of broadcasting reform in terms of administrative capacity or independence of the broadcast regulatory agency. to approve the Law on e-signatures that had been holding up progress. The need to raise understanding of ICTs and motivate people to understand their benefits and to use them applies at several levels.europa. 14. which is in principle resolvable with appropriate resources. frequency allocation. The introduction of digital broadcasting. previously lacking.pdf 59 . causes particular challenges. almost everywhere as a result of external pressures and specifically of the European Union. This tends not to be an area of concern to donors.

Procurement delays can stretch indefinitely. greatly affecting the impetus developed around projects. Will jobs be lost as ICTs replace people? Will the introduction of ICTs lead to greater scrutiny and control of work procedures? Such concerns can delay the introduction of services. The switch to e-Procurement for government purchases and contracts has at the same time encouraged the use of ICTs among businesses. Little attention appears to have been paid to such issues.There are also understandable concerns among workers. in some cases (as in Albania) through the elimination of any other option. from Moldova to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The example of the e-Labelling of products in Moldova demonstrates how some tax-related services can more than pay for themselves. new) challenges of international cooperation especially in smaller countries which are expected to develop the same panoply of instruments and agencies as their larger neighbours. There is no doubt that post-conflict situations. for instance. also confronts a major institution-building effort. And the political cycles of elections can significantly 60 . is being developed in several countries and the cost of the electronic cash registers can discourage use. can be difficult in these circumstances. about the introduction of ICTs and the effects the potential impact on employment. Many problems confront new democracies in reorganising administrations and institutions to be more participative and efficiency. e-Taxation at the point of sale. Motivating businesses and citizens to use services is also sometimes difficult. and ongoing tensions. may be characterised by institutional fragmentation and poor communication and coordination between different part of the state and other entities involved. leading to a low level of use of services and hence their failure to develop to a critical mass of use. Ministries and others can stall activities. But attempts to recoup costs at the start may backfire. if imaginatively implemented. and in dealing with the (for many. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an example of this. Poor coordination and lack of clarity regarding responsibilities between different agencies. But an advantage of the Information Society agenda is that ICTs can contribute significant in the reengineering business and institutional processes – becoming a part of the solution and not simply of the problem. This was evident for instance in countries that successfully implementing document management systems. and when implemented may result in them being deployed is ways that are less than optimal. Pursuing coherent programmatic agendas of any kind. not just the Information Society.

may find themselves relatively worse off. through ensuring full coherence with its goals.which also enabled exchanges of information and informal. as is evident from the very significant growth in access in all countries in the last number of years. and focusing attention on it as such. and is credited in several countries with having brought coherence. then there is a risk that services developed will disproportionately benefit those who least need them. by bringing an ‘Information Society institutional memory’. through the activities of the e-SEE Secretariat – impartial because of the involvement of UNDP . to bear. driven primarily by the private sector with appropriate incentives and firm regulation in place to ensure continuous expansion. 61 . is for rapid growth in access. and these tend to be among the better off and located in major centres. non-hierarchical exchanges of ideas and experiences. This has been achieved in a number of ways identified in earlier research but confirmed here: • • • by governments explicitly acknowledging that it is a long term process. geographically or financially. • • Finally. It is difficult to plot easy ways around such obstacles. language and culture constructively comparing progress towards the EU. But the e-SEE Agenda and e-SEE Agenda + has had some significant successes over the years in this regard. a healthy degree of intra-regional competition – often former compatriots and new neighbours sharing the same legacy. by bringing a degree of continuity to the Information Society agenda in what was sometimes an unstable political environment. The already disadvantaged. unable to benefit from the costs and time savings aspect of the new services. enhancing and facilitating alignment with the EU Information Society agenda. Certainly the general trend. it is worth drawing attention to a factor underlying many of the issues. while at the same time facilitating the setting my countries of region and national specific goals. especially for e-governance services for citizens: Where only a small proportion of the population has ready access to the internet.influence the pace of project development. political will and impetus behind the Information Society agenda.

The Asia Foundation.pdf 62 . to ensure they too can have access to affordable services possibly in public centres or one-stop-shops. Essential to developing and funding such universal services actions is a public that understands the issues involved. through universal service provision and actions targeted at excluded sectors of the population. which has supported numerous e-Government projects. As this report has shown some of the most successful services are provided in ‘one-stopshops’. One of the main characteristics of countries of South East Europe is the limited debate at public level on such issues. August 2005 page 5-6 http://asiafoundation.But it is also the case that e-governance services should not be characterised as delivered solely online. A study of the experience of the Asia Foundation.. demand can be encouraged at local level through the development of local content and services – where local government for instance has become involved in the provision of e-services. Government can use IT in thousands of different ways to make life easier for citizens and businesses. has pointed to countries where: ˝… local governments are setting up systems in a “one stop shop” for government services.org/pdf/ICT_eGov. linked to the absence of platforms in which they can be discussed. 19 Parks.˝ 19 At the same time measures can be put in place.. that still have a profound impact on people’s lives and local businesses. Thomas A Few Misconceptions about e-Government. and to reduce corruption. This approach must include both supply and demand aspects of the equation . the incentives to access the internet has risen. or even on a single computer. Furthermore. providing broadband access while at the same time offering high-bandwidth services such as e-education.the Croatian e-Island programme for instance did precisely that. an experience shared by other countries. The Internet is just one delivery mechanism that tends to be more appropriate for more developed countries.


64 .

re-traditionalisation of society following the wars/sanctions. The 1997 report of the Economic and Social Council defines gender mainstreaming as: ˝The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action. economic crisis and the prolonged transition process towards a market economy. Countries participating in the e-SEE Initiative are not known for a prominent gender-based discriminatory climate. is affected by a combination of factors such as the dissolution of the socialist regime and its legal. they can and have been changed. implementation. destroyed or obsolete infrastructure. legal and political systems. There are also stereotypes. and traditional ideas about female and male jobs. socially. economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. religious systems and beliefs. in all areas and at all levels˝. Working with gender equality issues means looking at the roles. Gender roles are learned socially from a variety of cultural sources from the time of birth. needs. badly damaged. monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political. The United Nations is committed to gender equality in all its policies and programmes. some complex forces are at play here. Blagojević (2007) 65 . involvement and decisionmaking of both women and men in a community. The current gender equality landscape in Western Balkans as the current semi-periphery of the European Union 20. including legislation. However.1 Brief situation scan of Gender Equality in SEE Countries The word “gender” is used to refer to the culturally. economically and historically defined roles of women and men and to understand how the unequal power relations between them are shaped and built into social institutions such as the family. 20 Canons and Contexts. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design. Gender analysis forms the base upon which mainstreaming the training and development required to ensure equitable progression for women and men in any reconstruction and reintegration processes depend. economic and social heritage. the social and economic fibre being destroyed by war/sanctions. ADDRESSING THE GENDER DIGITAL DIVIDE Barriers to ensuring the gender issues are addressed in the context of the Information Society are of a different nature and therefore are highlighted in a specific section of this publication. policies or programmes. 5.5. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. As they are not biologically determined.

arsbih. adopting both Law on gender equality. reducing the capacity of infant nurseries and kindergartens or extended working hours in the service sector such as shops. In Moldova. where reform of the constitution is still on the agenda. Transition to the market economy has meant also the withdrawal of state support for childcare and parental leave.gov. and Gender Action Plan 22 that prioritises ICT among other 14 key issues. restaurants. Bosnia and Herzegovina has. supermarkets.periphery 21. All have a specific department or agency in charge of gender equality issues within the cabinet or in a Ministry. This results in increased poverty and social inequalities and growing economic insecurity. While economic crisis has decreased the amount of remittances it has also put migrants at risk of exploitation or trafficking. The findings of this research strongly confirm that ICT and gender equality panorama in South Eastern Europe is surely affected by the above forces and interaction between them. The legislative and policy framework for equality has been adopted in all countries of SEE. and by EU accession process demands which are often drawing on the joint aspiration of SEE countries for EU membership.This process is strongly influenced by ongoing globalisation trends that are imposing their contextual demands onto the South Eastern Europe as its semi. women’s share among migrants is also quite high: in 2006 42% of Moldova’s migrants were women 23. In BiH. and as such form a disproportionate part of unemployed labour force and up to nearly 40 percent of unemployed women are classified as long-term unemployed. without securing adequate surveillance system. social measures directed toward ensuring equal participation of women and men in the leading positions have included such measures as reducing the duration of maternity leave. 21 Ibid. in this respect been in many ways an example to the SEE region by forming both entity and state level Agencies for gender equality. 22 http://www. However. In most SEE countries women’s participation in the labour market is quite high.ba/ 23 According to data by the International Organization of Migration (IOM) 66 . they represent almost half of the active population. constitutional reforms would represent an opportunity to include the gender equality principle and the ban on the discrimination on the basis of sex as a constitutional category of equal importance as the principle of ethnic representation. Indeed. many are employed in low skilled jobs. inadequate legal solutions regarding payment during the maternity leave.

disability status. Gorski. 24 The problem of the gender digital divide should be considered from the perspective of the existing international standards and the binding legislation. 60% of European women would be in the labour force in 2010.2 Gender Equality and the Digital Divide The term ‘digital divide’ has traditionally described inequalities in access to computers and the internet between groups of people based on one or more social or cultural identifiers. the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. 13 (1) and 137 of the Agreement on the EU Legislation on gender equality.org 67 . Articles 141 (3). 5. http://www.edchange. policies and action plans for development of information society 24 Understanding the Digital Divide from a Multicultural Education Framework. 2001. Fully integrating women into the labour market is still one of the major goals of most EU policy makers. Article 2 of the European Commission Agreement. The gender digital divide refers to the gap in access rates between men and women. However. such as the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). depriving them of economic independence and pushing them towards the household or informal economies. and other identity dimensions. If achieved. At SEE regional level. the e-SEE Agenda+ makes clear reference to gender equality. The “divide” refers to the difference in access rates among groups. some could argue that the position of women in most SEE countries is no worse than in Western Europe. as well as the EU legislation and EU good practices in this field. researchers tend to compare rates of access to these technologies across individuals or schools based on race. Under this conceptualization. Women’s representation in political institutions in the EU averages 18%. Directions of the International Telecommunication Union ITU (TFGI-4/5E). sex. and at national level of relevance are laws on gender equality and associated action plans as well as gender relates aspects of strategies. The EU’s Lisbon targets for Europe’s competitiveness in the world economy require that the overall employment rate be increased to 70% by 2010.Such social conditions have paradoxically not only removed women from the leading positions but also from employment in general.

access to ICTs means additional access to knowledge and information. as well as enabling women’s networking and online support groups. 3 March 2009 68 . For individuals. equitable access of men and women to ICTs offers an opportunity to close the existing gender digital divide that exist in society. EU approximation. and is closely related to other European policies. therefore. regional development. quality of life. at all levels. social participation and cohesion. The Declaration of the UN World Summit on the Information Society stresses that: “Governments and other actors should provide necessary preconditions which will enable equal access to information and knowledge for women. jobs and career opportunities. 25 http://www. Given that gender equality is widely acknowledged as a key factor in development. The United Nation’s Millennium Declaration emphasised an important role of ICTs in human development.undp. This is due to the vast potential of ICTs in transforming the lives of individuals and societies at large. It focuses on participation of all individuals and communities in all aspects of the Information Society.org/women/docs/Gender-Equality-Strategy-2008-2011. namely on social inclusion. In gender equality context. as well as an increased social inclusion. access to new markets and increased competitiveness in the global economy. and ensure equal role in the process of creation and making of decisions in all aspects concerning the establishment of the frame and creation of contents of information technology policies”. employment opportunities. and increasing its efforts in gender mainstreaming of all its policies.UNDP globally is ardently working on the implementation of a Gender Equality Strategy (20082011)25 . and improve economic performance. aims at reducing gaps in ICT usage and promoting the use of ICT to overcome exclusion. e-Inclusion means both inclusive ICT and the use of ICT to achieve wider inclusion objectives. by empowering women through improved access to education. For the society in SEE. Brussels. The EC former Telecommunications Commissioner Viviane Reding states ˝that gender equality in ICT is a ‘win-win’ situation for both the ICT industry and society˝ 26. e-Inclusion is one of the pillars of the i2010 initiative on the Information Society. projects and initiatives. this gap offers an opportunity to put in place some constructive actions. the development of Information Society means acceleration of economic development. employment opportunities. increase of income and improvement of quality of life. and recognises it as an important tool for achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. therefore.pdf 26 Speech delivered at the Cyberellas are IT! Conference. e-Inclusion policy. education and culture.

It is also worth pointing out that even with a large number. etc.3 Gender Equality and ICTs in the SEE Countries In the light of the EU aspirations of e-SEE Initiative member countries. age. states that: ˝All activities will be designed and implemented to ensure that they are gender responsive and support active and meaningful participation of women in the Information Society to avoid the gender digital divide. its Priority area C. the number of women in the Ministries and other public sector institutions may be equal or even higher to that of man. In the first instance this is because there is sometimes a gap between the reality on the ground of gender equality issues and the perception of the extent of problems e. 2007. there is only one woman Minister in charge of ICT among all e-SEE Initiative member states 27. which has its roots in the traditionally low pay associated with public sector employment along with relative job security and benefits such as extended maternity leave that allow women to assume the traditional roles of primary care-takers in their family. At the same time. few are appointed to top management level of such institutions.) of Serbia. entitled Inclusive Information Society.). To illustrate this. the literacy rate of women in South-East Europe is equivalent to that of men. such as the Council Directive 2004/113/EC that seeks equal opportunities in access. In many countries. culture. while the e-SEE Secretariat is headed by a woman since 2004. gender equality issues remain low on the agenda of the ICT stakeholders. access to technology and equal opportunities should be provided in equal manner for different socio-demographic groups (disability. of women in Ministries. Moreover. and balanced representation of both sexes in managerial and leading positions in the ICT sphere. The e-SEE Agenda+ makes reference to the CEDAW Convention and Beijing Platform. many respondents did not acknowledge gender equality related issues in their countries. e-SEE Initiative was chaired by Marijana Vidas Bubanja (Phd. The Initiative was since its inception of regional ownership phase always chaired by women 28.5. the number of women in a Ministry does not necessarily reflect countrywide statistics.E. 4) 27 H. Sc. training and use of ICT. women have free access to the public sphere. Minister of Telecommunications and Information Society. corresponding EU Directives and legislation in this area. During interviews.˝ (e-SEE Agenda+. Ms. may be further explored. Sc. Indeed. partake in politics and run businesses. even a majority. On the positive side.) of Croatia. while the current e-SEE Chair is Diana Šimić (Phd. Jasna Matić.g. Serbia 28 From 2002 to 2007. 69 . p. At least 50% of all government officials of e-SEE Initiative at all times were women.

which will “address the issues of stimulation measures for making ICT easier to use for a wider range of people. Technology may be seen as “male”. Also. not just the assembly-line positions they have dominated in the past and businesses to hire them 29. Women’s participation in the labour market is influenced by 29 Gender Perspective of ICT: South Eastern European Strategies and Policies. as in many parts of the world. Training materials. and rarely have access to senior management positions30. they tend to face more difficulty in finding work. Therefore. Marković.Finally. restricted to senior staff. creating both a lack of training opportunities and of exposure to technology.”. especially in rural environments and having in mind the gender component. points to the fact that women are by far less represented at the tertiary level ICT studies. all countries agreed to adopt the national Action Plans for e-Accessibility for the period 20072010. Upon graduation women engineers in South Eastern Europe are awarded a lower status than male engineers. Enabling working policies can encourage the establishment of teleworking that has provided jobs for many women. Most female small businesses are trade-based. Nera Nazečić (2008) Master Thesis. training opportunities should be widely extended to women as well as men with specific encouragement to young girls from teachers and role-models. Training opportunities need to be available not only for technology professionals but for non-professionals to use ICTs.” A number of ICT related areas can be identified in which gender equality issues arise. Having a computer in an office is often perceived. Encouragement and even incentives need to be given to encouraging women to enter all segments of the ICT labour force. where a computer would be a very costly investment. even though their grades are on average higher than those of men. particularly in small towns and rural areas. “high status”. Vera (2002) Elektronski fakultet u Nišu 70 . Bosnia and Herzegovina 30 “Žene i studije elektrotehnike. locations and marketing often reflect this discrimination. “scientific/ mathematical” or “expensive”. as a mark of status. and decrease of the digital divides. The little research available on the topic of gender and ICTs in South Eastern Europe. most of whom are still men. often end up in lower paid jobs. University of Sarajevo. there are still deep-seated traditional biases against women and technology particularly in rural areas. times. Such attitudes can inhibit rural women from learning new skills or even accessing technology. improvement of digital literacy. Many occupations traditionally held by women do not offer them access to computers. assuming that women are not interested in learning about technology beyond basic computer usage.

and seek new economic opportunities. find information on market prices. A constraint in women’s use of ICTs is accessing the information. manage small businesses. a language mastered mainly by younger generations. Women also often have less free time. government benefits. For example. communications technology. the exclusion of women from this would increase the gender imbalance. and schooling. especially without their children with them. it can give them access to critical information. video on demand. the Macedonia e-BIZ project31 made gender equality a priority by asking all of its e-BIZ ICT centres to explicitly target ways to help female entrepreneurs access information to expand their businesses. women access the Internet and computer technology through gatekeepers . 31 Funded by USAID (2003-2006) 71 .often male family members who use the technology to communicate. Although literacy or access to higher education is not an issue in SEE. As the overall global economy is more and more reliant on ICTs in everyday life. As more and more cell phones offer MP3 and MP4 (audio and video) playback capability. Even telephone access is sometimes restricted through a male family member or community member. Women in business use e-services to organise remittances. particularly in traditional and rural areas. training rates increase. Internet public access points such as telecentres and cybercafés are sometimes not seen as appropriate places for women and girls. or video compact discs (VCDs). Women use information on reproductive and child/ family health. Within some households. Action are thus required to ensure that industry associations are aware of gender-friendly work practices and of companies that have performed well with high levels of women workers. when women do gain access to technology within their traditional physical spheres. send money. ICTs can expand the use of traditional. a high percentage of Internet content is still mainly in English. low literacy. such as radio and TV – still prime communications channels for broad audiences – by offering content reuse or on-demand content via podcasts. sell products. Using ICTs for distance learning and ongoing training can address the issue of women being less available for travel or evening/weekend meetings due to household responsibilities or safety concerns. users can replay programs at will. Experience from other countries points to the fact that when training programs explicitly target women. and research information at the direction of women. However.corporate hiring policies of ICT companies. and lower levels of disposable income to use on “extras” such as visiting a cybercafé.

and testing of ICTs that will serve women. Most e-SEE countries still lack these statistics and therefore cannot orient their choices properly. However. disaggregated data by sex on internet. in return for granting licenses. Except in a few SEE countries prices remain high. economic. Regulatory bodies establish a set of rules for market behaviour: “who can provide what service and under what conditions. as well as high prices for service. affordability of service is a key issue to women. development. Regulators can provide funds for research. At all steps.” Regulation also sets the framework for achieving desirable outcomes established by national policy. redesigning network architecture or deploying networks. By opening the telecoms and ICT sector to competition it is expected that it will bring in needed investment and force down end-user prices to make access more affordable. An independent regulator can compel profit-driven private sector players to meet social and gender equality policy objectives for example. If technology choices are limited this can restrict new entrants from the market and limit the introduction of technologies such as WiFi Internet that might bring down costs. In technology choices. Gender sensitive assessments about who will use the technology and for what purpose need to be undertaken to determine appropriate technology choices. regulators can compel service providers to offer service to underserved areas to ensure that service to poor women in rural areas is available. When modernizing. One of the EU’s fer-de-lance is the telecommunication sector’s liberalisation. and/or cultural constraints may restrict women from accessing them. particularly in the context of low e-skills levels. monopoly system operators understandably dispute this fact and experience has shown that this has not always happened. computer usage and e-service usage is necessary to orient these choices. Regulatory frameworks can reduce licensing fees. spectrum prices. or prioritising affordable wireless alternatives can ensure low-cost access. solutions chosen will provide infrastructure that is affordable to most women such as focusing on universal access (including outside major cities) rather than high-capacity specialized access. 72 . Moreover. notably to women. High customs duties on mobile telephones and computer equipment.From the start of ICT investments. and interconnection charges that can make ICTs more accessible to women. It is important to promote and support user-friendly technology. are deterrents to women users. gender aspects should be included in the choice of the infrastructure and technology. women need to be included in the training as new technologies are implemented and the location of infrastructure chosen so as to facilitate access for women since social.

• • • 73 . Through partnerships with private ICT companies and the public sector.org). the Department for Gender Equality of the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights collaborated with an NGO. to produce a report in 2008 with the title of FEMINICT analysing the current digital divide in Montenegro and the role of women in the ICT. Particularly important is to have licensing procedures which are transparent so that women applicants can have ready access to the information. this NGO has created a web platform for information about equal opportunities. these costs are passed on to users. and mobile service licenses are high. Although the study identifies some improvements made in terms of the role of the women and steps taken to overcome cultural divide and the barriers. the NGO Equal Opportunities has developed an online course to educate all actors of civil society and public authorities about gender issues. In Montenegro. it notes the need for further improvements to increase women participation in ICTs. Metamorphosis in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and ZaMirNet in Croatia advocate for increased inclusiveness of ICTs. the later organising workshops with Roma women for working with the media. OneWorld has been successful in harnessing ICTs for gender equality and the empowerment of women. limiting affordability to women and the poor. and participating in a series of projects and publications such as Global Information Society Watch. the Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses. Through development of online portal with content in four SEE languages.If fees for telecommunications. This research suggests that non-governmental organisations often take the lead on the issue of ICT and gender. Gender Evaluation Methodology and Digital Story Telling. through various practical examples. an APC member operating from Bosnia and Herzegovina. • OneWorld Platform for South Eastern Europe (www.oneworldsee. precisely because they are close to the reality of many women on the ground. is a good example of how ICT and gender equality issues can be effectively addressed by the civil society. Internet service providers (ISPs). High fees increase the cost of telephone and ICT services. In Serbia. phone-fax-Internet shops) or women-owned businesses relying on technology. discouraging women-owned communications businesses (including telecentres.

more expeditious solutions to gender inequalities and women’s rights violations.i 74 .” 32 32 Report ˝Bridging the gender digital divide˝ (2004) UNIFEM / UNDP p.Although globally the gender equality in ICT advocacy movement has grown. Research shows that: ”if properly harnessed ICTs stand to meaningfully contribute to and mutually reinforce the advancement of effective. Where gender and ICT networks exist. including problems such as gender-based violence or the unequal participation of women in political as well as in economic spheres. in SEE it is still fragmented or undeveloped. they are confined to the fringes of the women’s organisations that prioritise other burning issues.


76 .

in this sense. 77 . The level of trust among those involved. a certain privileged position in relation to the Information Society at regional level that enables it to promote actions that others cannot. as well the key positions held by national counterparts to the e-SEE Secretariat. and of the central place that the Information Society holds in relation to orienting towards the European Union. and the issue of gender equality was also a new focus in many areas. policies and projects: i. thoroughly grounded in the realities they face. Below. unearthing the opportunities and prioritizing the needs relating to them.6. THE PATH AHEAD: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The e-SEE Initiative has a unique advantage when it comes to producing research based on the actual realities of those developing and implementing Information Society strategies. has facilitated a degree of insight and reflection that would normally be unavailable to researchers. as the facilitator of the process and the host of the e-SEE Secretariat enjoys. a position that can be taken advantage of in terms of future support for good practice exchange and joint capacity building actions.e. providing suggestions to tackle the challenges faced. and of the needs that arise in relation to successfully developing e-governance projects and promoting the information society. Thus a deeply informed overall impression was gained during the research of the types of challenges faced by policy makers and in programme implementation. and generally further deepening the relationships of all those involved in the Information Society in the region. sometimes where they were somewhat excluded. has contributed. of the structures at national and regional level. which involved discussions with numerous institutional stakeholders in each country. to raising awareness of the Information Society agenda. conclusions and recommendations are presented acknowledging the successes. The research process itself. and have been working together in the e-SEE initiative over many years. A particular effort was made by the team to bring civil society actors into play. UNDP in Bosnia and Herzegovina. if only in a small way. the unique set of contacts and networks that are involved at every level and aspect.

A second area coming to the fore early on is some e-business services relating to government bureaucracies.in terms of higher quality service. eliminating duplication in interactions with different Ministries. reducing red-tape in the processes of business. Additional taxation income is often generated through a reduction in black market activity and smuggling. and reducing the scope for corruption. Early targets for e-Services have also tended to be those associated with revenue collection and income generation for government. time and cost savings and greater 78 . government and e-parliament activities.6. Some e-Services focused on citizens are already delivering benefits to the public . Interoperability. and most are advancing steadily in terms of their infrastructure and access. with a few making notable gains. particularly in the direction of greater government transparency. is a key requirement in terms of confirming with EU requirements and enabling seamless cross border and trade. This report is concerned primarily with the area of e-governance. customs and excise and submitting tax declarations. the development of interoperable databases and services within government itself facilitates their further elaboration as e-services. For instance. there has been commendable progress towards the information society.1 Successes in progressing the Information Society Overall. especially around quick and easy ways of registering businesses. In some respects such enhancement of government efficiency is a prerequisite to offering services to business and to citizens. Here the benefits have been undeniable with a number of very clear and quantifiable positive outcomes in financial calculations or in accessibility. and they also have the advantage of constraining opportunities for corrupt payments. Examples include e-taxation systems for VAT collection. too. Document Management Systems and management tools in ministries. but not to be underestimated also is the long-term value of aligning these areas with the EU i2010 agenda. Very evident is the growth in services provided to government and ministries.at least to those who can access them . and reducing bureaucracy and duplication. The key legal and institutional underpinnings are in place in almost all countries. such as those noted above in broadband networks for government institutions. and here too all countries of South East Europe have seen positive developments in the last few years. the barcode labelling system.

been somewhat lower on the list of priorities and in terms of action. in the form of cost savings. as well as instant access to government documentations and parliamentary procedures. thereby justifying early implementation. drivers licenses civil registration. Governments also sometimes benefit directly from these.2 Prioritising e-Governance However. Donor priorities can also play a part in government e-agendas. birth and other certificates. partly because these services can be offered in locally identified areas (schools.government transparency. There is some validity to these arguments. Several factors may lie behind the fact that services available to the general public and to civil society organisations have not been high on the agenda. as well reaping the indirect reward of being held in higher regard by the public. universities). generate more investment for launching other e-services in the future. and partly because quite rightly. are not as widespread as they might be. in general. An exception to this has often been e-Education and. once they begin to take effect. It can also be argued that public administrations and businesses are generally more likely to have better access to the internet. But e-services. e-government services to citizens have. 79 . despite the priority accorded to these under i2010 and its successors and indeed the wider pressure of market developments. It can be argued that revenue generating e-Services will. Examples include issues official documents such as passports and identity cards. 6. for instance through encouraging a bias towards the business sector. most societies recognise the critical value of education to future development. and that e-services for citizens should be developed only as wider public access to broadband internet rises. And e-services that enhance participation in public debate and policy making are barely present at all. which will in time allow for further investment in e-Services for citizens. whether interactive online or (as noted above. university and academic networks have been strongly encouraged. often more important) available in ‘one-stop-shops’. Furthermore prioritising e-Business services should in the long term translate into economic growth. in some areas. greater efficiency.

and are central to building trust with the government.gov. such as human intermediaries who have to be equipped with state-of-the-art ICT tools. for many e-government services public take-up can be rapidly boosted at low cost through ‘one-stop-shops’. and those that improve the quality of life for citizens. And government to citizen e-services are at the centre of establishing the legitimacy of the entire information society project. must be taken into account. “The use of ICT tools as part of transparency and democratic engagement policies have been successful in many national. Indeed. EFTA and candidate EU countries:33 “To ensure that all citizens can benefit from ICT-enabled administrations.megovconf-lisbon. But similarly. The suggestion here is that e-services that. shall contribute to gaining valuable experience. Furthermore the EU.pdf and http://www. given the renewed emphases on developing these services.egov2009.pt/images/stories/ministerial_declaration_final_version_180907. from the original Lisbon Agenda’s eEurope Action Plan 2005 and on to its successor i2010 Programme and the Current EU Digital Agenda. in an equitable manner. including the number of likely early take-up users. there must be a trade-off struck between prioritising e-services that enhance government efficiency. They are also critical to delivering visible benefits to the final users.” (Underlining in original) In the end.pdf 80 . including the good governance aspects of this. and has been joined by applicant country on several occasions in emphasising an inclusive e-government as well as the benefits in terms of transparency and democratic engagement. has consistently emphasised the vital role that such services play. those that improve the business environment. The 1997 Ministerial Declaration strongly urged the signatory countries of the EU. Sharing these experiences and those of participation actions initiated by the European Parliament and launched by the Commission in 2006. Certainly arguments concerning the return on investment.se/wp-content/uploads/Ministerial-Declaration-on-eGovernment. from the perspective of EU accession perhaps the opposite should be the case.Yet they should not lead to downgrading the priority of e-services to citizens. improve 33 For two such joint declarations see: http://www. inclusive e-Government policies shall address how best to combine online services together with other channels. regional and local initiatives.

according to many. An Information Society strategy would have to give careful consideration of the different types of benefits accruing with each type of e-service. and how many teachers are trained. because of their potential to enhance the legitimacy of the broader information society effort. derived mainly from the factors outlined earlier that help or hinder the process. how many are connected to the internet. and most are slow to extend beyond their use in an ICT curriculum. and the various complementarities that might operate between different type of e-services. First. and because ultimately improvements in the overall quality of life. cultural and economic – for citizens merit a higher priority than they currently enjoy. While these are important prerequisites of e-education. utilising their potential to improve the quality of teaching and the extent of interactivity. At present. greater appreciation of good government. the positive effect on social cohesion. strategies tend to be weak on such analysis. many e-services are approached as primarily technical matters – ICTs as solutions in themselves – rather than as social interventions that are providing services to be used by people in complex institutional and domestic environments. can be verified only through a more comprehensive process of Information Society strategy development than has been evident in most countries up to now. success is claimed when the technical facility is available to do this. such as online income tax payment services. Few have made progress in terms of integrating ICTs into the wider educational system. This can be seen in some e-education programmes. where progress is assessed by the number of PCs in schools. is becoming a key factor in attracting inward investment and encouraging locally enterprise. 6. the time-scales involved in each. as well also the costs.the quality of life – social. Whether significant rebalancing towards e-services for citizens is justified.3 Tackling Implementation Issues A number of concerns have arisen in relation to the implementation of these e-services programmes and projects. and strong on aspirations comprising lengthy lists of relatively disconnected services. However. however. this is only 81 . Similarly in certain e-business services. for instance. ultimately more important is the use to which the ICTs and skills are put. 1.

3.one stage. The emphasis must thus shift from the technologies to the content. but their departure afterwards leaving a major capacity gap. In fact. but the prioritisation can be based on ad hoc or local circumstances. A further related issue arises around monitoring and evaluation of benefits. Most often. for instance on where progress can be obtained or measured most readily or on the particular orientations of related national strategies. There have also been cases where the presence of consultants has been very prominent among the implementing team. This is exacerbated where the initial organisation or institution primarily responsible for implementing the project is not the same as that which will run it later (where instance where an Information Society Agency initially implements and a Ministry later takes it over). 4. how many users there are. A ‘project’ mentality tends to prevail. 2.) few projects plan for longer term monitoring of the benefits and for impact on the target group. usually donor funded. Although the level of implementation of a project is usually monitored in quantitative terms (how many computers have been installed. etc. 5. usage and impact. designing projects based on inapplicable experience that proves impossible for the local team to implement. Sometimes linked to this is only cursory consideration of a follow-up strategy. The absence of a follow up strategy can also in part be the result of the politicization of the idea of the Information Society. a suite of services is included in a broad Information Society Strategy. one among several prerequisites. establishing and launching a service is best regarded as only the beginning of the process. A problem is that the electoral gain for politicians 82 . This tendency to treat ICTs as solutions in themselves is possibly related to the general absence of prior consultation and research into which services are needed most and how they can address the real concerns of target groups. in which monitoring of impact and constant improvement is central. including questions of maintenance and sustainability. implicitly or explicitly maintaining that the job is completed once the project plan has been successfully implemented. for success which ultimately must be judged by the level of use and the benefits derived. Conversely there are cases where external consultants are brought in with little local knowledge.

such factors can influence the extent of commitment to follow through. Finally. There is no discussion at all of how it can be used to bring broadcasting into the Information Society. 6. It is not the technology that holds mysteries here. and how even those sectors who may lose in the short term may gain in the medium term. A general absence of informed public discussion and understanding of the Information Society agenda and its implications is also evident. or to greater control and monitoring being exerted over their working lives. At a general level. Critical to public debate is an understanding of the dynamics of losses and gains. other jobs can be created as new sectors expand. Furthermore actions must be taken to clear blockages for the creation new jobs. Opportunities to open up new markets in countries where the local market is limited or not the target of the product. beyond vague promises of high definition television. 8. negatively or positively. rather it is how the process will impact on the broadcast media landscape in general. with one of its core priorities focused on creating single information space aligned with EU 83 . 7. many people are understandably concerned that the introduction of ICTs will lead to a loss of jobs. organic mushrooms. The implications of certain specific aspects of the Information Society are also barely discussed and little understood. A case in point here is the introduction of digital terrestrial television. high-end hand-made products. But in the medium term. It is too big an issue to be constrained to any national development agenda. lead to the elimination of specific jobs. there is a strong recommendation for further sharing of experience among the countries of South East Europe and between them and the rest of the EU or even wider. Information Society development is not meant to be developed in isolation.from many e-government projects is reaped at the time of the initial announcement (often during election periods) and at the launch. Central also is the idea of life-long learning and the development of new capacities among staff to take advantage of openings. And indeed it might. and delicatessen products sell better in the US or in Western Europe than in the local markets. for instance through legislation to support e-Commerce and the further extension of broadband access – public support for these may facilitate their more rapid implementation. Fewer electoral benefits are attached to announcing that a programme launched several years earlier is actually benefiting people – especially if the government has changed during the intervening period. e-SEE Agenda+. in the short term. For example. Despite the best of intentions.

there is room for improvement everywhere. a number of substantive thematic areas have also emerged in relation to which the development of the Information Society can be reinforced. Such sharing is central to the new Digital Agenda for Europe. Certainly a few of countries lead the way in specific areas. to achieve the Information Society. but also as opportunities. 6. The European Council in formulating the new agenda has invited Member States to: “Contribute to reducing disparities in information society developments across the EU. particularly at the level of strategic planning. Council Conclusions on “Post i-2010 Strategy -towards an open. and manifold benefits have accrued from this 35.4 Exposing opportunities While the above relate especially to the process of building an Information Society. Nevertheless. It is based on the premise that each country should not reinvent for itself the map towards. 84 . and these are often sought out and are more than willing to share their ideas and technologies. in particular by assisting each other buy exchanging good practice (p7)” 34 The same applies between the countries of South East Europe. but there is also huge variation among them. and are likely to be found to varying degrees in most if not all countries of Europe. telecommunication and energy Council meeting Brussels.space. Some key questions arising from these themes are: 34 Paragraph (g) Council of the European Union. Some are more accentuated in the countries of South East Europe than elsewhere. towards a deeper and more comprehensive approach to building the Information Society. The e-SEE Initiative represents the only intergovernmental platform and Community of Practice in which such sharing can take place. and tools to use. and even more could be achieved within the region should greater resources be invested in this cooperation and interaction. 18 December 2009 35 The e-SEE Initiative Secretariat is currently preparing the next issue of the publication covering good practice in the SEE region. These can be seen as representing barriers. The above features are not peculiar to South East Europe. is an important step in this direction. green and competitive knowledge society” 2987th transport. the follow-on to the i2010 Agenda.

2.• • • • • How can government and senior public servants be informed and persuaded of the benefits of using ICTs in government and public processes? Can ICTs best be used as tools to improve governance. both for themselves and for society more widely. A significant barrier to effective implementation of e-government projects. innovative ways are needed to bring home the benefits of ICTs to senior level politicians and public servants. e-Governance. as distinct from e-government. This includes enhancing transparency of decision making. Partly this may be because they are of an older generation. the wider goal of e-governance can add a vital further dimension. partly it may be natural resistance to change. is resistance among government. and to enhance participation in governance processes by the public? What kinds of consultation with target groups would ensure that e-services address real needs. There are currently few spaces. linked to lack of awareness of the benefits more widely. begins with the notion that ICTs can enhance governance as a whole. While ICTs can be a powerful tool to make public services more efficient and productive. politicians and senior staff to actually embracing and using the systems. perhaps most of all it is that they do not clearly see the benefits to them and to their efforts on behalf of the public. but also creating opportunities for people to understand and explore policies and policy making. and to actively participate in them at different levels. in which the general public. NGOs and interested people and entities (including those in the public sector) can engage in structured and informed 85 . real or virtual. This has led to resistance to supporting e-Service development and in cases where they are designed and built. and the manner in which people structure and participate in the structures and processes of society. An appropriate starting point in the current circumstances could be on public participation and civil society platforms regarding Information Society policies. sometimes to their underutilisation. Thus. with appropriate prioritisation? How can we ensure that gender equality issues are planned into ICT strategies and Action Plans? How can relatively small countries innovate in specialist areas such as universal service policies and digital terrestrial television? 1. behind several of the process related issues above.

thorough research is required on access and usage of ICTs on a gender equality basis. What is required is a comprehensive examination of Information Society strategies and action plans. from the gender equality perspective. For instance the limited research regarding women in ICT industry and generally in jobs using ICTs 36 all points to inadequate representation. and the processes in place and envisaged for their implementation. Best practice elsewhere may be particularly useful here. 3. Various approaches to enabling direct participation of citizens and civil society organisations can be deployed. 4. 86 . if ever. Yet ICTs are themselves ideal tools. to assess need but also to enhance service delivery. Identifying and amending discriminatory laws and practices can be crucial to a clear picture of how apparently neutral policies and mechanisms can in practice perpetuate gender inequality. Effective e-services for people must be focused on their real needs. Gender equality issues are seldom. for planning gender equality actions in from the earliest point in the planning of the society. to ensure that both sexes can fully take advantage of the benefits of ICTs and participate in the various components and activities that comprise the Information Society. and when designing and implementing them. a process that as noted above could considerably benefits the overall Information Society endeavour. Often they are considered only after the infrastructure issues have been addressed and services launched. based on experience elsewhere. Research efforts can target specific areas: • • The availability of sex-disaggregated ICT related data can be a source of insights into where issues arise. Such an approach might also lead to a rebalancing of Information Society strategies towards services aimed specifically at the needs of citizens. and the relative distribution of benefits. combined with more traditional approaches. and indeed different classes and ethnic groups within societies. for creating such a space and enabling such a debate. People’s own priorities for such services should be taken into account when identifying which services to develop.debate about the different aspects of ICTs and the Information Society. 36 UNDP RBEC report Bridging Gender Digital Divide in Central and Eastern Europe. Initially. high on the Information Society agenda. Yet there is a strong case.

A gender analysis of ICT infrastructure. can take into consideration gender equality issues. It is an opportunity to develop a more diverse media landscape. from primary schooling through secondary. A major area is also relates to the gender equality orientation of ICT education at all levels. the key means of communication for mediating the shared social experience of being from a particular country and is central to building understanding among different groups in society. The switch over to digital terrestrial broadcasting brings broadcasting into central stage of the Information Society. Little is known about the effects of this on the structure of the broadcast media sector itself. or even ethnically.html#Budgets 87 .• • • Gender-sensitive budget analysis. boys and girls” 37 could be revealing if applied to ICTs. thereby freeing up valuable frequency for other services. including public access in telecentres and ‘one-stop-shops’ for e-Services. partly because it is associated with older technologies.uk/reports_gend_CEP. which attempts to analyse budgets “from the perspective of their impact on women and men.undp.bridge. as well as to align policies and practices with EU Directives and frameworks. and is likely to continue to be for some time. could reveal hidden barriers to certain categories of both men and women. Yet broadcasting (even more than newspapers) remains. a process that will not only redefine broadcasting but also generate the ‘digital dividend that can free up the radio frequency resources for developments of others communications services. and “ensures accountability. in terms of political participation. In particular. in third level and continuing education 5.org/women/mainstream/docs/GenderSensitiveBudgeting. and their design. whether defined socio-economically. Broadcasting of television and radio is often somewhat neglected in the development of the Information Society. the implications of the higher costs of broadcasting digitally and who 37 http://www. SEE countries are planning to introduce digital broadcasting of television.pdf 38 http://www. by 2012 or 2015.ac.ids. transparency and sustainability as well as brings women into budgetary debates by building alliances with a variety of civil society organizations” 38. The selection of public e-Services.. including the possibility of services specifically deigned to promote gender equality and eliminate discrimination in other areas.

and changed ‘footprint’ in terms of who will be able to receive what number of channels. from being a responsibility of a single main carrier to creating a universal access fund and using it to extend access by competitive means. though there is convergence on the EU approach emphasising competition at all levels. Will small television channels. and not simply to the better off in central areas. commercial. and with a few exceptions. The SEE countries vary considerably in their telecommunications regimes.” (paragraph 6(e)) There are also innovative opportunities to use universal service to empower communities and people. 88 . Projects initiated under the Universal Service Fund could be oriented towards Gender equality in order to alleviate gender digital divide. Universal service policy increasingly encompasses access to the internet. Policy and actions to ensure universal service in the form of access to services for all the population and especially marginalised groups have thus also been varied. the issue of universal access to ICTs is in the same position of largely being ignored at the level of the public. 6. they tend to be contained within groups of specialised rather than opened out to the widest possible discussion. and indeed to broadband. At present. survive the switch over? Will there be more concentration of media ownership in SEE? What is the likely effect on content? How will competition with cable and satellite play out for local content production? On the other side of the equation. there is little evidence of innovative universal access policies being developed and implemented in the SEE countries. are difficult to assess. how will the ‘digital dividend’ of frequency be used and who will benefit? Such questions are rarely raised in the public domain. Yet widespread access to the internet is essential if e-Services are to be available to all. municipality or community.will bear it. and when they are. in particular on the question whether highspeed broadband access should be part of these objectives. To some extent. for instance by extending it to include training and capacity building and the creation of small locally owned operators. The above cited Council proposal for the Digital Agenda for Europe invites the Commission to: “Report to the Council on its public consultation on Universal Service obligations.

The history of peoples and cultures is interwoven over the ages. the issue of a scarcity of funds for investing in Information Society projects is featured during our research. including its regional dimensions. ownership. It is perhaps understandable that digitalisation of culture heritage tends to be relegated to a second or third level priority in Information Society plans. can have a greater impact. Digitisation of cultural heritage is far beyond digital cameras recording different types of heritage. The SEE region boasts a very rich and varied heritage. in terms of the length of time it takes for society – including education systems and administrations . Undoubtedly. digital cultural heritage brings together all existing of knowledge about cultural heritage artefacts – historical. and the needs that arise in that regard. in part because is applies across so many areas. legal. This should come as no surprise in that the Information Society is still a relatively new concept. 89 . Nevertheless when the broader implications across various sectors are considered. and little debate. especially when finances are tight. and perhaps the benefits outlined in this publication can make the case in that respect.to fully adjust to new waves of development. the needs identified during this research project can be summarised as follows: 1. With a special focus around the general area of e-services for citizens.into a single searchable multi media database. research . larger or smaller. to preserving and enriching it. The digitisation of cultural heritage is another area regarding which there is only limited understanding. 6. Our focus is on how investment. a case can be made for giving raising its policy profile. for local populations but also for tourism. Allocating between different priorities is a matter for government to decide. and taking into consideration what areas can in practice be addressed.5 Prioritising the needs Not surprisingly in the current economic climate. Rather. yet no single nation can consider its heritage in isolation. physical.7. and some specific. Some areas are general. a growing conomic sector. As such it is vital to understanding that heritage. and to gaining wider appreciation of it. limited human capacity comes out as the most important need. records.

can benefits from innovative approaches. inclusion of persons with disabilities. However. It would also help to make the case for the Information Society. projects. There is a need to develop modalities and mechanisms for greater participation of the public and NGOs. In addition. the existing gender divides. ensuring gender equality related activities are linked to concrete project outputs.At the simplest level. 3. a couple of which are singled out as currently relevant: the development and implement of universal service policies and of digital terrestrial television. gender equality is introduced from the moment of design and planning phase of ICT programmes. the poor and otherwise marginalised groups should be taken into consideration. and that they have their budget lines allocated to ensure their implementation. A better informed and involved public and civil society would inevitably improve the quality of policy and strategies for the Information Society. not just in policy (including in the risks and potential benefits) but in prioritising e-service development and in implementing programme and projects. 2. Both have the potential to significantly influence e-services to the public. in terms of the actual benefits they deliver. Gender equality issues are seldom taken into consideration at policy. policies. and action plans. and public sector programmes must compete with a private sector capable of offering higher monetary rewards. the Information Society will inevitably reflect. Ideally. The need for better monitoring and evaluation of projects and programmes. is an area of need in many countries. More manageable are capacity and expertise needs in very specific areas. Beyond this. expertise in ICT is relatively scarce. 4. planning and implementation levels. is evident in many areas and would bring significant benefits through more effective actions in the long term. including in gender equality and inclusion related issues. especially among smaller and less well off ones. capacity in information society strategy and policy design. if this not be the case it is important to proceed with the gender mainstreaming of current projects and initiatives. and can possibly learn from experience elsewhere. strategies. If they are ignored too long. or even deepen. and effective programme implementation. 90 .

to support the business environment. A recent Ministerial Declaration on e-Government 39 signed by EU. Among the priorities up to 2015 declared by Ministers for their respective public administration are: • • Services should become more user-centred and inclusive. is an efficient way to avoid making mistakes of others and of building on previous successes. and for such services to be empowering of people. and in some cases developing into collaborative actions.5. and with outside best practice. This would require a more explicit and comprehensive analysis of the prioritisation of the various e-Services. a case can also be made for the need to raise the priority of e-governance services for citizens. EFTA and EU candidate countries commits their countries to making progress in specific areas that would lead to governments being more “open.egov2009. 6.6 Recommendations Clearly. structured developmental processes and adequate infrastructural resources. 6. such as civil society organisations and individuals citizens should be invited to take part in the development of government services.pdf 91 .and this will further be explored by e-Leadership Programme for the Western Balkans. Yet a case could also be made to develop a more flexible and durable online platform for deepening this communication. for enhanced government processes. Advancing the digital agenda therefore means balancing these complex relationships. the stakeholder’s commitment. flexible and collaborative in their delivery of public services”. to ensure that they address real needs (para 10) 39 http://www. and to bring benefits directly to citizens. the issue of e governance is much more than a technological initiative but is made of a complex set of relationships between the policy agenda. and excellent formal and informal communication and cooperation members states in the context of the e-SEE Initiative already exists. Overall. bringing down barriers experienced by digitally or socially excluded groups (para 9) Third parties. More sharing experiences between countries.se/wp-content/uploads/Ministerial-Declaration-on-eGovernment. There is a strong desire to share among countries in the region.

Capacity Development 1. The issue of e-Leadership has been identified as especially important. and implement joint projects in the area of e-Governance between SEE countries. the first ten below. using ICTs as tools for civil society and citizens to engage with policy development processes. identify skills needed. and facilitate convergence with the evolving EU approach to the Information Society. who often take the lead role in furthering the Information Society. our recommendations intend to deepen the benefits of the implementation of the Information Society for citizens. Within this context. Greater availability of public sector information. The first recommendations concern the need for improving human capacities which is central to this stage of the development of the Information Society in SEE countries. Recommendations to other stakeholders. Most. for reuse to enrich the services available. document good practices and implement collaborative programmes. An online platform could be considered as a means to share experiences. 2. This report demonstrates clearly the commendable progress that is being made. 92 .• • Ways will be found to ensure greater stakeholders participation in all public policy processes. are then offered. The limited supply of skills and experience has been identified as the main current bottleneck for the effective identification of services. Further systematic efforts should be made to exchange experiences and skills. e-Leadership becomes critical and should be the number one priority for the advancement of the Information Society in e-SEE countries. Recommendations are targeted at two groups. Recommendations for Goverments 1. the implementation of projects and programmes and subsequent support. The e-SEE Agenda+ already commits governments in South East Europe to specific targets in these areas. In this context. specifically focus on what the government and public sector should be doing.

This calls for the adoption of a multi-disciplinary.A major research project for the European Commission entitled Breaking Barriers to e-Government.org/?view=home.egovbarriers. put the following at the top of its list of guidelines to overcoming barriers: “Support e-Government champions. the report on overcoming barriers: http://www. study visits. be greatly enhanced by political support. citizens. 40 See the following for all MODINIS reports http://www.org/downloads/deliverables/1b/Guidelines_to_solutions_to_key_eGovernment_Barriers. resources packs. Political support from the top is good. This shift is also at the core of the e-SEE Initiative as the only intergovernmental regional ICT platform and Community of Practice in the SEE region. a lack of emphasis on building human capacity and inadequate public consultation limit the possible benefits of such initiatives. multi-stakeholder and community-oriented approach to Information Society development. but difficult to sustain or feed down to other tiers of government unless it is backed by highly motivated and creative officials at all other levels. The leadership drive shown by these officials can.pdf 93 .” 40 Although e-Government has been adopted by governments in SEE and worldwide as part of reform initiatives.Actions to build capacity should be taken in the above process-related areas for relevant public service and Ministry staff. findings here suggest that an over-reliance on technology. technical assistance and others. say from a Government Minister. insufficient collaboration in government.egovbarriers. businesses and civil society (Electronic Governance). and gender equality and persons with disability issues should be included as a topic. It is thus important for future success of the e-SEE Initiative and its ICT oriented reforms. in turn. For this reason it is important to look away from technology towards strengthening human capacity as a critical agent driving the process of change. at whatever level such leadership emerges. civil society and private sector actors. not to let technical or organizational issues alone drive Electronic Governance initiatives. There is a strong recommendation to Governments to address the necessary shift of focus from technology-enabled improvements in government operations (Electronic Government) to improvements in interactions between government. These might include short focused training courses. Special attention should be devoted to those in a position to offer leadership in e-governance programmes.

e-governance strategies alone are not sufficient for effective implementation of priorities. education. An online platform could be considered as a means to share experiences. especially those that deliver tangible benefits to them. etc. 2. systematic efforts should be made to exchange experiences and skills in the area of e-Governance between SEE countries. This will enhance legitimacy and support among the public for the Information Society and align national efforts with EU priorities.sibis-eu. with a focus on electronic communications. strategies should go beyond e-services per se. document good practice and implement collaborative programmes in the issues above. Much more sophisticated forms of networking and exchange can now easily be developed. and where relevant the planning and implementation of joint projects can be highly efficient in this regard. The exchange of best practice. identifying and successfully applying for EU funding and projects. sharing the costs between several countries. information society services. at relatively low cost. Indeed.org/ 94 .) strategies and priorities. and lessen the burden of bureaucracy. of detailed benchmarking data 41 . which gathered together detailed benchmarking. reaping very significant rewards for minimal investment. Strong consideration should be given to raising the priority and enhancing the profile of citizen-centric e-governance services. industry. and made them available online. contribute to transparency and efficiency of public administration. http://www. the stress is on legislative alignment with the Television 41 An early example from the European Union was the SIBIS Project. 2. and need to be integrated with the country’s long-term development strategy and aligned with sectoral (health. Exchanges with more advanced (in Information Society terms) EU countries can also be organised in a regional manner.Therefore. identify skills needed. On electronic communications. On audio-visual policy. and audio-visual services. case studies and other data from EU countries. Regulation and Management 1. countries should eliminate obstacles that prevent the effective operation of internal markets for telecommunications services and networks. Policy. the organisation of skills sharing activities. Although necessary. Governments should support in substantive ways priority actions pertinent to the implementation of Chapter 10 of the EU Acquis on Information Society and Media.

Change management capacity building for public administration staff must be included from the onset of e-service design. countries should focus on the establishment of a transparent. Moreover. Developing Information Society services goes well beyond the deployment of ICTs. associated with the switch to digital terrestrial transmission. The Asia Foundation.f.without Frontiers Directive. 42 Roadmap for e-Government in the Developing World. and on delivering the ‘Digital Dividend’ to citizens. both within individual agencies and across government…. Thomas A Few Misconceptions about eGovernment. Building on this. It requires re-engineering the government’s business processes. predictable and effective regulatory framework for public and private broadcasting.”42 Therefore careful planning and re-thinking of administrative processes need to come first. Though not at the expense of technology aspects – technologies must work before usage can take place at all – in fact other factors should be prominent in the mind of planners.pdf 95 . ICT is an instrument to enable and empower government reform. which creates the conditions for the free movement of television broadcasts within the EU. http://www. cannot be achieved simply by drafting a law or issuing an order from political leaders….paper. Pacific Council on International Policy. 3. Simply adding computers or modems will not improve government. Strong attention should be paid to priority needs that respond to citizens’ demand. Leaders should think about how to harness technology to achieve objectives for reform. more attention should be devoted to the content and usage aspects of Information Society projects and services. nor will only automating the same old procedures and practices. April 2002. in line with European standards.pacificcouncil. August 2005 page 8 http://asiafoundation. government reformers should “use e-government and ICT as elements of a larger government modernization program.org/pdf/ICT_eGov. as with all reforms.org/ pdfs/e-gov. and to content and services that will be effectively used by the public.pdf cited in Parks.” Furthermore: “… e-government. According to the Roadmap for e-Government in the Developing World.

There are distinct and wide ranging benefits to ‘genderproofing’ the development and implementation of information society policies and strategies. Social Inclusion: Participation and Marginalized Groups 1. most of the obstacles to successful implementation of e-Government have nothing to do with technology. http://www.org/gender/digitaldivide/ict_brochure.org/pdf/ICT_eGov. 2004. for ICTs: http://www. and the Gender Evaluation Methodology GEM. There exist several systematic methodologies to achieve this.org/en/index.genderit. Thomas A Few Misconceptions about eGovernment.pdf 45 See for instance: http://www. including training and support activities.shtml. 46 There are several comprehensive and readily available methodologies that can be used to quickly achieve this goal. the reasons are usually anything but the technology.unapcict. The Asia Foundation. In most cases projects fall short because of ‘human factors. such as World Bank. Such an approach is encouraged and facilitated by a range of international organisations.worldbank. content and services that will be effective for and demanded by users. At least an equal focus should be placed on assessing priority needs for services.org/ecohub/resources/browse-resources/gender 46 See for instance Association for Progressive Communications resources: http://www.genderevaluation. 43 Parks. The development and implementation of Information Society policies and strategies should be ‘gender-proofed’.As one observer put it: “Ironically. while complex. 44 UNDP 45 and communication-based NGOs.net/mygem/ 96 .pdf 44 World Bank. which could be implemented. 3.’” 43 Here again capacity building for handling change within the administrative staff needs to be included from the onset of the design of e-services. are usually a known quantity… But when you look at the fundamental causes of failure in e-Government projects. and building capacity. In fact the technical aspects of an e-Government project. August 2005 page 3 http://asiafoundation. Engendering information & communication technologies: challenges & opportunities for gender-equitable development.

Developing the e-Accessibility agenda. and virtual internet platforms that allow citizens to exchange ideas. These could include public information and publicity activities. and Article 30: “Access to TV channels” of the UN Convention refers directly to the Information Society and media. Gender sensitive e-education programme are critical to the development of an equitable Information Society in the longer term. which is dealing with the issue of fostering social inclusion through ICTs. consideration should be given to enhance and expand consultation processes with the public.Existing strategies programme and projects can also be gender mainstreamed even after launch. ICT programmes have tremendous potential for enhancing choices for persons with disabilities. focus groups. should be tackled head on. Article 21: “Right to access to Information “. surveys. 48 Yet combined with clear political leadership. debate and express preferences over priority public services. 2. UN Convention on Persons with Disabilities was signed by 145 countries. Article 9: “Right to access to ICT”. 87 have ratified it. and that other factors – such as that women and men tend to respond better to different forms of consultation – must also be planned in. consultation mechanisms can considerably enhance the prospects for service delivery and take up as well as deliver firmed support for Information Society policies. while the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has 89 signatories and 54 ratifications 48 See for instance the research reports in the MODINIS project above. Research indicates that people must believe that they can potentially have an influence in policy before such consultation is effective. this is rights issue and not discretion. According to the overall EU Agenda and UN Convention on Persons with Disabilities 47 that came into force in May 2008. in which persons with disabilities and their organisations can participate fully and on equal terms with non-disabled people. Similarly. A Universal Design principle and the use of assistive technologies should be promoted and supported throughout the whole process of building the Information Society. Mechanisms for stakeholder participation in policy development and the programme implementation should be developed and institutionalised. 47 As of 11 June 2010. 97 . Linked to the above. especially in the area of e-governance services.

Monitoring and Evaluation SEE countries are by no means unique in downgrading the assessment of impacts: “In 2005. innovations in the implementation of universal service policy. and learning lessons.” 49 However. Identifiable and measurable parameters to assess the success of e-governance projects need to be formulated in terms of intangible benefits such as increased transparency. part of the MODINIS project sponsored by the European Commission. 5. Yet only five member states have sought to measure the impact of these investments. and the digitalisation of culture.4. such as increased transparency. 49 Oxford Internet Institute. is critical for long term success and sustainability. social and institutional aspects. Workshop in October 2006: Breaking Barriers to eGovernment: Overcoming obstacles to improving European public services. the follow-through of Information Society projects. €11. ongoing maintenance and evolution of services. sense of economic and social empowerment by access to information but also in tangible improvements such as better efficiency in delivery of public services. Measurable parameters should include rationale behind choices in hardware and software. Technology and Applications Specialist areas identified as needing attention include: switchover to digital terrestrial broadcasting especially in terms of the economic.9 billion was spent by the EU25 on [e-government] services. org/?view=project_outputs 98 . Identifiable and measurable indicators to assess the success of e-governance projects should be formulated in terms of both intangible benefits. over-reliance on outsourcing or cost of service deficiencies.egovbarriers. (page 3) http://www. with 60% of this investment being made at the level of regional government. in terms of evaluating effectiveness. and tangible improvements such as more efficient delivery of public services. empowerment through access to information.

The point. businesses. benchmarking should be thought through from the onset of projects so as to measure progress or failure. Developing partnerships among private sector and public entities to develop e-Services and promote their use. Promoting the use of e-Services among SMEs. and as service suppliers in their own right. Where possible they should reinforce their efforts in: I) Use existing regional and national platforms (ICT Forum. Lobbying for the introduction of e-Services for business in areas that directly address their needs. II) III) IV) V) Recommendations forCivil Society and NGOs Civil Society and NGOs are critical to identifying needs as both intermediaries with the public. and include these elements specifically at planning stages of Information Society strategies. is to learn from mistakes. 99 . thereby contributing to a critical mass. as one of the drivers of competitiveness of SEE region. BAIT.Therefore. and “expanding economic opportunity”. Public Private Partnerships should be used to provide access to least developed and underserved areas. and build them into programmes and projects. They should: I) Engage with government and Ministries in defining needs. MASIT. public sector) have access to Broadband and Next Generation Access networks. including advocating for the right to be involved in this. Advocate for corporate social responsibility initiatives and inclusive business models applying ICT to tackle exclusion and poverty.) to develop partnerships among private sector and public entities to accelerate the deployment of high bandwidth telecommunications networks to ensure that all stakeholders (citizens. where there is insufficient commercial interest. etc. of course. Recommendations for Private Sector Associations The private sector hasplayed a critical role in catalysing support for the information society and in generating services. and supporting the process.

economic and cultural impact of the Information Society. including gender aspects. as appropriate in cooperation with civil society. generate awareness about policy problems and lobby in the public interest. service-type NGOs should seek to design and provide e-services especially among disadvantaged groups. as appropriate. greater transparency in government through the use of ICT tools. Recommendations for Academia and Research Centres Academia and Research Centres supply society with both the necessary skills and the capacity to objectively analyse social developments. and take measures to ensure they are. in an objective manner and apart from policy exigencies. Where relevant. the marginalised groups and communities and universal access. and to foster consultation between citizens and government. lobby and provide support for. private sector and government. the persons with disabilities. ICTs flood 100 . in partnership with others.II) III) IV) V) VI) Undertake research. Undertake research on the overall social. public affairs and debate is actually decreasing thus putting under the question mark the real media pluralism in SEE region. by which government and social representatives seek to understand people’s needs and in which citizens seek to contribute actively with their knowledge. between citizens and political parties and between groups of citizens. Use modern technologies to foster reconciliation and regional dialogue in South Eastern Europe. mobilise community networks. In parallel. Strengthen developing countries’ voice in international negotiations on ICT issues Exploit the power of the Internet to facilitate the ability of citizens to gather information. locally-produced coverage of news. and in the development of Information Society related policies in the wider public interest. They should: I) II) III) Analyse whether the current academic curricula are appropriate to future needs. Pay particular attention to areas often neglected in the move towards the Information Society. such as impact on marginalised groups and niche areas identified above. Recommendations for Media Despite the new freedoms following the dissolution of socialist regime and the larger number of media houses.

the focus should be on looking into varied ownership. and in which many different voices and perspectives can be heard print or broadcast.South Eastern Europe with the Western media content. featuring content of local interest and in local languages. including poor and rural people. In relation to the Information Society the media should: I) In the traditional media in South Eastern Europe. analytical and thought-provoking pieces on the impact of ICTs on development. the mass media is so much a part of our lives. that it is easy to forget it forms a fundamental part of the Information Society. and building journalistic expertise capable of critical analysis and commentary particularly in the long-term impact on society. such as media run by local people and communities. Media should raise general awareness about the importance of the Information Society across all sectors. and its significance in the wider European context. television and newspapers journalists in South Eastern Europe should make a bigger effort to educate those on ‘the other’ side of the digital divide about how ICT can be used to improve standards and quality of living. Radio. Rather than counting the number of media outlets. and their long-term consequences and potential. Such media the media should therefore contribute to enabling an informed and critical public debate on the Information Society by going beyond press releases. and in relation to EU accession. there is very little reporting on in-depth. but they also influence general attitudes and can greatly educate and inform (or misinform) public opinion. 101 . It means also media that reaches the majority of society. Media should have a ‘watchdog’ role in society. II) III) Recommendations for International Organisations International Organisations can capitalise on the groundwork they already supported for the Information Society by: I) Reviewing their priorities in the light of the current situation of the Information Society. with feature articles and ongoing reporting. Also.

The Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility. DFID) . UNDP. Participants from South Eastern Europe are. International Community should secure funding to this end and promote participation of SEE representatives at the important Information Society Global and regional fora. but also e-service development for persons with disabilities and other marginalised groups. DOT Force. frequently underrepresented at the important global Information Society fora. ITU. and on the other hand the lack of input on global trends for SEE region. for different reasons and mostly due to the lack of funding.causing on one hand an exclusion of SEE voice in the global debate and the process of production of knowledge. the Global Development Gateway. Initiate multilateral agreement on clear roles and responsibilities for the various multilateral global initiatives and organisations addressing ICT issues (eg.to minimise further duplication of efforts. Improve and focus the response of the international community in the area of ICT: ICTs should not be seen as an end in itself. Promote common research agendas and the sharing of project results by International Community on ICTs.. and innovative actions in areas like universal service and improving the capacity of digital broadcasting to address the public interest. ICTs have enormous potential as tools to increase information flows and empower poor people. such as enhancing governance (an area in which considerable support has already been forthcoming). the UN ICT Task Force other UN agencies. International Community has responsibility to focus their attention on ensuring that ICT needs of these groups are met. Development Banks. and marginalized groups. Properly deployed. as well as contributing towards creation of information rich societies as an essential part of efforts to tackle exclusion and poverty. The measure of success should be progress towards reaching the International Development Targets. infoDev. thus supporting the existing and not building parallel national and regional programmes in the area of Information Society. Consider taking a regional approach to the Information Society. and where some reluctance is often present among governments. Discourage the development of new multilateral institutions or fora on ICTs. people with disabilities. rather than just the spread of technology or merely bridging the digital divide. 102 . Global Knowledge Partnership.II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) Consider support in other areas close to their remit. Further invest resources and capitalise on the e-SEE initiative mechanisms for the South Eastern Europe region. including supporting regional actions and SEE 2SEE exchange.

SEE countries are making the first e-leadership leap. policies and programmes on the one hand and the exigencies of a world-wide impetus towards an Information Society on the other create a complex mesh of sometimes competing issues that need to be reconciled. especially in relation to e-governance. Finally. This research shows that by moving along the eSEE Agenda +. At the heart of this complexity lies the human dimension which if acknowledged and tackled readily can accelerate the advancement of the digital agenda. including e-services to enhance government efficiency and the business environment as well as developments in the area of infrastructure and access. The interaction between a given country’s development agenda with its objectives.A Final Comment The primary focus of this publication on e-governance further underlines the context of the wider Information Society development agenda. The key to creating a positive forward-moving dynamic rests in the fashion by which this leadership interacts with all other development factors. laid down in the e-SEE Agenda+. It is expected that the regional dynamic created by the eSEE initiative will allow SEE countries to jump to the next stage and reap the fruits of the digital era. 103 . Innovative practices in the area of gender and ICT are highlighted. Experience has shown that e-leadership sees a gradual move from 1) individual champions to 2) embedding within new or redefined institutions and then 3) general diffusion among all stakeholders. This publication also presents progress on the e-SEE Agenda+ implementation and identifies good practice in the region. a proposal for the first draft of e-SEE Agenda+ revised deadlines is presented as an annex. This type of leadership necessitates new knowledge and skills as it rests on expertise and not authority. It is expected that our recommendations should feed into the next stage of the e-Leadership programme and assist SEE countries on their path to EU accession. Blockages and needs for further development are identified in each country.

including e-services to enhance government efficiency and the business environment as well as developments in the area of infrastructure and access. a proposal for the first draft of e-SEE Agenda+ revised deadlines is presented as an annex.Conclusions The primary focus of this publication on e-governance further underlines the context of the wider Information Society development agenda. The interaction between a given country’s development agenda with its objectives. It is expected that the regional dynamic created by the e-SEE initiative will allow SEE countries to jump to the next stage and reap the fruits of the digital era. Experience has shown that e-leadership sees a gradual move from 1) individual champions to 2) embedding within new or redefined institutions and then 3) general diffusion among all stakeholders. policies and programmes on the one hand and the exigencies of a world-wide impetus towards an Information Society on the other create a complex mesh of sometimes competing issues that need to be reconciled.and not on authority. laid down in the e-SEE Agenda+. especially in relation to e-governance. The key to creating a positive forward-moving dynamic rests in the fashion by which this leadership interacts with all other development factors. Innovative practices in the area of gender and ICT are highlighted. This research shows that by moving along the e-SEE Agenda +. This type of leadership necessitates new knowledge and skills as it rests on expertise. This publication also presents progress on the e-SEE Agenda+ implementation and identifies good practice in the region. Blockages and needs for further development are identified in each country. 104 . SEE countries are making the first e-leadership leap. Finally. It is expected that our recommendations should feed into the next stage of the e-Leadership programme and assist SEE countries on their path to EU accession. At the heart of this complexity lies the human dimension which if acknowledged and tackled readily can accelerate the advancement of the digital agenda.


106 .

They were advised in advance by REGATA regarding this publication. 50 In addition to interviews arranged on 4 November. The second is the analysis and synthesis of the findings of the missions to programme beneficiaries from 11 October to 3 November 2009 50. The methodology included both structured face-to-face interviews and group discussions. capitalising on their existing knowledge. and their contribution. resources and networks. Drawing on its eight years of institutional memory. The Government appointed members of REGATA. the research team was constituted. knowledge.ANNEX 1: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES The e-Leadership Programme for the Western Balkans is a regional e-governance initiative designed by UNDP and funded by the Government of Italy to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the e-SEE Agenda+ (2007-2012). its goals. the current regional action plan for Information Society development. Interviewees were selected with the support of the e-Leadership Programme government counterparts (REGATA). The first is the unique epistemological position of the e-SEE Secretariat as the regional knowledge resource centre. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region. this has proven hugely valuable to this research. while UNDP in New York is providing expert and top level political support. conducted with several purposes in mind. networks and resources. act as Government Focal points for their respective countries. The programmatic priorities of the e-Leadership Programme are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. comprising a Senior Assessment Consultant and an Assessment Consultant who joined the e-SEE Secretariat/e-Leadership project team in UNDP Bosnia and Herzegovina. thus encouraging an atmosphere of confidence and trust. e-Leadership and e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Democratic Governance Cluster. The e-Leadership Programme is implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat. Following an open call for proposals. the interviews for Bosnia and Herzegovina were organised on 8-10 December when project team convened for meetings 107 . Research presented in this report is an outcome of two complementary factors.

Recommendations and Conclusions Final Review. The countries visited (in order of research meetings) were Serbia. Albania. The team convened on October 7th in Sarajevo to develop the research plan and methodology. beginning on 11th of October. 108 . 8-10 December Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: 19-20 October Montenegro: 14-16 October Moldova: 26-27 October Serbia: 12-13 October UNMIK/Kosovo: 29-30 October The primary goal of the mission was to identify the gaps. in summary: • • • • • • • Development of the research plan and methodology A 25 day mission to seven countries of South East Europe Review of extensive documentation gathered Country Report drafting Verification of results by the REGATA network Creation of Analysis. The research served as a primary input when designing the e-Leadership capacity building activities. which is the shared goal of UNDP and RCC who are jointly providing support to the e-SEE Initiative. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. • • • • • • • Albania: 22–23 October Bosnia and Herzegovina: 4 November. including training supplemented by digital self-learning online courses and targeted educational publications. The e-SEE Secretariat/e-Leadership project team and the Senior Assessment Consultant conducted a 25 day mission. editing and formatting. challenges and obstacles facing the countries with a view to ensuring that the current needs of the beneficiaries are taken on board and addressed through the e-Leadership Programme. Interviews were structured and guided by a set of pre-designed questions developed in advance. Moldova. in the following schedule. Questions were chosen in such a way as to obtain as much information as possible in 60 the 90 minute format chosen. UNMIK/Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina.The research comprised. Montenegro. This ensures that ownership of the programme rests with the Western Balkans.

June 2009 109 . seeing these projects and solutions at work. the missions were organised with a view to collecting best practice ICT projects in SEE.). This was both timely and necessary due to the decision of the e-SEE working group and RCC 51 to revise the e-SEE Agenda+ deadlines in preparation for the next ministerial conference. and their practical implementation. challenges and concerns. learning first hand about processes of implementation. Of 160 interviewees. etc. On-site visits to acclaimed best practice ICT projects in the beneficiary countries. flows. as well as the opportunity to interact with both staff and beneficiaries all offered invaluable insights and contributed to a more impartial picture of these projects. 40 had an expertexecutive role while 10 had a support role (interpreting. e-SEE Secretariat. the mission comprised a ‘situation-scan’ and an updated status of Information Society development. and the findings are recorded in this publication. the assessment illustrates the process of automation and level of involvement of different institutions. Thirdly. It is worth noting that of 50 female participants.Secondly. Interviews and focus groups were set up with the following groups of key players in the Information Society arena in SEE region: 51 Conclusions of e-SEE Initiative Podgorica meeting. lessons learnt and expertise in the SEE region. lessons learnt. 110 were male and 50 were female. the advantages. a total of 160 key persons from 75 institutions in 7 countries were interviewed over a span of 25 days. as well as training needs. Individual face-to-face structured interviews were held with each institution in order to maximise the opportunities for subjects to freely voice their obstacles. power point presentation handling. both documenting such projects and providing a mechanism for the exchange of these good practices. Through an examination of government sectors with a specific emphasis on determining the benefits already achieved through the use of ICT. tracking the record of implementation of e-SEE Agenda+ with a primary focus on e-Governance solutions and services in line with Annexes 1 and 2 of the e-SEE Agenda+. During the missions.

Face-to-face interviews also provided an important platform for consolidating relationships with target groups.. along with the fact that the interviewer must accept the word of sources regarding the accuracy of information provided. Public Administration Reform. and supported the visits. Regulators. Associations of ICT companies. Thus. Other Ministries/State Institutions indirectly involved in implementation of the e-SEE Agenda+ arising from the interdisciplinary nature of the Agenda and ICT being a crosscutting issue: Ministries of Education. Civil Society. The bias implicit in all self-reporting approaches has been taken in consideration. Although much of what the interviewer learned is based on the perceptions and knowledge of the people being interviewed. 110 .) c. The knowledge. combined with the extensive experience of the consultant secured answers to nearly all questions. and modifying issues covered as on the work preceded. Detailed information was collected on what worked. and Research Institutes. additional brain-storming sessions with the line Ministries in charge for Information Society were arranged in the format of groups discussions. and ensured critical analysis of the data generated. establish new contacts. The REGATA network members had organised a series of meetings with key stakeholders in each country. contributing to an important goal of the e-SEE Secretariat: to further extend its network. The interview approach on many occasions extracted deeper and more honest answers than initially expected. Interior Affairs. rather than objective and behavioural data. it provided space for elaboration and examples. and to consolidate existing relations with the line ministries as direct project beneficiaries. Foreign Affairs.) Line Ministries for Information Society development in each participating country directly responsible for implementation of e-SEE Agenda+. USAID) active in the ICT area. Academic Research Networks. networks and institutional memory of e-SEE Secretariat. Furthermore. International Organisations (UNDP COs. Customs and Taxation Directorates. etc. Labour and Social Affairs. Cadastre. the associated risk was minimised by several measures. Gender Equality. Culture.) b. discovering new relationships. thus gaining a comprehensive grasp of the situation. what causes problems or produced benefits.a.) d. Economy.

Croatian. Romanian. Russian and Serbian languages. Albanian. comprising desk research. Croatia and Romania. While it cannot claim to be exhaustive of all activities relevant to ICTs. and circulated to the REGATA network members for comment and verification.To complete a wider regional picture and to cover all members of e-SEE Initiative. (which were not eligible for funding under the e-Leadership Programme). to analyse the results and structure the drafts. During the month of November the primary and secondary material gathered was analysed by the Team and first draft assessments on each country prepared. Draft National assessments were prepared. this publication provides an authentic picture of the Information Society Development in the region. Bosnian. 111 . The full team reconvened from the 2nd to the 10th of December 2009. Relevant literature was reviewed in English. Macedonian. after which this Final publication was edited and finalised. Additional follow-up with representatives was organised when necessary to provide further detail via email or telephone interviews. . documentary and Web analysis and telephone interviews with key respondents. further research was undertaken on two additional countries.

112 .


114 .

1. A Council of Ministers’ (CoM) decision during 2009 means that all government ICT projects are coordinated by NAIS. currently the direct responsibility of the Minister for State for Reforms and Communications with Parliament with the support of UNDP. and formally applied for EU membership on 28 April 2009. and a law facilitating e-commerce was passed in May 2009. the Republic of Albania (hereafter named Albania) has been a potential candidate for accession to the European Union since January 2003. Gender issues are supervised by the Department of the Policy of Equal Opportunities under the leadership of the Ministry of Labour. Albania joined NATO in 2009. Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities 52 Instrument for Pre-Accession 115 . followed by amendments to the Criminal Code regarding Cybercrime in December 2008. Legislation on Electronic Signatures was approved in February 2008 and the relevant rules adopted in July 2009. Between 2007 and 2009 several legal reforms have taken place in relation to developing electronic services. It is expected that a Law on e-documents will be approved by the Council of Ministers soon and sent to Parliament.ANNEX 2: COUNTRY ASSESSMENTS REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA Having achieved transition to democracy at the end of the 20th century. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES A major development in Albania was the establishment at the end of 2007 of the National Agency for the Information Society (NAIS). thus avoiding duplication and easing the development of the interoperability framework (for which a study is currently underway and funding being sought from the pre-accession IPA 52 funds).

54 The development of e-business services overall is somewhat patchy. but notable progress has been made in a couple of areas. which can be as low as two working days (see further on. Only when all members have logged in can bids be opened. and obtaining a user ID and password. However.SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS E-Government has seen few developments although a Document Management System for government is actively under consideration.aspx 116 . To avoid the possibility of procurement failure due to incomplete bids. Trade and Energy.qkl. The tender evaluation commission in the contracting authority meets after the bid closing time. a once-off procedure. In use by most of Albania’s central government contracting authorities.gov.). The Albanian e-procurement 53 system is functioning on line and in full conformity with EU requirements for electronic procurement and Albania’s Public Procurement Law (2006). licenses are granted automatically if the official response is not forthcoming within a set period. It was funded under USAID’s Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). apart from that. a business may then submit tenders. Downloading tender notices or bidding documents is readily available. 53 Instrument for Pre-Accession 54 Support to Albania’s Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Agreement Final Report USAID Sept 2008 55 http://www. the system acts as a single point of contact for all Ministries involved in issuing business licenses arranging for instance for site visits or other actions from relevant Ministries. and commission members log into the system individually using their passwords. Uniquely. Among these is the business licensing service launched in June 2009. the National Licensing Centre (NLC) in Tirana opened for business the following June. The Centres are under the Ministry of Economy. the e-procurement system was designed for use by municipalities and communes as well. the system contains safeguards to alert bidders if they have not uploaded all required documents. as applying for a license requires a visit to the Centre or must be submitted by post using a downloadable form.al/default. The service is not fully online. After registering as an “economic operator”.55 Facilitated by a legal reform of the licensing process in February 2009.

Five companies have been licensed to offer the registers. E-commerce is a central part of their Business and Investment Promotion Strategy. and indeed the information is available only online forcing those seeking contracts to use ICTs. to eliminate any unintended bureaucratic impact on business. Trade and Energy). however. A few elements are in place: • Legislation was passed in January 2009 obliging contracting public authorities to use electronic procurement. All VAT Registered businesses will be required to purchase them by the end of 2010. all cash based businesses. administered by USAID and funded by MCC. though it is planned for the second phase. Under the Ministry of Finance and also funded mainly by MCC 56.5 million partnership between the government of Albania. There are still exceptions. and includes the introduction of online Cash Registers. Tax payment is not yet possible online. The project. Filing tax returns became possible first in January 2008 and now about 30% of tax payers use it. Although there is little on the ground as yet. 56 The project was part of the first phase of a $13. The service is expanding from Tirana as the 15 regional offices (down from 37) are connected and by the end of 2009 the facility is expected to be available nationwide. will be required to use them. the first phase of online e-taxation system is in place since August 2008. but businesses will have to purchase them from their own resources. and a Website has been developed to bring together all legislation and regulation relating to business. to ensure price competition. was designed to improve Albania’s score on MCC indicators in the area of corruption and thereby qualify for greater Millennium Challenge Account funding. where legal or administrative factors require a paper copy. • The ambitious second phase is already underway. supported by the MCC with a further US$15 million. 117 . including even taxis. developing e-commerce is a particular focus of the Agency for Business and Investment (under the Ministry of the Economy.Other measures are also intended to reduce bureaucracy for business. being implemented in close association with the Chamber of Commerce. with their use monitored using GPRS technology. For instance all new laws are subjected to a Regulatory Impact Analysis. markets stalls and others. They must now publish all procurement notices and tender dossiers on the website of the Public Procurement Agency. By the end of 2010. the United States Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and USAID.

By September 2008.cleaned using a double entry system. Health Insurance information will be included in the future. forms and documents may be downloaded. validated documents could be printed for citizens at about 355 Civil Status Offices around the country.000 diaspora Albanian citizens.e. containing data from the Registry. in conjunction with a reader and PIN number. with funding of about €1 million from the EU as well as significant government support. for a range of e-services. The creation of an e-government Portal is a key priority for NAIS The national portal is under development 57. Issued upon production of a passport at the issuing office. and hardware from the Norwegian Statistical Office.000 volumes have been entered manually by their 500 staff . A Citizen Data Registry project began in 2007. (See further on) SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Currently. to facilitate up to 800. with the aim of digitising a range of records covering 32 fields. such developments are some way down the road. It covers the full spectrum of their activities. applicants can check and if necessary correct the accuracy of the data as the card is produced. is now fully electronic using a Single Window system for all customs declarations and interactions. At some point in the future use of the Card will become obligatory for everyone over 16 years of age. and the database has other uses such as updating the voters’ registry. Nevertheless. with just a few services fully available online.The Customs Office began introducing ICTs into its processes as early as 2001 and. Albanian embassies abroad will also be able to issue ID cards. e-services for the public are mainly at stage two i. and checked. about 20. integrating almost all their services based on UNCTAD’s ASYCUDA system.al 118 . the second of which could be used as an electronic passport and a secure e-signature.e-Albania. The ID Cards contain two microchips.each given a PC and internet connection . and ultimately it is envisaged that the Card could be used. and indeed will be the only method to access some services. and all new data taken in is now entered directly into the system. The entire database is managed by the Ministry of the Interior in Tirana. 57 www. A start has been made with several underlying elements. With technical assistance from the EU and OSCE. A National Electronic ID Card was also introduced in January 2009.

to whom all schools supply a wide range of data on schools. The data is centralised with the Ministry of Education.400 in total. the Institute for Curriculum Development and the Institute for Student Achievement (responsible for examinations and monitoring) to consolidate developments and move it forward. as well as to monitoring the impact. and made available back to the regional and school level. Consideration is being given now to delivering subjects other than ICTs in the labs. is proceeding along two tracks supported by a loan from the World Bank: • All primary and secondary schools. An ICT curriculum is in place and ICT teachers trained. the ambitious e-schools project launched in December 2005. non discriminatory.genderit.5G. While drafting the National ICT Strategy (2003). It is expected to be running in 100% of schools in 2013 59. in reference to universal access. transparent and provide equal access for all with again no specific mention of gender. such as cultural digitalisation and research and academics networks are at a low stage of development in Albania. • A Strategy for ICT in Education is being prepared. the Master Plan developed with support from UNDP 58. there needs to built capacity within the IT world for awareness raising and better advocacy. The second strand comprises an Education Information Management System. several expert working groups were established. April 2006. and about 2.org for more information on engendering ICT policies 119 . While IT staff in public administration shows good parity. now have an internet connection and a computer lab . the Government of Albania launched the participatory ICT strategy process at a national conference. and satellite.In terms of e-education. teachers and pupils. it is 48. This document again outlines that offering services should be all inclusive. about 1. This links the regional educational directors.60 A new strategy on information society was approved by the CoM in January 2009. fixed 2.although for many small rural ones this might mean one to three computers. 59 Albania National Education Strategy 2004-2015 60 See www. between the Ministry. provided as a mixture of ADSL. Other areas.4% male. the final version of Albanian ICT strategy refers to women only once. Following the conference.000 laptops have also been provided to teachers. 58 Support to the Ministry of Education and Science for the Implementation of e-Schools Programme. with the participation of a few well-known women from the IT sector. Even though the national ICT strategy development group made an attempt to incorporate gender.57% female and 51. The internet is free for one year to schools.

UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE The Regulatory Authority for Postal and Electronic Communications.10.htm 62 http://www. 61 A feature of the Albanian digitalisation landscape is the fact that there is already digital television offered by DIGITALB 62 since 2004 with four fixed and one mobile network covering most of the country with an estimated high number of subscribers. Their Action Plan is working in a number of areas including unbundling the local loop. DIGITALB is a digital programme provider. But the European Commission notes that the Action Plan for media reform “needs to be stepped up” and that progress is needed to ensure sustainable funding for the public services broadcaster. broadband wireless access (where a consultation paper is under preparation). DIGITALB also transmits mobile television on an unauthorised frequency. There are also two other programmers that offer experimental digital broadcasting in the Tirana region. Transport and Telecommunication. 61 Brussels. not to cable or mobile digital. and an analysis of broadband generally.europa. and undertook some consultation at government and institutional level. “Super Sport” produced by “Klan TV” and “Tring” produced by Vizion +. the independent regulator.2009 64 Note that EU digital move relates only to terrestrial broadcasting. An ˝Electronic Communications policy˝ is being drafted by the Ministry of Public Works. See http://ec. In principle.al 63 Analysis of the draft Albanian Strategy for Digital Switchover OSCE . to remove any barriers relating to the type of technology deployed. A draft Broadcasting Law was finalised in 2009. Technology neutrality is also legislated for. greatly simplified the licensing system and moved towards a simpler authorisation scheme with the 2008 Law on Electronic Communications. In addition. The National Council for Radio Television (NCRT) finalised a draft strategy in November 2008 for the analogue to digital switchover.2009 SEC (2009) 1337 Commission Staff Working Document Albania 2009 Progress Report Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2009-2010 {COM(2009) 533} p41. 14. 64. digital broadcasting transmitter and runs the commercial operation of the broadcasting. it is now based on a notification system. with a few exceptions for technical reasons (such as spectrum allocation).digitalb.eu/enlargement/press_corner/key-documents/reports_oct_2009_en. 120 . In broadcasting the cut-off date by which analogue broadcasting should be fully replaced by digital in Albania has been set at 31 December 2012 63.

now the vast majority are issued within 2 to 4 days and efforts are continuing to reduce the time of the remainder. each with a different deadline for completion: First are relatively simple licenses that can be administered entirely within the NLC itself. and the remainder are in process.2. There are of three kinds of license. the license is automatically issued – it requires no actioning from the Centre itself or the applicant. 60 days. Some notable features set this apart. These must be issued within two days.aspx 121 . a total of 384 were approved – 11 on the principle of ‘silent consent’ – 108 rejected. With application forms and instructions available online. applicants supply requirements in person or by post and the application is first checked. Progress of all applications can be tracked online through the public portal.al/default. now the applications is fully completed in one. it operates on a principle of ‘silent consent’: if the applicant hears nothing within the designated period. Their deadline is from nine days up to. The benefits are unambiguous: • Speedier issuing of licenses: previously it took 40 to 45 days to obtain a license to do business in Albania. The third type is forwarded by the NLC to Ministries for further processing that might involve physical inspections or other time consuming tasks. Of 589 license applications between June and late October 2009.qkl. in onerous cases. The National Licensing Centre is based in newly renovated offices in Tirana. Licenses where some additional checking is required of the NLC must be granted or refused within four days. 65 Perhaps more important. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development As a model of transparency and efficiency – if not yet of a fully online service – the system of licensing business in Albania is exemplary. Applicant Time Saving: Previously. • 65 http://www.gov. applicants were often required to go to several offices.

with direct electronic payments of taxes and charges. over a much longer period. transporters and importers. There is greater transparency. The system significantly reduced the effort demanded of the client. for planning purposes. but in 2008 the process of putting them online began and it was completed in April 2009 with the migration to a new single database. and the scope for human interaction and hence corruption is greatly reduced. The cost to the client is much lower: applications cost 100 leks (less than a euro). duplication and the potential for corruption: Personal contact is now limited to inputting data into the system. But the system has been developed to an international standard in Albania. as noted. and for the statistical office INSTAT. for greater security. accurate and up to date. then moving to containers. They have now completed a TIR Carnet 66 online system. The Customs database is more complete. The introduction of ICTs into the Customs Services occurred. reducing the time further and introducing new functionality. with significant benefits for manufacturers. The second phase will deepen access into other institutions and Ministries.• • Reduced bureaucracy. 122 . airport cargo. customs generally being an early target for ICTs everywhere. with no discretionary flexibility. and are adding an E-Manifest System beginning with the private company DHL. Again the benefits are clear: • • • • Customs clearance time is greatly reduced. Plans are also in place to use an electronic signature. 66 The TIR Carnet is a Customs transit document used for covering duties and taxes during the international transport of goods. for the Finance Ministry and government. All customs declarations are online at this point. It began as stand-alone systems for each Customs office. border and inland (‘indent’) operations.

pointing to the very high cost of support and training from IBM itself. 123 . are also areas where capacity could be built. the Ministry is satisfied that these benefits are emerging. Although savings and impacts are yet to be fully quantified. authenticated copies of most civil certificates. The substantial set of Ministry of Finance Projects is also focused on generating tangible and rapid benefits. One of the problems here is that both law and the technologies are ever changing with technological convergence and new legal and regulatory demands. and has reduced the scope for corruption. Reducing dependence on high cost commercial services. Their goal is to have the most advanced system in the region. mainly brokers and import and export dealers. such a birth. The Ministry of the Interior noted the need also for advanced skills in the use of proprietary IBM software. The independent regulator. would benefit from both market regulation and technical regulation capacity building. But 10.2009 SEC(2009) 1337 Commission Staff Working Document Albania 2009 Progress Report Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2009-2010 {COM(2009) 533} Page 30. for instance.000 users. and larger companies. marriage and death certificates.000 and more companies are involved through brokers and intermediaries. 67 Brussels. 3. Instead of having to visit several offices. The electronic public procurement system has improved access to information and reduced procedural costs.67 The Civil Registry Database also generates immediate benefits for users. The e-taxation service is designed to simplify tax returns for everyone. and wait often long periods. while developing affordable training capacities nationally. are available instantly at of 350 centres around the country.10. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development The human capacity to deal with complex aspects of the information society is an acknowledged area of need. 14. to reduce contact between tax payers and the administration – thereby crucially reducing the potential for corruption. Media policy and the switchover from analogue to digital. reduce the costs of tax administration including at the regional offices.There are currently about 2. and to increase the transparency of the service. is an important challenge.

especially given that the Albanian language is unique. and notes that the government is developing a strategy to deal with it. This is linked to encouraging businesses. The Customs is a case in point. are difficult to implement in practice for a number of reasons. Raising awareness among businesses on the benefits of using the internet is seen as a major challenge by the government in developing and disseminating the use of e-services. But the need for replacement of equipment is now also being felt in areas that introduced ICTs some time ago. This will certainly help promote general awareness on the benefits of ICTs in the public opinion. both in attracting new people and in training existing staff. benefits can accrue and the investment be justified only where the level of usage is high. Such schemes. The National Agency for the Information Society also recognises this issue. Localisation of content and of software is also an issue. A project financed by UNDP on Preparation of Feasibility Study on Interoperability Framework for the Government of Albania is ongoing. A National Data Centre would be seen in this context as beneficial and is being planned. especially SMEs. Funding is a major problem for many areas in Albania. and developing the infrastructure to enable it. some up to eight years old.The Ministry of Education is also not alone in experiencing a lack of qualified people. producing educational modules for use not simply in ICT curriculum but for adapting other subjects to the use of ICTs is seen as critical and something of a bottleneck. which in turn needs both knowledge and some skills in ICTs. academic and research networking needs. 124 . Conclusions The positive steps taken by Albania towards e-government have already yielded fruit in term of transparency and diminished corruption. ICT skills are much in demand in the private sector. capable of working with ICTs as a reasonably high level. especially in what is sometimes seen as a second tier of services such as in cultural digitisation. however. Investments in education will take more time to deliver benefits but one can only expect the public interest in the Information Society to built momentum. In the educational area. Interoperability of e-service is also seen as a major challenge. to connect to and use the internet. as the servers and computers badly need upgrading. As the e-service available. for instance through special salaries and bonuses.

loss of resources. nor what would be attached to it . 68 The European Commission (EC) allocated to the country a total of € 89.BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Bosnia and Herzegovina is a potential candidate for membership in the European Union and NATO. which have been determined by the Peace Implementation Council Steering Board. labour market and acquis approximation. As a result of this complex institutional makeup. Leaving it to the entities leads to disintegration. An international presence under UN auspices — the Office of the High Representative. but a decision depends on Bosnia and Herzegovina’s progress in meeting specific objectives and conditions. The main areas of assistance are: public administration. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES The application of the Dayton/Paris Peace Agreement (1995) ending the Bosnian war has contributed to the complexity of the governing system in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Legislation to establish a state-level Information Agency in charge of implementing the Information Society Strategy throughout the country has not yet been adopted. poses many difficulties in establishing unified state-level cooperation. 69 http://aidrs. OHR— has been in place in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1995. the RS has an Agency for Information Society 69. 2) the Federation of BiH (FBiH) (including the ten cantons of the Federation of BiH) and the Republic of Srpska (RS) plus the autonomous region of Brčko. culture. 1. SME development. The complexity of the fragmented. multi-layered political and administrative organisation. Approval requires agreement at the State Council of Ministers (CoM). civil society. At the entity level. constitutional reform. At present there are two levels of political and administrative competence in BiH: 1) the State. with many different national and local institutions and bodies.a budget dedicated solely for ICT development. The EU has started preparations to strengthen its engagement in the country upon the closure of the OHR. and poses huge interoperability challenges. The 2009 Programme also aims to alleviate the impact of the financial and economic crisis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. which focuses on the trade-related areas of the SAA.1 million under the 2009 Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) programme. The Interim Agreement. Its possible closure is being considered by the international community. duplication of work. Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a state level agency or any related structure dedicated solely to ICT. rule of law. has been in force since July 2008.org 125 . As a result the State does not have a body. The Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the EU was signed in June 2008 68.

It organised major IS Development Conferences in BiH in 2003 and 2005. over 1000 citizens participated in public and expert debates and provided inputs for final version for ICT Forum findings and Publications. Since 2007.UNDP BiH is one of initiators and a key player in the development of an Information Society in BiH. the regional e-Leadership for the Western Balkans Project and to the establishment of the regional Centre for e-Government Development for SEE (CeGD) –UNDP BiH being one of the stakeholders in the Centre. a new framework for ICT development for countries in SEE based on EU i2010 agenda that was signed by 9 Ministers of the SEE region on 29 October 2007. In the course of implementation of the ICT Forum. In order to create necessary legal framework for the government e-operation as well as development of ICT the e-Legislation Reform Project aimed at developing and adopting the BiH laws on e-Signature and e-Business. and with this also the commitment to host the e-SEE Secretariat as the regional knowledge repository and the support centre for the SEE countries in implementation of e-SEE Agenda. as an institutional mechanism for the implementation of the ICT strategy. UNDP prepared e-SEE Agenda+.is. In cooperation with the RBEC office UNDP BiH prepared and published the SEE ICT Sector Status Report that provided the first ever comparative overview of the ICT sector. e-Education. UNDP successfully advocated to align the ICT section of the PAR Action Plan with UNDP activities and BiH IS Development Strategy. Under its e-Legislation project. Following the ICT Forum recommendations as well as the Government commitments taken by signing e-SEE Agenda. strategies and policies in SEE. UNDP provided support to the e-Goverment Project in BiH. In cooperation with Stability Pact for SEE.gov. In 2002 it called for an ICT Forum Project in which over 100 BiH experts took part in and in 12 different round-tables prepared the set of recommendations and suggestions for the government in the domain of ICT and development. The document covers five development pillars: e-Legislation. 70 Policy for IS strategy in BiH www. UNDP coordinated the work of national experts to create the blueprint for development of Information Society in BiH. and in 2004 the CoM of BiH adopted the ˝Policy. ICT Infrastructure and ICT industry. Strategy and Action Plan for Information Society Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina˝ covering the period 2004-2010 70. at Regional Ministerial Conference hosted in Sarajevo by UNDP under the auspices of Ministry of Communications and Transport and in cooperation with the Stability Pact and European Commission. as the strategic framework for ICT development for countries in SEE. e-Governance. UNDP also led the creation of first ever e-Readiness Assessment Report (see later). In 2004.ba 126 . In cooperation with the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe and the emerging Regional Cooperation Council – RCC. UNDP BiH led the process of preparation and Ministerial signing of the e-SEE Agenda (2002-2007). UNDP drafted the Law on the Agency for Information Society.

net/sr-SP-Cyrl/Documents/Strategija%20razvoja%20eVlade%20RS%20(2009-2012). in line with the existing international and national standards. for electronic certificates and electronic signatures related to identification documents. Agency for Identification Documents and data exchange 71) has entered into force on 22 July 2008. Registers and Data Exchange of Bosnia and Herzegovina (IDDEEA. 2008). the document bears reference to e-SEE Initiative plans and states that the next ICT Policy. In Chapter 15. and it has limited resources for ICTs.gov. The government of the entity of Republic of Srpska published an entity strategy for e-government for 2009-201272. Indeed in BiH.e. elections voting lists. IDs.At this moment. legislation and recommendations. Customs and Police are under the responsibility of the State Ministry for Internal Security. i. the responsibility for development of e-government services lies at the state level with the State Ministry of Communications and Transport and at the entity level with the FBiH Ministry for Transport and Communication and the Ministry of Science and Technology of RS. 71 http://www.pdf 127 . it is worth pointing out the adoption of the State level Law creating an Agency for Identification Documents. At the state level. Management of the information networks of the State Border Administration. The CoM adopted in 2006 the Gender Action Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina of the Gender Equality Agency of the Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina (GEA of the MoHRR BIH). Strategy and Action Plan of BIH has to be gender mainstreamed. the strategy does not include interoperability or potential linkages to FBiH or state level institutions. The draft law on e-documents is still to be adopted.ba 72 http://www. It is worth noting that this e-signature is valid only for a limited number of institutions concerned with the process of establishment of such documents.iddeea. The RS has only recently adopted a law on e-business (May 2009) and electronic signature (Nov. This agency replaces the Directorate for Implementation of the Citizen Identification Protection System (CIPS) Project which was established by the CoM in 2002. although the legal framework on e-signature has been adopted in 2006 it is not yet implemented. It is responsible for the digital signing of identification documents. The main agenda of the State Ministry of Communications and Transport is the rebuilding of transport structures. which identifies the needs for interoperability between agencies in RS. fines and infringements. vehicles register. At the State level IDDEEA maintains central registries of identification documents (passports. citizenship). and the Gender Action Plan has a chapter with a set of measures for reachin targets to increase gender equality through ICT. However.vladars.

creating detailed technical specifications for a Web portal upgrade. communication and IT infrastructure.pufBIH.unsa. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 www.centar. E-government services are not yet fully developed and most are not offered to a fully interactive level. With a few notable exceptions.gov. Request and delivery of birth. Building permits76. Creating a DKMS detailed technical specification and tender documentation. computerisation of basic registers.ba National Library www.ba Federal Institute for Public Health 128 . security. forms to fill in are only downloadable and cannot be filled in on-line. digitalisation of joint and specialised functions of the administration.ba for the FBiH www.ba Municipality of Sarajevo Centre www. the establishment and successful functioning of a system for the registry. The first step of this project concerned the re-engineering of public administration business processes. Social Security benefits75. institutions and users to the existing e-Government platform.ba Federal Ministry for labour and Social action www.nub. interoperability. Enrolment in Higher education78. other electronic services as well as Internet portals and public access points.fzzz. connecting additional locations.ba Canton Sarajevo www. Several entity level Ministries. The introduction of electronic document management has followed closely the adoption of ISO standards in many local governments in the FBiH. as one of the key innovations for ensuring better service delivery. obtaining an appointment)80. and reporting of grant assistance made available to the public sector in BiH was implemented by UNDP through the e-Government project for the CoM in BiH. National Library on-line catalog and search tools77. State employment74.ks. Health related services (interactive advice on the availability of services in the different hospitals.SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS For the CoM.zzjzfBIH. or have made progress in that direction. Declarations and information on income taxes73. creating a Document and Knowledge Management System (DKMS )conceptual design and strategy of implementation.fBIHvlada.gov. Cantonal institutions and municipalities have developed e-services. assessing and analysing of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS) structure and the conceptual GDSS design as well as implementation strategy – as part of the DKMS design. upgrading the existing network infrastructure and communication services. Most sites provide information in the three constitutional languages. The second phase concerned the analysis of business processes and information.ba Cantonal level University of Sarajevo www.ba Federal Employment Institute www. management. marriage. death and citizenship certificates79.

However.Citizen Service Centres (CSC) 81 and Urban Permit Centres (UPC) which operate as one stop shops established in almost every municipality of larger towns (40) offer simplified and faster services for citizens. In the RS.com/ http://web. Communication between the cadastre offices and the land registries is poor. the RS released a single portal for all RS administrations 83.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK =73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK= 228424&Projectid=P096200 129 . The court of Sarajevo had already completed the digitization by the end of 2008.iddeea. The full digitization of all registries is projected to be finished in 1st quarter 2010. nineteen basic courts are operating a land registry office. 81 82 83 84 GAP Project funded by USAID and SIDA in the FBiH Source: IDDEEA http://www.esrpska. computers and smart card readers) for an automated exchange of digitally signed data throughout BiH for issuance of biometric travel documents. The Land Registration Unit of the Federal Ministry of Justice has established a Working Group for developing a methodology and technical specifications for the “systematic mapping and registration” component of the World Bank funded Land Registration Project (20062011) 84.worldbank. This portal. In October 2009. The Swedish government funded a project in which Municipal registry offices were furnished with IT equipment (software. and to the corresponding updating of land registry records.ba national domain denomination. Trainings for the Registry office employees dealing with entering of data and their exchange are included in the project 82.ba/ http://www. In preparing the methodology. with 28 municipal courts in the FBiH and one land registry office in the Basic Court of the Brčko District. the portal does not use the . This component aims to proceed to a systematic updating of cadastre maps and records. still in test phase.gov. Each civil servant now has access to a document tracking system that shows the exact status of every request filed so citizens do not have to always seek out the person who originally took their request. the Working Group has been confronted with the necessity of modifying specific legal provisions related to the registration of built objects which do not comply with the requirements of the existing public law. The final goal is to achieve fully identical and current descriptions of real estate in both registers. hardware. is mainly informative about services provided by institutions at the entity or municipal level.

ba Source: www. At the same time the network of the ITA which integrates the customs subsystem.gov.pufBiH. In RS the NGO EXIT. Information on Social contributions 86 and customs 87 are available on line.granpol. while electronic filing on tax returns for businesses is available in the FBiH 85. The FBiH’s Public procurement agency through the WisPPa network 90 allows online submissions by contracting authorities. and the Central bank information system to provide a single access point for government information.fzmiopio.ba www. Adjustments to the customs information systems were introduced at the same time. It is part of the RS’s e-government project. To date this study is not yet published but a PR campaign aimed at promoting ICTs and their benefits has been launched in RS.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1111&Itemid=71&lang=en http://www. the files which are not approved are automatically shown on the generated reports.ba www. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 www.pufBiH.gov. IT Business support centre 91 (funded by the EU) provides an interface for tenders while also offering information to ICT businesses. is one of the best examples of state level advances in e-government.javnenabavke.ba 130 . the ICT environment for the introduction of VAT in 2006 was a success for the Indirect Taxation Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ITA) 89. and to identify strengths and weaknesses of public administration in relation to end users.uino.ba http://www. At State level. the VAT subsystem other revenues subsystem.itbusiness.gov. Therefore this report can be used as a source for corrections. The NGO also received funding for an e-readiness study for RS entity aiming to gather information and analyse data as well as to gather the experiences suggestions and opinions from different target groups.Similar services in the RS are provided for registration of businesses.ba Federal Institute http://www.ba/home/index. Businesses can also fill in their corporate tax 88 online. The information system automatically verifies the accuracy of files and while all approved files are uploaded to central database. The system provides user-defined reports automatically detecting the cases with inconsistency in the user’s bookkeeping.

many private firms offer advanced Microsoft. About 90% of schools have a computer lab with internet access available to pupils with an average of 20 pupils per computer. due to the lack of political will to collaborate between universities of BiH. with a one-year delay. Regarding electronic communications and information technologies. etc. Since the sector policy determines the priorities and specific regulatory objectives.such as on 3G licences. the state level regulatory framework on Electronic Communications needs further reform. 131 . Cisco. contents and development of the area. science and culture organized on the state level. structure.were delayed until its adoption. The telecommunications sector policy (2008-2012) was approved in December 2008. The new policy provides for the future transition to an authorisation framework and the amendment of Reference Interconnection Offers (RIOs) to enable market entry of mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) by the end of 2010. Other areas are proceeding slowly. E-education curricula are being developed by each of the 10 cantons of the FBiH. Such a system would enable archaeologists and historians to collaborate on hypotheses concerning site utilization. This is in its initial phase due to a lack of well-defined cultural policy and insubstantial financial means. Commercially. However. number portability and local loop unbundling . such as the digitisation of cultural heritage. The Department of Computer Science of the University of Bristol and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the University of Sarajevo have created a joint project (UNESCO sponsored) to develop a system capable of 3-D computer reconstruction and interactive high fidelity visualization of Bosnian heritage sites. the network has become redundant.SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Students from 6th grade on follow an ICT curriculum. However. and in RS. has survived for more than a decade through foreign funding. The Academic and Research Network (BIHARNET). even if the Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA) had already adopted rules in 2008. Furthermore. to date the only institution of higher education. courses but certificates are not regulated for private businesses. important regulatory decisions . Localized databases are created all around the country with no coordination. a database of these high fidelity 3-D models could show to potential donors the quantity of cultural heritage existing in Bosnia and Herzegovina. only 10% of schools have broadband access.

Extension of TETRA to all regions is pending to a decision of the CoM. In early January 2009. TETRA 94 which covers only Sarajevo and part of Eastern Sarajevo and VoIP which uses SDH. Installations are not yet in place although the strategy envisages the test signals to start in 2010. The decision lies at the moment with the Prime Minister. However. courts and prosecutors in BiH. as well as to familiarise citizens with the digitalization process. The Strategy for the Transition to Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) which was recently developed is the framework for the introduction of DTT in Bosnia and Herzegovina. UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE The EC 92 has funded a closed state network the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) network in 2005 for the use of the project CIPS. TETRA is a system of digital radio communication network which carries voice and data. Following public consultations the document is to be submitted to the CoM of Bosnia and Herzegovina for adoption. The closing date for the submission of comments. However. By 2011 analogue signals crossing borders are to be switched off. which is since 2009 managed by the newly created agency IDDEEA who use the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). 92 First under the CARD 2005 then under IPA Funds for BiH 93 CARD 2004 94 Terrestrial Trunk Radio is an open digital trunked radio standard for professional mobile radio users 132 . a draft version of the Strategy was formally opened for public consultation. also providing guidelines for the work of competent institutions in this field. recommendations and suggestions was set for 14 February 2009. the separation of ownership and management has stopped the advancement of the project. By then BiH will need to switch off all analogue signals. Parts of the unused SDH capacities were supposed to be used also for the e-Government project spearheaded by UNDP for the presidency.Finally. The EU 93 also funded the telecommunication systems used by the police and security authorities and owned by the Ministry of Internal Security. which contributes to the reduction of telephone charges users. the CoM and the ministries. No switchover date has yet been published. security authorities in RS have raised security issues about the use of the SDH system as it is not managed by their umbrella ministry and have applied for funds to build a new network for the use of the police. VoIP phone system is a shared system of telephone connections between the police authorities. including the duties to inform stakeholders in the communications sector. The complete switchover to DTT in Europe is supposed to take place no later than the year 2012.

a cross-border dark fibre cable was connected to the University of Banja Luka. The structure of the WAN matches the organisational structure of the ITA.In January 2007. 133 . However. Future plans foresee networking of all locations in BiH. The national policy and strategy for Broadband development in the wider Telecommunication strategy for BiH (2008-2010). to facilitate and ensure the implementation of the Information Society strategy. is planned for 2010. The second edition of the e-Readiness report was issued in 2005 while the report to be launched in 2010 will be focused on assessing structure. The entire territory of BiH is networked using leased lines provided by three BiH telecommunications providers. In order to measure such progress and resulting changes regarding IS implementation. meaning that all inland customs offices and border crossing points are linked with their competent regional centres. With an internet penetration of 20% in 2008 with an estimate of 30% in 2009. Currently. an adequate value index must be created and continuously followed. The fibres are leased from Telekom Srbija and Telekom Srpska. The importance of putting into place a system that measures the information society development in pre-ascension countries was further emphasized by the conclusions by e2010 IS Framework of EU. whilst the communication equipments have been provided by Meriton Networks. penetration level and status of ICT usage in BiH. The initiative is part of SEEREN2 in partnership with the National Research and Education Networks of Greece (GRNET) and Serbia (AMRES). This type of reporting can be also used for targeted development and advocacy of ICT policies. which will have a direct influence on the use of innovative ICT products and services within society. it is imperative to continuously measure and report on its progress by introducing a comprehensive benchmarking system. BiH has a 6% level of penetration of broadband services (as a proportion of the population).which serves as an integral part of the overall ICT initiative organised and conducted by UNDP. there is no such reporting system in BiH other then the UNDP’s e-Readiness Assessment Report . whereby it was strongly recommended to pursue a close monitoring of ICT indicators for pre-EU accession countries. but it will also depend on the readiness of state telecommunications providers. 2. and all regional centres are linked with the ITA Headquarters. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development The UNDP e-Readiness Assessment project in 2002 was a pilot project that showcased for the first time the current utilization of ICT in the country.

100 customs declarations representing transfer of goods with the value of BAM 4. 95 96 97 98 LSG UNDP report p 6 Source: GAP project news http://www. For example for in the municipality of Ilidža in the suburb of Sarajevo. compared to approximately 30 minutes in municipalities where such centres do not exist.000 certificates annually. Bosnia and Herzegovina has made little progress on making the State-level government structures more functional and efficient.500 users at 80 locations throughout BiH on a daily basis. It is worth noting that while 100% of junior employees use computers only 76. and citizen’s certificates are now issued within two minutes of making a request.3 million.9% of the more senior age groups do 95.000 VAT returns are processed on a monthly basis. 3.BiH 2009 134 . they increase transparency and reduce opportunities for corruption 97. birth. the most common applications being MS Office word processing. BiH was one of the early starters having put the Information Society high on its agenda. Fragmented policy-making between the State and the Entities remains the main obstacle to efficient work by the State government.ba ibid Enlargement evaluation EC . During this conference the e-SEE Agenda+ was signed. In SEE. With the development of Citizens Certificates Centres (CSCs) in municipalities. The frequent duplication of competencies leads to increased administrative costs 98. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development Overall. The e-SEE interministerial conference in 2007 with more than 500 participants from the region was hosted by the MCT under the UNDP umbrella in cooperation with Stability Pact and the EC. which issues approximately 30. political instability and lack of resources continue to delay reform.The information system of the ITA is used by 3.bihgap. An evaluation of civil servants’ training levels in BiH showed that the vast majority of local government employees use computers in their work. It enables the average daily input of 2. Currently. Over 40. Another positive impact of CSCs is that. the lack of coordination. the ICT upgrade means that 180 working days are saved for citizens and the local government administration 96. death. as they are usually situated outside the main office floors and have high visibility.

the creation of a National Agency for Information Society is part of the e-SEE Agenda that BiH has signed and should be set up as soon as possible to support initiatives in this area. One such business .oscebih.com. 99 Some points unclear in the law are now being used as political arguments in this dispute. They were ultimately able to go around this hurdle when they obtained a USAID grant. the adoption of several decisions on broadcasting and telecommunications prepared by the CRA has been delayed by the executive. the Public Broadcasting Services have not shown any interest in the switchover which means that the tenders for digital broadcasters have not been issued. The CRA and the CoM have been in dispute for more than two years regarding the appointment of a new director general of the CRA 99. Moreover. which was due to be finalised in April 2009. The nomination of CRA Council members.could not find a single bank in BiH to provide them with on-line payment services. All stakeholders in the field agree that this a major hurdle that needs to be addressed. See comments of OSCE in BiH Head of Mission http://www. and in the absence of a sector policy. An American payment company was finally able to provide the service but on condition that USAID would be the guarantor. an online booking site for tourism .org/public/default. Hence.asp?d=6&article=show&id=2218 135 . The delays in the implementation aspects of the law on electronic commerce are hindering development of e-businesses. A lack of a law on intellectual property represents a barrier for the development of software and thus business development. UNDP has been assisting authorities to draft the law but the different step till the adoption and implementation rest with these authorities. also remains unresolved. legislation and application. As a result resources are not pulled together and interoperability of system country wide is not realised. Also. On the road to Digital broadcasting one major hurdle is the current politically charged atmosphere challenging CRA’s independence.exploringbosnia. Since the start of the debate on the procedure for appointing the CRA’s director general. the implementation aspect of the law on e-signature needs to come to light in order to speed up the process of developing e-services.The above is reflected in infrastructure.www.

2) electronic document management. While this indicates that most use computers in their daily work. The further development of broadband infrastructure must be achieved.The recent report on Local Self-Government training needs assessment 100 notes: ˝The highest ranking cross-cutting issue highlighted by the survey is information technology. and 3) developing and maintaining a municipal website 101. with younger staff almost all using computers in their daily work and the rate declining as age rises. There is a clear correlation between age and computer use in administration. The section on information technology highlights the need to modernise local government administration through electronic document management and further capacity building in the use of the MS Office package. The assessment of the training needs of the local administrations shows that the highest priority training should be for information technology: 1) MS Office (basic and advanced. the international community a main partner in the development of BiH should show the way and put its full weight behind unifying actions instead of playing along the lines of division. p. E-mail and Internet use are also identified as priorities in this area. 100 Report Prepared by the UNDP Municipal Training System Project. Some 8% of managerial civil servants are not using computers in their work at all.6 101 Report Prepared by the UNDP Municipal Training System Project. It is now essential for BiH to implement its policies and develop the corresponding legal and policy instruments. Conclusions BiH was an early bloomer in the road to Information Society and played a central role in the shaping of the e-SEE agenda. 4. July 2009. p.˝ The overall basic computer literacy rate of local governments’ employees in FBiH is approximately 91%. it has to be noted that such use is largely limited to basic word processing. The development of small and mediumsized enterprises in this field as well as generally will inevitably pick up once the instruments for e-business are in place. attesting to the local authorities’ awareness of the need to modernise service delivery and administrative operations. including e-mail and Internet use). aligning with EU standards. July 2009. While the current lack of political consensus behind issues related to ICT needs to change if BiH is not to lag behind in the region’s development. 61 136 .

europa. Within this office. 14. e-health and e-business.).˝ 1. 102 Communication from The Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. The Office is in charge of promoting and improving public access to internet services. Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2009-2010. and the standardisation and adoption of technical rules for the use of IT equipment in the state administration. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES Croatia was an early champion and leader of ICT development. taking over from Sweden in 2001. Croatia is again assuming chairmanship since February 2008. and the coordination of the development of e-government. In its recent communication to the European Parliament and Council 102 the European Commission stated that ˝If Croatia meets all outstanding benchmarks in time. including on any transitional arrangements. In 2002 Croatian government adopted a national ICT strategy “Information and Communication Technology – Croatia in the 21st Century”. e-education.THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA The Republic of Croatia (henceforth Croatia) is a candidate country for European Union membership since 2004 and a member of NATO. monitoring and implementation of laws and other regulations in the area of ICTs. available at http://ec. could be concluded next year [2010]. is responsible for the coordination of development of public administration information systems through a single network. indeed Croatia was the first regionbased chair of the e-SEE initiative. The Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia (established in 2003). the Department for International Cooperation is specifically responsible for Croatian participation in i2010 initiative and Community Programs in the area of information society (IDABC/ISA. The strategy was based on wide consultation process involving all the stakeholders. reporting to the Prime Minister. First precondition to development of the information society is a favourable regulatory framework and Croatia has to date adopted legislation which is fully harmonised with the EU framework.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2009/strategy_paper_2009_en. the accession negotiations.pdf 137 . CIP ICT PSP et al.10.2009. It is also involved in the drafting.

The Croatian Government passed the Strategy aiming to accelerate and encourage further development of broadband Internet access as one of basic foundations for establishing the society of knowledge and for joining Croatia with other Europe’s developed countries. 138 .In 2002 the Government adopted decision on creation of the Information–Communication Network for State Administration (HITRONet) and assigned it to the Financial Agency (FINA). e Justice. e Learning and e Business. Building on the implementation of the ICT Strategy. e Health. By the end of 2007 total of 61 HITRO. e Administration services. Personal Identification Number (PIN). State Treasury service etc. In 2006 “Broadband Development Strategy in the Republic of Croatia until the year 2008” was adopted. In 2004 “One Stop Shop (HITRO. The e-Company is implemented in collaboration of the Ministry of Justice. and it is available in all county offices. Central State office of e-Croatia. In 2004 Programme e-Croatia 2007 was adopted. Additionally.hr) Strategy” was adopted. In order to speed up the process of registration HITRO.0 was adopted as Croatian national standard HRN ISO/IEC 26300:2008. Commercial courts. this programme further aligned activities of the Croatian government with the EU eEurope Initiative.HR offices opened within FINA’s (State Financial Agency) branch offices. HR launched service for on-line registration of a limited liability company (e-Company service).Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1. In 2006 Croatian Government adopted the “Open Source Policy”. focusing on e Government. It presents a basic system of compute-based communication network for State Administration interlinked into a unique communication infrastructure. Today HITRONet connects 460 locations of state and public administration. It aimed to provide common architectural and interoperability guidelines for information systems of central administration and establish a network of offices where citizens and business can obtain information and services of public administration in one place. Croatian Chamber of Public Notaries and Financial agency. Standard ISO/IEC 263000:2006 Information technology -. HITRONet hosts e-Justice services. In 2005 “National Programme on Information Security in the Republic of Croatia” was adopted. Within the framework of the e Croatia Programme several sectoral programmes and strategies were adopted.

In 2006 “National Programme for the Digitisation of Archival. the state administration.hr/ Most visited topics were: Overview of laws and regulations. 103 http://mojauprava. The Croatian Cultural Heritage portal (www. access to wider variety of content and new interactive services. import vehicles. how to use the portal. the PIN was functional for the system linking the Ministry of Justice. By the end of 2010 Croatia intends to finalize digital TV switchover. establishing a favourable environment for e-Business and initiating projects of national e-Business infrastructure. Library and Museum Holdings” was adopted. This number will gradually replace ID numbers for all companies and individuals. Digital broadcasting will enable better service quality. To help businesses in the transition from paperwork to electronic business transactions. the Personal Identification Number. In January 2009 the Government of the Republic of Croatia adopted the Strategy for development of electronic administration in the Republic of Croatia covering the period from 2009 to 2012. 139 . reliable and applicable information and services to citizens. the Government has launched in 2007 an e-Corner campaign in all HITRO. is compulsory and will be used by all registries in Croatia. E-Corner is a free education spot intending to give insight into the possibilities and advantages of using an e-card and the services attached to it. entrepreneurs and other users of public government services by using all appropriate manners of communication. divorce. the Central State Administration Office. Since January 1st 2009. In 2008 Strategy for Digital TV Switchover in the Republic of Croatia was adopted. In 2007. the Croatian Government initiated My Government portal 103 with the aim to build and maintain the system which will provide complete.kultura. stocks and shares. It aims at removing the remaining legal and institutional obstacles to more rapid implementation of e-Business in Croatia. the Ministry of Interior and the Central Bureau of Statistics.HR offices in FINA branches.net/eng) was established in 2007 as a central access point for collecting and presenting digital collections of Croatian cultural heritage. At the time of its introduction. In 2007 “Strategy for the Development of Electronic Business in the Republic of Croatia for the Period 2007 – 2010” was adopted. My Government portal is an Internet system for communication between citizens and companies with the government. an 11 digit number.

This was the first time Croatia was involved in a European Commission research in e-Government. the same source underlines the results of ‘One stop shop’ approach where the country attained 80%. fostering the e-government developments. It is the Moja Uprava portal that links the State administrative body data and represents a unique approach to e-Administration services in Croatia. as opposed to 81. Better e-Government. In terms of full online availability. have reached 100% as opposed to 71. which has been assessed as the growing commitment of the Republic of Croatia to implement the European e-Government Agenda. The research also emphasizes that ‘Moja Uprava’ (My Administration) portal.5% of the EU27 average which puts Croatia among the 15 best countries encompassed by the research.htm#e-Government_Benchmarking_Reports 140 . 104 http://ec. Having created strong environmental conditions for e-developments (legislative. strong development of ICT infrastructure and services. according to the indicators monitoring the level of user-oriented portal. E-SERVICES In many respects e-services is Croatia are the most advanced in the region.europa. This score can be split into an online sophistication score of 44% for citizen services and 74% for business services. Faster. The research has shown that the e services intended for businesses are more developed in Croatia than those intended for citizens in terms of availability and degree of development. e-Government According to the European Commission study on the availability of public services over the internet entitled „e-Government Benchmark Survey 2009 Smarter.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/benchmarking/index_en. Croatia is decreasing the gap on the way to e-Europe. In terms of online sophistication. Croatia obtains 35%. Business services are by far more mature: they obtain a score of 63% on full online availability as compared to the citizen services’ score of 17% for this metric. policy. developing open and competitive economy.6% of the EU27 average. Croatia is ranked 30th as to availability or 31st as to the complexity of e-services out of the total of 31 countries encompassed by the research.The purpose of this Strategy is to create framework and standards for all ICT solutions in public administration to enable electronic forms of operation and to make public services more available to users. Croatia marks 56%. creating the climate for decreasing the digital divide. Furthermore. regulation). with again a marked gap between the quality of supply for businesses and citizens. 8th Benchmark Measurement“ 104.

which connects larger Croatian cities. 105 http://www. with planned ongoing investments into the CARnet network. and Export control system (ECS)). faculties and institutes linked to the Pan European research network GEANT. these projects have been financed by European Union pre-accession funds (PHARE programmes 2005 and 2006). the Customs Administration implemented projects related to the establishment of inter-operability and inter-connectivity with the European Union systems and Member States within the area of EU as part of the customs union. three twinning projects to support the Tax Administration in managing software development projects and agreement on setting up CCN/CSI systems through procurement of equipment and provision of technical support.hr/ 141 . NCTS economic module.As a conclusion. Schools. NCTS. In 2009. ending in August 2010. the research mentions that Croatia is catching up after a relatively late start of developing e-Administration and recognizes a significant progress and increased availability of user-oriented e-Services.CARNet 105 . The projects are “Interoperability of IT systems with EU Customs Systems” (PHARE 2005) and “Integration of the Croatian Customs IT System with EU Customs IT System” (PHARE 2006). All those within higher education and science system have access to broadband and all schools are connected to the Internet and equipped with computer rooms. The objective of this project is to further develop the customs systems of information interconnectivity with the EU system including the development of IT applications software (ITMS. The systems of information interconnectivity (TARIC. The implementation of PHARE 2006 projects started in December 2008. e-Education In terms of e-education the Ministry of Science.carnet. EMCS) which are necessary in order to exchange data between the European Commission and EU Member States immediately after accession into EU have been developed within this project. Education and Sports has been also developing and maintaining fundamental infrastructure for the application of new technologies used in the Croatian education system through the Croatian Academic and Research Network . EMCS phase 3. The implementation of PHARE 2005 projects started in September 2007 and ended in July 2009. For the most part.

students no longer need to submit papers such as certificates of nationality. Croatian Academic and Research Network. Ist. 107 The islands of Lošinj. Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia.In 2007 106 the e-Islands project enabled distance learning at local schools in poorly inhabited islands 107 by connecting them to main schools in the areas of Dubrovnik. The National information system 108 of applications for university faculties was launched in November 2009. It allows the dwindling child population on islands to receive lectures from teachers using video and multimedia equipment. and Susak 108 Project of the Ministry of Science. Education and Sport. Olib. Ilovik. Zlarin. financing the right to Internet access to commercial bibliographic databases and e-Magazines to high education system employees. and Trogir was launched. which contain all the data on achievements of students during their entire secondary school education.6 million HRK. Complete implementation of the National information system for application to colleges (NITPVU) is also planned in the coming years. Education and Sport. Zadar. Prvić. Dugi otok. Krapanj. Thanks to networking of databases of the Central State Office for Administration and e-Register. including smart-boards (touchsensitive whiteboards for displaying computer output) on the mainland and thus avoid being sent out to boarding schools. Koločep. students will be able to electronically apply and gain admittance to selected university studies. Iž. The Ministry of Science. the system will increase transparency of the admission process. The detailed results of state exams. Education and Sports has officially accepted the ECDL and has plans to ensure that all teachers and staff in government agencies will have the ECDL certificate. Silba. as well as detailed calculation of credits for each university study and on their place on ranking lists will be made available. 106 Project of the Ministry of Science. This project is part of the eInclusion aspect of the National Broadband strategy and uses the CARNet network. In a country where admission to university studies was subject to corruption. Unije. Depending on their success at state high school leaving exams. Agency for Science and Higher Education. within which the Central Application Office has been established. Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency (HAKOM). and National Centre for External Evaluation of Education 142 . Some 21 island schools have been connected via video-conference system and receive educational materials. Lopud. Future projects include support to information-supported education. Šibenik. Šipan. birth certificates and secondary-school degrees. and CARNet for of 16.

providing judges with access to legal databases and register.pravosudje.vsrh. its headquarters. Since December 2003 the Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia (Vrhovni sud Republike Hrvatske) has been publishing texts of court decisions on the internet (anonymising the parties.html 110 https://sudreg. covering activities such as simple registration of companies. courts’ e-Bulletin board of municipal. county and commercial courts. Text books printed in Braille and stored in digital form have been produced with the support of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in order to enable visually impaired persons to prepare for the ECDL.enhancing transparency of the court’s work and increasing their efficiency. 109 See the e-Justice report at: http://www. to achieve more efficient work of the justice system e-Justice services. digital land registries with access to databases of approximately 50 courts.e-hrvatska. The web site offers a full text search of court decisions in HTML format in Croatian. and commercial courts of the Republic of Croatia. board members and equity capital. Ministry of Justice e-Portal.hr 111 http://sudskapraksa. Apart from e-File. e-Justice The Croatian Ministry of Justice implements a comprehensive programme. Published cases go as far back as 1993. the aim of this is to increase the efficiency and transparency of the Court’s and judges’ work. a number of other projects have been covered within the e-Justice project: e-Cadastre (database with over 16 million digitised land plots). the World Bank funded a project to help children from disadvantaged household or behavioural problems to acquire the ECDL certification thus enhancing their employability. The public can access the database via the Supreme Court web site 111 free of charge. implementation of the Real Property Registration and Cadastre Project. court register. Similar to the online database of the High Commercial Court decisions. The management of court cases (e-File) is being implemented across different Municipal courts.an online service for access to legal information.hr/sdu/en/ProgramEHrvatska/Provedba/e-Pravosudje.Also.109 The online Commercial Court Registry contains information on all registered corporate entities. The site also contains expert papers written by Supreme Court judges. The Registry contains information on the name of the company. business activities. names).hr/SuPra/ 143 . with plans for expansion to 60 other municipal. county. court practice of the Supreme court . and Judges Web . Access to the Registry first became available in 1995 110. through a series of projects.

By the end of 2005. In 2009. Judges of the High Commercial Court also participated in the project’s implementation.Croatia has been in the process of computerising its Land Registry.jsp 113 http:// katastar. all 87 courts which enter data in digital form opened a digital Land Registry and all municipal courts became equipped for digital entry of Land Registry data. it is currently possible to search most of the Land Registry books online and obtain an electronic Land Registry extract for a property that has been entered into the database. However.hr/dgu/ind.pravosudje. Searching the database is possible drawing on an index of more than 4. the e-Cadastre 113 service enables online insight into the legal status of properties in Croatia. an online database of selected decisions allows the public to view decisions of the High Commercial Court 114 (Visoki Trgovački Sud) in the first and second instances. 112 http:// e-izvadak.php 114 www. In May 2005 an online service for a digital Land Registry with access to databases of around 50 courts became accessible to the public. In addition.hr/mpweb/main.hr 144 . The project was carried out by the association Sudačka Mreža (“Judges’ web”) with the financial support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. and enable electronic processes between the cadastre and land registry offices’ and citizens. The aim of this project is the development and establishment of the system that will cover all information from the official cadastre and land registries. it is becoming very important in solving cadastre-related issues The IT component of the Joint Information System (JIS) Project is being developed.000 key words suggested by the High Commercial Court judges. based on a number of the relevant land plot and cadastral municipality data. These data are consolidated into a single central Land Registry 112. This process is still ongoing.sudacka-mreza. which makes it the most complete database on spatial conditions in the country. representing the most important activity of the continued Real Property Registration and Cadastre Project. Considering that e-Cadastre contains stored information on all cadastre plots in Croatia.

projects. The portal Culturenet. school clinics and central stocks units of the 66 Croatian hospitals to the central system. and includes the creation of the reporting system linking the Ministry of Health and Social Care.e-Health The implementation of the information system for eHealthcare projects of the primary health care was conducted in three phases to be concluded in 2010. The HZZO Portal 115 of the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance provides safe electronic data exchange with the entities of the Croatian health care system.arhiv.hr was awarded the Good Practise label 2009 from the European eGovernment awards 145 . and their continuous connection to a single system. associations.kultura. the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and the Croatian Institute for Health Protection at Work. For populations living outside main cities. In 2007 an agreement on cooperation was signed between the Ministry of Culture and the founder of the National and University Library in Zagreb. protection. for example private archives. the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. enabling the creation and addition of individual modules as separate projects. library and museum materials was launched in 2006 by the Ministry of Culture. The system is designed in a modular fashion. and aims at pooling information resources available on Croatian culture (organizations.hzzo-net. etc. managed by the Croatian National Archives. The introduction of a smart card allows for example doctors and clinics to gain faster access to reimbursements of health care costs. Pharmacies and primary health care laboratories were connected to the central system with electronic guidelines for subscription of medicines. The project ARHiNET 117.hr 116 http://www. The programme is supported by the Central Office for e-Croatia and the National Council for Information Society. 115 www.hr 117 http://arhinet. processing and use of archives. this will allow faster access to the appropriate specialist and hospital. was launched in 2006 for the preservation. The final stages of the programme include connecting specialist consultation activities. the Croatian State Archives and the Museum Documentation Centre as the project leader for the implementation of the national project “Croatian cultural heritage” 116. e. institutions.hr was initiated by the Croatian Ministry of Culture and the Open Society Institute for the period 2003-2013.Culture The National Programme for the digitization of archival.

In developing services for the large tourism industry in Croatia. a GIS set-up enables accurate overview of topographic. Electronic business is a necessary precondition for the participation of the Croatian economy in the global markets through the offer of Croatian good and services and the extended possibility of purchasing goods and services from the global markets.hr http://www. spatial plans and monitoring of nature conditions and habitats.hr 146 . at the end of last year the Ministry of Economy. e-Business Electronic business implies all activities performed by legal or physical entities with the purpose of exchanging goods or services via computers and modern communication technologies. cadastral.e-hrvatska. 118 119 120 121 http://ecrew. This allows planning of tourist facilities.hr/ The c-crew was awarded a Good practice label in the European eGovernment Awards in 2009.pomorstvo. On the basis of accurate and updated data. Within the framework of the implementation of the Strategy of e-Business Development in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 2007-2010. building and preservation of spaces. The studies are the first of their kind in Croatia. Labour and Entrepreneurship ordered two research projects whose results were published in ‘’The Study of e-Business Development in the Republic of Croatia for the year 2006 and 2007’’ 120 and ‘’The Study of Obstacles Impeding the Implementation of e-Business in the Republic of Croatia for the year 2006 and 2007’’ 121. They were carried out last October and November by IDC Adriatics agency following the methodology of the e-Business Watch project. land registry. including tourist intensity. nature parks and areas managed by county public institutions. the Ministry of Culture developed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to manage protected areas of national parks.e-hrvatska. http://www. an Integrated Maritime Management System or e-crew 118 managed by the Tourism Boards allows companies renting boats and yachts and using a FINA e-card to register passengers and crew on-line 119. e-Tourism For maritime tourism.

The implementation of the Broadband Strategy has ensured continuous strong growth of broadband Internet users in the Republic of Croatia up to present day. compared to 9 kn spent six years earlier.194 with the achieved density of 21.1%. 122 http://www.44% belng to the cable Internet access. out of which 684. 57 percent of the companies in Croatia still consider their company too small to be using e-business.736 citizens. the growing number of broadband users is not the only visible result in the implementation of the Broadband Strategy. The high level of broadband penetration in Croatia can be attributed to the adoption of a Broadband strategy that enabled the country to catch up.238 conections or 5.956 connections or 15. The Government of the Republic of Croatia allocated some € 7. the number of broadband users in 2003 was around 4.13 percent.721 business entities were using e-banking services. and 252. compared to 89 kn spent in 2002. This numbers present a continuation of the trend of growing numbers of broadband Internet connections that began in 2003 and continues to yield results each year. However.7 million was spent on e-islands project and some € 2.hakom.866 citizens and 155. In the same period in 2008 the service was used by 452. in 2007 Croatian citizens spent an average of 93 kn to purchase goods via electronic means. Three months before the deadline. with the penetration of 0. the number of broadband Internet connections in the Republic of Croatia on 31 December 2009 totalled 937.53 million for the development of broadband infrastructure up to the end of 2008. Despite the optimistic growth indicators. despite lagging behind many countries in the region at the time of adoption in 2006. the key goal of the Strategy (2008) had been surpassed. UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE According to the data from the Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency 122.035 business entities showing an increase of 32 % for private users and 15% for businesses.hr/ 147 .400. and 135.7 million for a project to develop broadband infrastructure in areas of special state concern and hill-mountains areas. By comparison.69% belong to mobile Internet access. while the expenditure in the business sector per capita in 2007 totalled 605 kn.According to the data obtained during the research. under which € 2. According to the data issued by the Croatian National Bank during the first quarter of 2009 in Croatia 597.

Transport and Infrastructure. Croatia has assured technological neutrality. the overall responsibility of coordination of activities of the digitalisation process has been given to the Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia. and in the line with Slovakia (14.In these areas. the Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia. In this way. The Croatian Government passed on 31 July 2008 the ˝Strategy of transfer from analogue to digital television broadcasting in the Republic of Croatia˝. Although according to this research.3). thereby securing equal and non-discriminatory position of all forms of provision of digital television services on the market. According to the comparative report on the electronic communications and information society market of South-East European countries 123. the Ministry of Culture. in the manner that the subsidy is being given not only to purchase receivers for digital terrestrial television signals.terrestrial. January 2008 124 Broadband Penetration Rate. and Romania (12.˝ However.6). The complete transfer from analogue to digital television broadcasting is set for 31 December 2010. 15.o.9 in the EU.3) 124. the Agency for Supervision of Electronic Media and the network operator ˝Odašiljači i veze d.310 new users were connected by the end of 2008. it was nevertheless ahead of countries such as Bulgaria (11. we have fully aligned the digitalisation process with European Union acquis communautaire. cable or satellite signals. Croatia is one of few European countries to provide financial forms of support to all public television payers for purchasing receivers of digital television programmes.9) and Poland (12. Greece (15. the Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency. Croatia still lagged behind the average penetration of 23. Croatia led South-East Europe countries with the penetration of 21. According to its form. In the process of implementation of Strategy of transfer from analogue to digital television broadcasting.13 of broadband Internet connections. but also receivers of all digital terrestrial television signals .o. The Strategy implementation is entrusted with the Ministry of Sea. Eurostat.8). the Croatian subsidy system for the transfer to digital television is most similar to that used in the United States of America. July 1 2009 148 . Finally. on 26 January 2010 Istria and Primorsko-goranska county become together the first Croatian region to switch off all analogue television transmitters following with all other regions which should switch off analogue television until the end of 2010. 123 Cullen International.

electronic government in the Republic of Croatia is not being built from scratch. 125 125 http://www. and on the side of the service users. The mentioned foundations unequivocally determine the direction. From the beginning the approach of the HITRO.HR service to clients was through two interfaces – the office as the human contact and the web for the electronic solutions. accessibility of electronic services and human potentials. foundations are set which guarantee an equal and systematic development of information society as one of the main assumptions for the development of the society and economic knowledge. In other words. Its successful implementation will create the conditions for directing the entire public administration work towards its users. data/information and documentation base. content.2.HR over 30. and with their implementation. adopted in January 2009.000 companies and crafts were established. additional basic services that the activities of electronic government will be based on and the construction of adequate competences. along with raising the level of accessibility of the e-government services. These results testify the accomplished progress in all areas of public administration. One of the good examples is HITRO. In four years 19. especially results accomplished in development of information systems under the “umbrella” of the eCroatia programme from 2003. Through HITRO. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development The e Government Development Strategy for the period from 2009 until 2012. all accomplishments and solutions present in any form in state government are taken into consideration. 2009 149 . goals and expected results and are directed towards the strengthening of the existing technological base and continuing the redirection of office activities into the channels of electronic communication.epractice. both on the side of the administration as the service provider.HR service. for establishing an electronic public administration in the Republic of Croatia.844 e-cards were issued to businesses for use on e-services. The Croatian e Government Development Strategy is based on four foundations: computer and communications infrastructure.eu Data updated on Nov. What is more important. that is. formulates the guidelines for development and implementation activities that will continue to develop a communication network of state administrative bodies. establish a data and document management system.

by comparing the results 130 with the last year’s data. Internet use for educational purposes and in order to gather health related information is increasing (increase of 8%). So. 150 . Croatia still didn’t reach the EU average.org/en/initiatives/ gcp/Global%20Information%20Technology%20 Report/index.770 Internet users 129. Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (March 2009). Usage of ICT in Households and by individuals 2009. although a slight increase in both categories was noted. 2009. “World class indicators” cited in Croatia: EU accession enhances public sector transparency Oct.HR offices around the country meant that five steps related to company incorporation could be completed by one office instead of having to go to different offices or send documents via regular mail. Internet penetration in Croatia is 45 %. to further develop ICTs.It is noteworthy that in its 2009 evaluation of top performers and most improved in the key areas of electronic filing and compliance. http://www. send e-mails (77%).446. it can be observed that individual users tend to use the Internet mostly to gather information on products and services (70%). penetration rate of the fixed network in EU27 reached 23. A relatively small share of e-banking and e-Administration demonstrates the fact that online usage of these services is still not significant. where according to the Eurostat data from 1 July 2009. 128 ITU Statistics 129 http://www. Croatia still lags somewhat behind in its usage of IT in public. and to engender commitment across all sectors of the economy and society. As to the usage of Internet. January 28. state administration processes and services 127. one of the highest in South East Europe 128. Companies House (the UK government register of UK companies) favourably evaluated HITRO. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development Despite ambitious efforts.ebrd.weforum.com/pubs/legal/lit092g.hakom. 3. available at: http://www. more needs to be done to raise awareness and understanding of the information society. 126 The Companies House report notes that the opening of HITRO. and read newspapers and magazines (increase of 10%).9 %. despite of the high penetration rate. First Release. 126 See Companies House.pdf 127 See World Economic Forum: The Global Information Technology Report 2008-2009.HR.htm.hr/UserDocsImages/dokumenti/KVA%20Internet-Broj%20korisnika%20HR. In September 2009 Croatia had 2. However. 2010.pdf 130 Croatian Bureau of Statistics. according to the Global Information Technology Report 2008-2009 published by the World Economic Forum.

such as returning filled in forms (37%) and the treatment of administrative procedures (36%). there are also some encouraging statistics regarding the e-business development in Croatia. 131 Croatian Bureau of Statistics. so 57% (a decrease of 7%) of enterprises had its own web site. The Internet simplifies performing of some business processes. The service of submitting tender proposals showed a decrease in usage. 151 . 2010. Other servies. Development politics have emphasised household ownership of computers rather than public points of access which are few. from 16% to 13%. Out of several services available. were somewhat less used. Usage of ICT in Enterprises 2009. The usage of e-government services provides for better information accessibility and speeds up a delivery of administrative procedures. while 61% (an increase of 5%) use the Internet for administrative purposes. such as banking and financial transactions. Moreover. There were 84% (a decrease of 2%) of enterprises that conducted banking and financial transactions via the Internet. the lack of widespread access to internet at local level is also an issue. There was a small increase recorded in the usage of almost all services. First Release.Lately. Yet local level implementation and access of e-services is believed to be critical to their widespread acceptance and use. it also allows usage of administrative public services (e-government). Usage of the Internet caused changes in the ways of business conduct by allowing for the integration of business processes at a higher level. while a significant increease was shown in the number of enterprises that use the Internet for education and training of employees. from 18% to as much as 29%. There are 84% (the same as in the previous year) of enterprises that use the Internet for banking and financial services. The Internet became a necessity for an efficient business conduct. January 28. The Survey 131 showed that 98% (the same as in the previous year) of enterprises used computers in everyday business and 95% (a decrease of 2%) of enterprises had the Internet access. Administrative services via the Internet were used by 61% (an increase of 4%) of enterprises. 56% of enterprises used services to obtain information (an increase of 5%) and 54% to obtain forms (an increase of 2%). For e-services. there was an increase in both the usage of administrative services and in staff training.

4. the impetus of EU integration process will certainly step up the pace of development and range of services available. 152 . Having already caught up with some EU member countries in the development towards an Information Society. Croatia is expected to reap favourably the fruits of a decade of legislative and structural transformation. While the present services for government. Conclusions Croatia has been taking a strong lead in the region’s development towards the Information Society. businesses and people are numerous.

it was admitted under the provisional reference of the ˝Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia˝. The MIS is pursuing e-Government Strategy (2009-2012). focusing on measures to develop the communication infrastructure up to 2010 as a technical platform for the Information Society. It became a member of the United Nations in 1993.pdf 135 http://www. set up after the first UNDP-supported National Strategy for Information Society Information Development and Action Plan 134 in April 2005. and prior to that a Committee for ICTs.gov.gov. sometimes abbreviated as FYROM.gov. The MIS had previously been a Ministry without portfolio. and a precondition for their introduction.mio. MIS is also responsible for the e-SEE Agenda+ implementation and the eLeadership programme. under the Ministry of Transport and Communications 136 (MTC).mio.mk/new_site/mk/ 153 . the Ministry of Information Society 133 (MIS) was established in July 2008 as a central body for building and developing the Information Society.mk/ 134 http://www. and an e-Government National Action Plan is in progress to cover 2010 to 2012. This was supplemented with the National Strategy for Development of Electronic Communications with Information Technologies 135. has been transferred to the MTC.mio. 132 The Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) under whose umbrella is the Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative uses this appellation hence the terminology used in this report 133 http://www. 1.gov.mk/files/pdf/na_angliski/NSEKIT_English-Parlament%20_2. Meanwhile the bSEE Action Plan. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES The development of ICTs has been a high priority for government for some time and is expected to remain so. regarded as virtually complete.FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 132 is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia.mk/files/pdf/na_angliski/Strategija_i_akcionen_plan. from which it declared independence in 1991. but as a result of an unresolved dispute with Greece over its name. Since December 2005 it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. To achieve its strategic priorities in this area.pdf 136 http://mtc.

mk www. enabling the integration of various databases and governing all e-services. Foundation Open Society Institute.europa.mk See http://ec. five key administration registries (covering for instance citizens.org. in compliance with the EU Framework 139. looking at issues such as best practice interoperability standards 140 and developing a website to promote the idea of good governance. and rising to 30 by the end of 2009.The Ministry’s work is project based. from an initial five people to a current team of 25. Some remaining key legal aspects are now in place. a trend expected to continue into 2010. as noted. the tendering process for hardware and software now completed. intended to mobilise the participation of stakeholders in the process of Information Society development. obligations and responsibilities of all parties. Their work is strongly supported by the Government with ICTs.masit.org. The National Council for Development of Information Society was established to support the implementation of the Information Society Strategy. The Council’s role is advisory.mk 154 . businesses. which includes the relevant Ministries and some non-government representatives. The interoperability project drew on an interesting collaboration between civil society (Metamorphosis and the Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia) and the Government Secretariat. The Ministry has grown considerably since its establishment. The Law on Free Access to Public Information came into force in 2006. They undertook an Assessment of Good Governance Potential in Macedonia. with representatives from public. http://www. taxation and customs) will be piloted for interoperability. The Electronic Administration Act passed during 2009. the ICT Chamber 137 and the NGO Metamorphosis 138 being among the most active.metamorphosis. and the Law on e-Commerce was passed in October 2007. set up by government decision. This will underpin the development of the integrated set of services available on the e-Government Portal. being one of the priority areas for 2009. private and the non-governmental sectors and the universities.141 137 138 139 140 141 www. Each has a Work Group.org. 2008. with about 20 ongoing projects. But in the meantime.gg.eu/idabc/en/document/3761 Recommendations for ICT Standards in the Civil Service in the Republic of Macedonia. Relevant by-laws are being drafted to precisely define the methods of communication. is central to the goal of interoperability. while supporting the Government with implementation of the ICT projects in the state administration.

An e-Cadastre project for both business and public use. Under the umbrella of ‘Interactive Macedonia’ and funded by USAID. E-SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS While few have so far been brought to completion (see the e-business Portal) e-services for government have made significant progress. Government sessions and processes were also recently upgraded. managed by the Ministry of Finance.gov. and allows for online tracking of the progress of requests. many of which will be made available in the central e-Government Portal.) It is expected that the system will cover its first set of processes during 2010. for business.e-administracija. is fully developed and being tested alongside the paper system. enhancing transparency by giving public access to government documentation and processes. under which all citizens will have an electronic health card. a number of Most advanced among e-Business services is the public procurement system. and import and export licenses will be available interactively. The system holds information on ownership and sale of land and buildings. the portal will be integrated with the government document system (as a sub-project of the interoperability project mentioned above). 142 http://www. Users will have a digital signature.e-administracija. Public procurement Bureau. Fibre backbone is in place between them. A Document Management System (DMS) is quite well advanced. and includes measures to reduce bureaucracy and eliminate discretionary decisions. for which a National Root Certification Centre is to be established under the MIS. and all the information will be publicly available (the only exception being the amount of a mortgage). 142 Currently relatively undeveloped in terms of interactivity. other business services are under development: Upgrading of the one-stop-shop system will enable the electronic registration of many businesses possibly in as little as one day. and mortgages held. 143 . (The digital signature will also be used in the e-Health project. it digitises the registration of land and buildings and changes to them (the Real Estate Cadastre and the Land Cadastre). MIS is overseeing or implementing an ambitious range of projects. government and the public. as well as employment registration.mk/?q=node/6 143 http://www.mk/?q=node/7 155 . led by the MIS and connecting a total of 20 Ministries and government institutions.gov. Implemented by the Agency for Real Estate Cadastre and supported by SIDA.At the present time. This is now fully online.

In cooperation with the MIS. digitizing. with major growth being reported over the last few years ($8m in 2004 to $24m in 2007 and $34m in 2008). e-BIZ Centers offers advanced classroom training programs. covering 33 courts.The system can also produce electronic . helping Macedonian apparel and footwear companies to promote globally and to expand their business opportunities via Internet. The e-BIZ Project. which works closely with the government and undertakes its own activities. In the apparel industry for example.fashionmk. 145 http://www. A team of four represents 80 ICT companies accounting for 90% of the total turnover in ICT market. This enables the automated distribution of cases to judges. video-conference based training. business conferences and video conferences services to the companies to broaden the management capacity of local business leaders. grading and pattern making and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) services for tension-free spreading and automated cutting to apparel manufacturing companies. and ongoing monitoring of progress. helps SMEs adopt high-impact ICT applications that support their competitiveness and growth. and will then be rolled out to the rest of the country linking branch offices by virtual private network lines (VPN). The e-Cadastre goes live in Skopje during 2010. Exports are primarily to other countries in the SEE region and to the USA.pdf documents. All judges and their assistants are being provided with computers. the former funding a regional ‘branding of ICTs’ and the latter supporting their work by providing capacity building for purpose of advocacy and lobbying. and is working with GTZ and USAID. a USAID project. with e-signature verified by a USB attachment. where 45% of the workload is. MASIT produced a National ICT Strategy for Software Development. Web based training. Several specialized e-Biz Centres have been established. consulting. The project further helped develop an e-Commerce Portal 145. It became in April a Chamber of commerce representing about 80% of the domestic IT market. and work is underway to establish a single Data Centre connecting the different segments of the judiciary. The chamber was founded in 2000 as an Association within the Economic Chamber of Macedonia by the top fifteen Macedonian IT companies. An Integrated Court Information System is also being installed. The ICT sector itself is represented and supported by the Macedonia ICT Chamber of Commerce (MASIT) 144. the New Trend Apparel Technology e-BIZ Centre offers Computer Aided Design (CAD) services for pattern design. 144 MASIT is a volunteer. Finally. non-profit organisation. The approach is to address both demand and supply sides of SME adoption of ICT.com/ 156 . It partners with Macedonian entrepreneurs to offer “high impact ICT solutions that significantly improve SMEs’ competitiveness.

a few already delivering.gov. registrations and payments for various licenses. simplifying procedures and preventing duplication. will also bring benefits to the public. e-Health is also an area of emphasis. The interoperability of government systems will also mean that a citizen’s transaction with a single government department will have access to all documents contained by other departments. in its early stages. and a further 10. It is expected to deliver increased efficiency in provision of health services.250 in 2008 149.mk/ 148 http://www.mk/?q=node/6 147 http://www. The goal of the programme is to raise the number of computers in usage in the country among the younger generation.e-administracija.mio. As noted the e-Government Services Portal will bring together many of the citizen e-services 146. as noted above accessed via a digital signature. This project is expected to lead to the introduction of an Integrated Health Information System (IHIS) and e-health card. taxation are planned to be available online on a phased basis (some can already be done via mobile phone). with a voucher worth about €200 to be redeemed against the purchase of a new computer. and citizens will also be able to access all public and government documentation from a separate Portal. and all students with a disability. And a further ambitious range of projects is under development for citizens. specifically among students who are close to entering the labour market.mk/vaucheri/ 149 Ministry of Information Society: Report for the results from the Programmes for distribution of valuable bon certificates – Vouchers organized in 2007 and 2008. 147 An innovative project already completed over a two year period is a Vouchers for Computers scheme 148 which provided all final year students.gov. Applications. as well as financial purposes) and a full record of treatment.SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Some of the above services. such as the e-Cadastre and the Court Information System. 157 . 146 http://www. About 12.uslugi. at lower cost and faster speeds. improved access to relevant data (for health service providers.200 were issued to students at the beginning of the academic year in 2007. public services.gov.

A localised version of Moodle. The results will be combined with teacher assessments during the year to produce the final results. used to develop pedagogical software in maths and science for use mainly in primary schools. Open Source software that produces an educational platform for a variety of uses. the software is all Open Source (the operating system is EDUBUNTU. has been deployed to achieve this. A forerunner project. to assist planning in the educational process.000 teachers funded by USAID.500 secondary school teachers have been trained by the MOES. and virtually all 23. now in its final stages of development. Its success encouraged support for the new programmes. and funded mainly by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia with additional contributions from donators. • • School curriculum content development is also underway.Perhaps most ambitious of all is the e-Education project. about 56. all localised to Macedonian and Albanian languages. in mixed configurations. Notably. in addition to those trained early. The figures by the end of 2009 were impressive. The entire system is located on a centralised database. Each of the 460 primary and secondary schools has broadband internet access.300 computers donated from China. Moodle is also underpinning a database of students and teachers.000 will receive training. 158 . and ICT training of about 12. a collaboration between the MIS and the Ministry of Education and Science (MOES).000 teachers. MOES is developing additional curricular subjects with the Bureau for Development of Education (the body responsible for school curricula). about 250. considerably bigger in size and scope. Computer for Every Child. and PCs each powering seven ‘thin client’ computers make up the rest. Intel has donated 400 ‘learning objects’ (valued at about US$14m). About 6. using a multiple choice format. and intends to enable the full curriculum to be taught using ICTs. beyond simply the use of the computers to learn ICTs. already being tested. laid some groundwork a few years previously with the introduction of about 5.000 students will undertake their examinations online. A laptop has been provided to each of 23. It is intended that in April and May 2010. Macedonia Connects. that will enable efficient and rapid processing.000 computers have been introduced. using adapted Intel Classmates. the world processing Open Office).000 laptops to primary school students. • About 180.

which should bring in the medium term more secure funding. was later upgraded through participation in SEEREN to 4 mbits.mk 159 . including some programmes on women in media. Issues relating to gender do not feature in current ICT-related activities. connectivity to the GEANT network was increased to 155 mbits. funded by the Australian government and Soros.gov. enabling universities and research centres to attract EU Projects and to complete them more efficiently. but less so in management and political positions. Several expressed the view that in the education system. The portal will offer a central location to those with disability to find information and services offered by the state institutions that are important to them. is also relatively advanced for the region. established in 2005 and initially funded by the Italian Government through UNESCO. 150 www. A portal for people with disability 150 is also introduced. But neither makes any reference to ICTs. Cyril and Methodius University. has also made some progress. Prior to this. linking universities internally and externally. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy adopted an Equal Opportunity Act in 2006 and there is a National Action Plan for Gender Equality 2007– 2012. The Centre’s current software.The Macedonian Academic and Research Network (MARNET). the Regional Centre for the Digitisation of Culture in Skopje. a World Bank project provided them with a grant for the digitalisation of culture. The digitisation of cultural heritage. The initial 64kbit connectivity. A new Law is under discussion that will make MARNET into an independent entity. Established initially in 1994 and technically managed by the Institute of Informatics of St. A National Strategy on Cultural Heritage is expected to be finalised by the end of 2009. as well as to discuss different questions that interest them. there is gender equality among teachers and students. even within ICT departments. based on international UNESCO standards. under the Ministry of Culture.sakamznammozam. Further upgrading the network will bring it to a world standard. it now connects MARNET to the regional SEEREN and GEANT networks via 1Gbps broadband Internet. has been used to store all data. all primary and secondary schools and to allow the private universities to use this network. In July 2008. which the Centre hopes will help them to implement their projects and to introduce much needed standards. to make complaints. The Ministry leads a UNESCO project on the preservation of tangible cultural heritage. There are plans to connect other state universities. the EU and the government each providing half the funding.

The government believes it can move ahead of broadband as usually conceived. in terms of infrastructure. The entire country is covered by broadband wireless. and in kiosks in some rural areas. Currently about 140 small television channels broadcast at municipal level. and the plan is for set top boxes to be provided by the commercial side. Their plans are even bigger.openthewindows. A National Broadcasting Digital Switchover Strategy has been adopted. mainly for people with disabilities. which the Broadcasting Council is considering combining into fewer numbers as a result of digital switchover. and the benefits will take some time to come. 2. with digital broadcasting services planned for May 2012. and in April 2009 adopted a National Strategy for the Development of the Next Generation of Broadband Internet under MTC. 151 www. and indeed beyond. At municipal level. offering resources. was developed by Metamorphosis. The target is to roll-out fibre to the home by 2015. with about 10 more at sub-national level. UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE In some respects.An earlier inclusion project.and further fibre backbone is planned including the use of the Energy Company’s network. Some projects are advanced enough to reasonably anticipate the outcomes. four competing companies offering WIMAX services. news and information.org 160 . with analogue expected to continue until 2015. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development Most of the impressive range of e-services and activities in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are still under development. the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia can claim to be among the most advanced country in the region. a programme is underway to develop public/private partnerships that offer broadband locally – the target is for all municipalities to have entered into such arrangement during 2010 . 151 Finally it is worth noting that free wireless is available in 15 towns at public internet access points. The multiplexes will be divided between public services and commercial operators.

as well as enhancing public transparency. also offers clear benefits to users. is aiming to achieve a number of immediate benefits. and $9 million in foreign direct investment. The e-Cadastre system. e-filling and storage. improving the labour force overall. five of which have already begun generating a regular profit. The e-BIZ centres have collectively generated more than 1. 161 . in terms of time and cost savings. Three of the e-BIZ centres. reduced operative costs. however. are now continuing with their activities independently of USAID support. More important. and reducing the possibility of corruption and level of bureaucracy. The major e-education project. The e-BIZ project accomplishments are measured in terms of establishing sustainable Centres. In the longer term the expectation is that the quality of education will improve.The electronic public procurement system is already saving time and money. after a sustained period of positive results. there will be an immediate rise also in computer and internet literacy. The innovative Vouchers for Computers scheme boosted PC ownership among the cohort of thirdlevel qualified job seekers in 2007 and 2008. easy access to past data. it will also deliver greater transparency of government to citizens. $1 million in matching funds from local entrepreneurs. Sitting exams online and the introduction of multiple choice questions will greatly increase the efficiency of marking and grading.500 new jobs. which is fully operational and about to roll out. enabling them to continue operations with current provisions. Through the e-services Portal. The introduction of ICTs will profoundly change the examination system. suited to the idea of a ‘knowledge society’. a national examinations system will reduce the arbitrary element that currently exists in a system largely based on teacher assessment. With every child using a computer. enabling the building of partnership in the EU and beyond. Experience suggests that the DMS will automate and significantly improve the current work processes of ministries through quicker processing of data. The MARNET Research community has essentially eliminated the bandwidth bottleneck for academic and research institutions. The recently enhanced electronic government system has also improved and speeded up the preparation of documentations and materials for government sessions.

The ambitious national infrastructure plans for Next Generation Networks (NGNs) are feeling the current level economic crisis. and it has had to curtail its work in this area. and the quality is not always good enough. those directly involved within government institution will be trained to use the system. For the DMS project. 162 . Universities face the prospect of up to €15. The cost of broadband bandwidth also remains high. and it is running on the funds saved from 2008. Under the new Law. or perhaps a signed contract. it is proposed that the government will fund 70% of the cost and the universities the remaining 30%. and they cannot afford the quality they require. MARNET’s funding to connect internal buildings within campuses was also drastically cut. the infrastructure is very expensive and not at the level the Agency needs. The need for more experienced and trained staff have been noted by the MIS. where suitably qualified public administration staff in the areas of ICTs tend to be few and far between. Furthermore. The Ministry of Culture’s digitisation project faces high VPN network charges as well as network breakdowns. to entice and secure skilled staff for longer periods. the Ministry has selected a number of larger Municipalities to develop a model that others can then replicate.000 a month for national and international connections. Developing the Public Private Partnerships at Municipality level faces the additional problem of the limited capacity of Municipal governments and officials in this area. funding is the main issue. To address this. as some companies scale back their anticipated investments.3. Human capacity in ICTs is an issue not just at municipality level. and encounters obstacles along the way. There is also no real choice of operators. it is hard to motivate people who are trained in ICT as they tend to leave for higher salaries paid within the private sector. However. MARNET is also facing funding problems. despite great strides in coverage. At the moment there are no incentives to encourage them to stay but additional enticements are being considered such as a bonus salary. As always. though the VPN lines to all branches are available. but raising even that will be difficult for the first few years. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development Simultaneously implementing such a wide and ambitious range of actions and projects inevitably involves a steep learning curve. At present its government subvention for bandwidth has been cut. The e-cadastre project is planned to begin its regional roll out in 2010.

and made special efforts to equip itself and develop a wide-spread usage of ICTs in all areas. defining standards of the Centre etc. 4. Here too a key challenge the management is the very low salaries.The Agency for Real Estate Cadastre established an IT section three years ago to cover their 29 branch offices. Conclusions In this first decade of 21st century. ICT adoption values are now close to EU levels and the ambitious plans to develop specific projects within the framework of the EU strategies will need to mobilize international government and private sector finance. and has done little in terms of actual practical deliveries. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has shown strong political will. 163 . the Centre is currently limited to theoretical work. The Regional Centre for the Digitisation of Culture similarly has planned a number of projects on the digitisation process but face the challenge of too few skilled staff in all regions to do the work. As a result. effectively preventing the recruitment of more senior and skilled staff and making it difficult to retain those that have been trained. Obviously the risk is that obstacles faced in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia may lead to a growing gap between the ambitious plans for ICT projects and what gets delivered in practice.

152 Ministry sub-divisions take the form of State Enterprises.md/en/ http://www. A separate Concept on e-Governance was adopted in June 2006 which serves as a base for the implementation of ICT tools in public administration. Moldova has become associated with e-SEE Initiative processes and has been actively participating in several working groups of the Initiative.e-moldova. and managing the databases of most key ‘registries’. 153 employing about 1.mtic. 152 153 154 155 http://www. The main of its components are e-Governance and e-Democracy. The EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement entered into force in July 1998 and the country has implemented the first three-year Action Plan (2005-2008) within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the European Union. through the Stability Pact for SEE intervention.md/ 164 . the Special Telecommunications Centre (STC) under the State Chancellery 154. and a new one is under preparation for the period from 2011 to 2015.cts. key among which are the State Information Resources Centre (Registru). and secure e-document exchange.REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA The Republic of Moldova (hereafter referred to as Moldova) took its independence on August 27. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES Responsibility for the information society lies with the Main Directorate of Information Society Development under the Ministry for Information Technology and Communication (MITC). 1.md/en/ It was previously known as the Ministry of Information Development http://www. which has responsibility for developing the single eServices Portal to provide access to e-services from all other Ministries.gov. including the e-Leadership Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA). bio-metric systems.900 staff and responsible for the integration and interoperability of state information resources in all Ministries. as well as for security related ICTs such as the digital signature.md/ National Strategy for Information Society Building ‘e-Moldova’ see http://en.registru. 1991. In 2003. Also relevant is another State Enterprise. The first e-Moldova Strategy and Action Plan was launched in 2005 155 covering the period to 2010.

e-services. political parties. including religious. non-governmental organisations. and the Vehicle and Drivers Register (comprising data on all vehicle registration. divers licenses etc. or have made progress in that direction. vehicles owned. although payment is currently made at post offices or banks. A total of 98% of the population has now been allocated a number and issued ID cards. Registru has developed key state registers 156 and is gradually building out services from them: • • • • the Population Register (holding personal details on passport and ID cards. including links to their families. directorships. For instance. migration. These interoperable Registries along with others not yet fully integrated are regarded as the foundations for the development of e-services. using the unique 13 digit number assigned at birth or at border entries to each individual.md 165 . 157 A Digital Signature has been established using a high security chip and pin. These are currently accessed via different Portal and Websites. the Legal Entity Register (with data on legally registered businesses. place and map of residence. births. deaths. Although its use is at present limited to a small number of public officials and enterprises. the system is capable of tracking that person across all the databases. visas granted. tax status etc. maps and geographic indicators).). associations.). and more.). marriage.Several Ministries and State Enterprises have developed e-services. when the funding is available and the volume of e-services available justifies it. A high degree of interoperability and integration has been achieved between these four registers.registru. the Geographical Register (with cadastre land and building ownerships. the intention is to extend it to access the e-services Portal by business and the public. 157 http://www. and a number are already offered to a fully interactive level. 156 Responsibility for Population and Legal Entity Registries have recently been moved to the Ministry of Justice though REGISTRU still manages the databases. etc.md or http://www.

In order to implement this new law. the former National Regulatory Agency for Telecommunications and Informatics (ANRTI) was reorganised and became the National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology (ANRCETI). A system of e-procurement for government contracts is under implementation. An e-document system has been developed and implemented by another state enterprise. are connected by fibre. the Governmental Committee on equality between women and men was re-established and insurance of its functionality with sufficiently high status of members – Deputy Prime Minister (Head of Commission). allowing for creating and maintaining orders through the government portal. Minister of Social Protection. In 2008. 158 See http://portal. Gender focal points in line ministries and inter-ministerial coordination were established and consolidated and the Government established gender focal points at regional level. in about five Ministries (as a test version). MoldData.md 166 . BUSINESS AND PEOPLE Moldova has made some progress in terms of electronic services to government. the Cadastre and other areas. Family and Child (Deputy Head of Commission). E-SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT. accessing data and documentation on tenders of state procurement plans. with the technical core and digital signature and interface in place. and Ministries and public building within the capital Chisinau. after the new Law on Electronic Communications had come into effect. 158 But access to e-services has yet to migrate there from their current locations. under STC. and regulations on control procedures for e-communications services. In March 2008. ministerial representation at the level of deputy ministers and representatives of civil society.The official Moldova e-Services Portal is also ready for use. Email and e-voting system is used by government for their daily communications. the ANRCETI has issued secondary legislation among which are authorisations and licences for the use of resources for public electronic e-communications services. A request for an e-signature key delivered by the Certification Authority of public authorities can be sent through the government portal. The National Plan of Action on Gender Promotion in Moldova (2006-2009) which was adopted in August 2006 does not mention access to ICTs. though not outside. the Prosecutors office.gov. The digital signature system is ready to be used for all government documents. and automatic record-keeping for purchasing authorities and economic operators.

The Government Portal and Gateway is being developed and implemented by the Centre for Special Telecommunications (CTS). Electronic signatures are delivered only by the Certification Authority in Chisinau and in Cahul through a public-private partnership for service delivery with a centralized government agency. An e-taxation system has been developed by the State Taxation Inspectorate under the Ministry of Finance and businesses can download forms and tax certificates on-line. the Cahul Chamber of Commerce and Industry.fisc. is contributing to the development of the Statistical Information System of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).md/es_serv/# 160 http://www.md/ 167 . and applications completed to register businesses. in this case with the STC and a business association. UNDP. and real-time video surveillance of frontiers. At present 95% of customs documents and declarations can be completed online. mainly using leased lines. and all their offices are connected in a VPN. to deliver services on its behalf outside Chisinau. Services are charged and payment done through the post-offices. 160 The State Tax Inspectorate and the State Enterprise FiscServInform in partnership with the USAID BIZTAR project launched the free downloadable ˝Declaratia Rapida˝ or Quick Declaration software and management system for faster tax declaration. Certificates are issued online. catering for at least 1.500 companies. using tools for error checking and then print them as a barcode which will allow the State Tax Service to read the information using scanners financed by USAID. under the Ministry of Finance has also been digitally overhauled beginning in 2005. 159 http://www. This project has completed its first phase in 2009 and a standardized concept and the draft technical requirements for an e-statistical reporting subsystem of the NBS are being developed. Vehicles can be registered. Vetinerary and phyto-scientific services will be verifiable online soon. About 400 to 500 brokers use the system. deploying the industry standard ASYCUDA (Automated SYstem for CUstoms DAta) and Frontera.e-services. Taxpayers are able to complete their reports. 159 Vehicular backgrounds can be checked on payment terminals located all over the country and soon online and through mobile phones. and information about employees. The Customs Office. in support of the e-Moldova Strategy and the Strategy of Statistical System of Moldova Development and Action Plan for 2008-2011 approved by the Government.In terms of e-business services Registru has a number available online.

The Moldovan Central Elections Commission requested in September 2007 UNDP’s support to improve the management of elections in Moldova. tax fraud and illegal production that involves a unique barcode number attached to each product. The Law on the Concept of State Automatic Information System “Elections”. when the system is fully implemented. processing.Due to the characteristics of Moldova’s population . as a means to authenticate the label. Quite separately. Reduce the organisational cost of election and referendum processes Integrate all citizens of Moldova into the international practice of ICT use. the medicinal. It provides for automating the process of preparation..the results of the vote. wine. According to the Concept. the first stage of e-Voting implementation is creation of the Register of voters was expected to be functional at 2009 Parliamentary election.e-voting for emigrants is of particular interest. etc. 168 . The CEC submitted the Concept to the Parliament for approval. The Central Electoral Committee (CEC) has started the process of implementing these provisions by developing and approving a Concept paper on a new Information System “Elections” (ISE). provides the legal framework for e-voting.according to some estimates up to one third of its active population is working and living abroad . To take the example of medicines. and transmission of information) Create conditions for better public control on reliability and integrity of information used in the election period Avoid pitfalls of paper voting lists such as duplication of voters. processing and counting the votes of elections or referendums. ‘Latent’ content is also included that can be read only using special small readers that are widely distributed. ISE will: • • • • • • • • Ensure the transparency of the electoral process Offer citizens the possibility to vote electronically Allow quick publication of accurate figures on voters participation and. delays in re-registration. each packet or bottle sold in Moldova has a small label with a barcode number unique to that specific item. bottled water and cigarette industries have been the subject of an ICT driven labelling innovation aimed at reducing smuggling. with particular focus on e-voting. which envisages electronic management and implementation of all the stages of the electoral process adopted in 2008. Increase the efficiency of all processes within elections and referendum periods (collection.

Payment. such as birth. the grape used.md/natural_persons_en/ 169 . The system. which currently account for about 8% to 10% of the economy. divorce and death. linked to a set of data on each individual product. So far the records of 10 of the 32 regions of Moldova have been digitised. and for wine. It is obligatory for retailers of these four products to ensure that items each carry a label. for instance the active ingredients in medicines. vehicle registration. Finally it is worth noting that an ICT Sector Development Strategy 2010 – 2013 is also under development. 161 The medicines website is here http://www. marriage. These include issuing copies of civil certificates. covering the telecoms and IT sectors.mtic. and changes of residence can be registered. It is expected that these will migrate to the e-Services Portal at STC at some point. and selling products without them can lead to a fine or the loss of a license to trade.amed. which was designed and developed in Moldova to suit Moldovan circumstances. the public can search for information on that specific item on a Website 161 or using an SMS message and retrieve relatively detailed data. but the links are to the Registru Portal and they are at different levels of development: http://www. are being considered. is at post-offices or banks but other options.gov. such as SMS message and e-banking. the year and location of production. date of production and expiration. and is now being marketed to other countries such as Uzbekistan. Applications can also be submitted for driver’s licenses. Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan with interest expressed elsewhere. as noted. and the remainder are expected to be completed within three years.The labels are attached to both home-produced and imported goods (except wines) in special warehouses.md 162 A list of e-services available can be found on the MITC website. Using the barcode number. uses readily available technologies. and whether chemicals were added. and for a second passport (useful for frequent travellers since embassies often hold passports for some time while issuing visas). SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Also on the Registru Portal are a set of e-services for citizens 162.

All operate in Romanian and Russian. At present they are used mainly for the ICT curriculum. but they are not interoperable. This decision. an independent association overseen by a Council that includes the Academy of Sciences.and externally they are members of SEEGRID. 9 universities and 5 colleges) – though only one linked in the north of the country . the ‘Leap’ Programme (Programme of Informatisation of Education). It is known for instance that many culturally important books originally in Moldova are now in Russia. While a state Register of National Heritage has been created. There is still considerable work to do in terms of implementing the broadcast and multiplex infrastructure. such as the digitisation of cultural artefacts. though a couple of Websites are online 165. and furthermore put to the fore the issue of compliance of Moldova’s audiovisual legislation with EU standards. it covers only a fraction of artefacts. has resulted in over 700 of the 1. and other scientific and educational institutions. GEANT 164 and other international networks. national and regional coverage. In December 2008. and EU funding over the years. RENAM is refunded the cost of its connectivity by the universities. Asia Foundation. benefiting from Soros. Other areas are proceeding slowly. RENAM (Research and Educational Networking Association of Moldova) 163 is the academic and research network of Moldova.md 170 .500 primary and secondary level schools have a computer lab (each with a minimum of 11 PCs). and almost all connected to the internet.renam. 163 http://www.Gigabit European Advanced Network Technology .md 164 GÉANT . The programme continues with developing ICT tools for schools managements and with new pedagogical software in others subject. with about 10% (in 9th to 12th grade) also being used for other subjects.md and http://monument.is the pan-European data network dedicated to research and education 165 See http://www.sit. later suspended. relating to the provision of set-top boxes. going since 2004. Digitisation of national heritage and folklore is fragmentary. A total of 36 institutions are connected nationally (22 research institutes.In education. National Council on Audio and Visual (NCAV) decided to interrupt the licence of the private PRO TV channel. over half by broadband and the rest by dial-up.monument. but there are no precise records of which ones or how many. questioned the independence of the national broadcasting regulator in practice. Each of the three national museums has its own database. Universities. Finally switchover to Digital Broadcasting in Moldova is scheduled for June 2015. and use Microsoft software although government policy is to use Open Source software where possible. and in getting greater public understanding of the process and goals.

the MITC with support from ITU is to establish 20 Public access points to the Internet in rural areas. Error! Reference source not found. a Strategy for Broadband 2010 – 2013 (in draft form since March but with approval delayed by the elections) is soon to be adopted including an Action Plan annually updated. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development The benefits of the product labelling system appear to be immediate and substantial. though to nowhere near the 2005 figures.UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE Accurate and up to date ICT statistics are difficult to obtain in Moldova (UNDP is supporting the development of a new methodology). In the case of medicines. It is estimated that black market sales fell from about 10% of all medicines in 2004 to 0. 2. More funding is being sought. mobile phones have risen from 45% to 80%. Finally. In terms of accessing the internet in rural areas. caused by a major drop in illegal sales and a corresponding rise in the amount of VAT revenue generated. And an agreement with Romania and Ukraine is in place to supply external fibre optic access. fax and other computers. the e-Readiness Index rose form 20% in 2005 and to about 32% now. The cost will be divided equally between the ITU and the Postal Service. The strategy will include plans to build FTH and lay fibre along railways and electricity routes. And while fixed lines have fallen from 35% to 32% in the same period. each with five computers. shows the value of medicine sales more than doubling between 2005. the introduction of the system resulted in a large reduction in the sale of counterfeits and in illegal importation. MoldTelecom provides the internet connection. as well as a Regulation on Broadband. and cases 171 .4% in 2008. and 2006. The economic downturn is credited with having caused a fall again in 2008. but they are intended to be self sustaining. and a significant rise in taxes. but indicators available suggest progress: Internet penetration rose from 4-5% in 2005 to approximately 37% in 2009. when the system was introduced. internet. and they will be located in post offices.

and it has now risen to almost 500. Currently the State Tax Inspectorate’s IT arm. a reply would then typically take 30 days.02 (two cent) per label. especially to the EU. The register allows business people to check the status of prospective partners before signing a contract with them.doingbusiness. can now use the online register to prove their license is valid 166.of counterfeit producers fell from ten in 2004 to zero in 2008. had about 80 students annually in ICTs subjects in 2005. It is understood that some benefits will be felt only in time. 166 SAID-BIZTAR project 167 According to ˝Doing Business˝ reports. and many schools are opening access to wider families and community. has 67 people working in 2 shifts whose only job is to transcribe taxpayer paper declarations. For the State Tax Service Declaratia Rapida speeds the availability of the information from tax declarations. The online register of business electronic licences launched in January 2009 generated 22. Students are getting their families interested in the internet. Businesses. They are already available for purchase but the cost of obtaining one is more than for a standard passport. For instance. The number of graduates is also rising. The cost of the labelling system is calculated to be less than €0. The ‘Leap’ schools programme has already led to a significant growth in third level students in ICT subjects. the facility to produce bio-metric passports may in the long term facilitate visas for travel. Also it is estimated that at the moment Moldovan taxpayers need 228 hours per year to complete their declarations 167 while with Declaratie Rapida that figure should be less than 200 hours. FiscServInfrom. entrepreneurs had to apply in writing and pay approximately 3 Euros to check on the licensing status of a potential partner. The Polytechnic. and demand is such that they are reportedly starting employment with higher wages than their lecturers! Benefits are also spreading to the community. The register also precludes periodic visits by the police or tax authorities to check on licenses as a pretext to extort a bribe. for instance. in both quality and quantity. The same information is now available online for free.700 hits in its first five months of operation. when receiving a surprise visitor. http://www.org/ExploreEconomies/?economyid=129#PayingTaxes 172 . Before the register was accessible electronically to the public.

for instance. The introduction of an e-document system. The e-taxation project also points to issues of access. this project was abandoned. allows for precise tracking within a bureaucratic system. between different municipalities 168. However. For e-services.3. It was anticipated that a centralised Electronic voters’ list would be available for e-voting for the elections in April 2009. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development The introduction of ICTs within organisations can lead to significant worries among staff. and also to the possibility of the pace of work being monitored more closely. etc. given the unsatisfactory manner in which the current system is regulated by the municipalities. It was reported that such was the concern with the introduction of ICTs in the Public Prosecutors office that staff were given a two week deadline to learn and deploy the system. and public points of access are few. or leave the job to others. There is concern that jobs may be lost. The non-sharing facilities of telecom companies (including ducts. but investing in promotion may yield little in the absence of better internet access for the public – e-services face a challenge in finding a way past this cycle. 168 Council of Europe. particularly where new skills and disciplines are to be used. Local government offices and staff tend to have little training or funding to offer ICT services. the lack of widespread access to internet at local level is also an issue. Yet local level implementation and access of e-services is believed to be critical to their widespread acceptance and use.) are partially responsible for the high costs and hampering development. But many more simply do not have the reliable internet access needed to use the service. and that workers will be replaced by computers. which was unfortunate.Report on Observation of the early parliamentary elections in the Republic of Moldova (29 July 2009) 173 . The vast majority of households lack internet access. A reluctance to change work practices has also been reported. A relatively high annual fee of €250 probably discourages some users. and the lack of quality and uniformity in the voters’ registers. partly because of lack of resources. masts. More users may lead to reduced fee. and there is also as yet little awareness of its existence. The relative high cost of internet connectivity (5 -10 times higher in CIS countries in per capita affordability terms) is also a hindering factor. The CEC made arrangements for the conventional voters’ list to be used again.

At present. awaiting clear guidelines on whose has authority over each of the services. A new government can also mean a loss in institutional memory and of experience. Conclusions Important milestones have been reached in the implementation of e-government such as the creation of key e-registers fully interoperable. 4. This may have been a factor in the apparent current lack of coherence in relation to e-services and the e-government Portal. Citizens and businesses are starting to benefit from the fruits of such efforts and more applications are being developed. and some relatively minor legal changes. who should invest in developing the Portal. the official Portal is lying unused. 174 .Changes of government have taken their toll in Moldova as they are preceded and followed by periods of relative uncertainty during which decisions are often postponed. as well as the design of unique Information Systems. or plans and activities that had been long in preparation dropped. Whether the political momentum will be able to sustain the effort and counter the effects of the economic crisis will be crucial to the development of the Information Society in Moldova.

The Minister for Information Society is also Deputy Prime Minister. recognising as key priorities the development of the Information Society and electronic services for the public and the private sector. and the Central Register Law.php?akcija=vijesti&id=169877 175 .pdf 170 http://www. having been offered a Membership Action Plan (MAP) by the alliance in 2009. and having delivered its answers to the European Commission questionnaire in end 2009.net/attach/Montenegrofinal. all aligned to EU legislation 169.me/eng/rsr/ 171 http://www.gov.me/eng/rsr/vijesti. Montenegro declared independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006.MONTENEGRO On the basis of a referendum.gov. Realizing the need for further improvements in the utilization of ICTs. The responsibility for ICT development had previously been part of the Republic’s Secretariat for Development mandate. In 2001 Montenegro introduced a new Telecommunication Law. Since 2001. at the end of December in 2008 the Government created the Ministry for Information Society 170. The Government of Montenegro adopted its first strategy on the Information Society in 2004. and thus in a position to influence and coordinate other ministries and entities in implementing the e-SEE Agenda+ objectives. the Commission’s opinion will be submitted to the Council in the course of 2010.wbc-inco. Montenegro is an official candidate for membership in NATO. Montenegro applied to join the European Union on 15 December 2008. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES The start of the process of reforming the ICT sector in Montenegro can be pinpointed to the year 2000. Montenegro has adopted several significant pieces of legislation such as the E-commerce Law. and in line with e-SEE Initiative processes. Intellectual protection Law. 1. The present Ministry is responsible for the coordination of Information Society development and implementation of the Strategy for Information Society Development of Montenegro 2009 – 2013 171. 169 http://www. amended in 2008 and adjusted to EU directives under the name ˝Law on Electronic Communications˝.

The Gender Equality Office of the Government of Montenegro established in 2003. producing an annual Information Society Action Plan updated each year 173. The Ministry also coordinates the provision of information to the Ministry for European Integration. especially Roma and rural women 174.gov. are the responsibility of the Ministry of Marine Affairs. and other Ministries look after their respective areas. and working with others on a number of projects such as Information security.php?akcija=rubrika&rubrika=242 176 . implementing certain elements and actively coordinating the inputs across different Ministries. and overseeing the implementation teams within the Ministries. The Action Plan includes a chapter on ICTs with the goals of reducing the digital gap between women and men and increasing the number of ICT literate women. e-signatures. Registers of the population. the Ministry for Information Society has focused on implementing the Information Society Strategy.gov.me/eng/gender/vijesti. The need for up-to-date information and benchmark indicators for the information society is recognised. E-education. For each approved project. This was adopted by the government in 2008. SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESSES Key sections of the Information Society Strategy and the associated Action Plans are: • • • ICT infrastructure. Its goal is to create an enabling environment for the Information Society. and e-government services. and the Ministry is planning to produce data for 2009 by early 2010. 174 Action Plan for the Achievement of Gender Equality in Montenegro (2008-2012) available at http://www.me/eng/minsaob/ 173 The 2009 plan is contained at the end of the Strategy above. such as the legislative framework and infrastructure policy. a Council is formed bringing together the relevant Ministries and other stakeholders. Since its establishment. working with the Statistical Office which is deploying the Eurostat methodology. 172 http://www. developed with the assistance of UNDP and UNIFEM the Action Plan for the Achievement of Gender Equality in Montenegro (2008-2012). Transport and Telecommunications 172.Key aspects.

The existing e-government portal 175. E-government. though initially not available online. Although the law on e-signature for government was signed in 2003 and the legal infrastructure is in place. but it is spread between different locations. with the Project still in its infancy. and an e-legal service to follow services. Recent developments include the signing of an Electronic Document Management System (eDMS). A computerised Business Registry will be launched for quick and easy registration of businesses. Among the plans are services to allow electronic payment of taxes. A system for qualified e-signatures for the use of citizens and business is not yet available. obtaining construction licenses.me/ 177 . filing and obtaining environmental reports.gov. the plan being to hold the first paperless government meeting in their new office around mid 2010. E-health. the government EDMS will be the first application in practice. 175 http://www. managed and implemented by the Ministry. The system. is intended to cover government and all Ministries. SERVICES FOR PEOPLE In general. and some progress has been made over the last year.• • • • • E-business and E-banking. which was designed on the principles of the Annex I of the e-SEE Agenda+. A central component of effective e-services for government is now in place with the creation of a system for electronic signatures. The Ministry for Information Society regards the launch of e-services for government as currently their most pressing challenge. also provides information but with only very limited interactivity to the user public. The 2010 Information Society Action Plan will see the beginning of work on government to business e-services. Institutional and regulatory framework. Launch of the initial set of services is expected to coincide with the relocation of government to new buildings. European goals and standards. information on government services can readily be accessed online by the public.

The 2010 Action Plan. Montenegro was previously connected to the Academic Research Network of Yugoslavia (AMREJ). Library Documents are being scanned. In general. within the University of Montenegro is the technical manager of the Montenegro Research and Education Network 176. Video conferencing is used to connect different faculties and campuses for simultaneous lectures. Sport and Media. prioritises the development of a set of online e-services for citizens. with plans to raise GEANT connectivity to 34 mbits next year. building on progress in a few areas. and a Learning Management System has been created to support distance learning from home. under the guidance of a Council. this involves the creation of a set of integrated databases.mren. set to be available also at the municipality level. though the Network pays for external connections and access to the internet. available as a ‘one-stop-shop’ for people to obtain birth. The Centre for Information Systems. 176 http://www. The network.ac. across all municipalities. Museums. an academy and two ministries (a total of 28 buildings). A National Programme for the Digitalisation of Libraries. registration numbers. connecting universities campuses. but later directly online. each republic assumed greater responsibility for its own affairs and this led to the establishment of the Montenegrin Research and Education Network (MREN) in 2005. an e-legal service was developed in 2008 and tests are currently underway. Montenegro has also been active in developing MREN in terms of internal and external connectivity and services. has not yet yielded the expected results to the disappointment of the Ministry for Culture. Upon independence in June 2006. After the establishment of the confederation of Serbia and Montenegro. The national infrastructure is provided by Telekom Montenegro at no cost under a 15 year contract. The Centre is also developing additional services in e-education. the legal framework including Laws on Electronic Media. but full digital archiving has not commenced. MREN became the official national research and education network of Montenegro. In 2008. and other civil data in one place. In media and culture. however. Archives. Inevitably delays can be experienced at project level. currently running at 3 mbits. using web based interactions. with a three year Action plan to December 2008. including the completion of examinations. but there are as yet few practical developments of e-services.me/index. and Cultural Goods of State Importance have all been drafted and are currently under discussion. This will enable citizens and businesses to track each step in legal processes. The Ministry for Information Society has developed a Central Population Registry.php 178 . is also connected to GEANT (the European high speed academic network) and SEERAN. initially available in offices. marriage and death certificates.

MEIS (Montenegro Educational Information System). to produce a report in 2008 with the title of FEMINICT analysing the current digital divide in Montenegro and the role of women in the ICT. however. 162 are ICT equipped. the Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses. particularly in ICT education. and economic issues. The key player. without permanent internet connection. resources and technologies required for the implementation of the information society within education. and recognises the need to close the digital gap between men and women generally. it notes the need for further improvements to increase women participation in ICTs. Their 2008-2012 Action Plan does acknowledge a gender gap in the information society. defining the specific methods. form discussion groups and so forth. An extra-curricular course on Website development is running very successfully (see further on). and a competition for the best Website design is running to offer encouragement. violence against women. The Department collaborated with an NGO. the Ministry of Education and Science in partnership with Microsoft Montenegro launched an on-line magazine ˝Prozor˝ 177 whose aim is to facilitate the exchange of experiences among teachers in the educational system of Montenegro. a PC for administration.spaces. Progress so far includes: • • • • • All secondary schools have an internet connection and are equipped at minimum with a LAN. and a computer classroom/lab. A school portal for teachers has been developed to allow them to share learning materials.com 179 . through various practical examples. Although the study identifies some improvements made in terms of the role of the women and steps taken to overcome cultural divide and the barriers. In December 2009. e-learning. but moved to the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights in May 2009.live. The Department’s has a wide remit including gender equality. with the pace of development increasing. and to raise the digital literacy of Roma women and rural women.There has been some progress in e-education at primary and secondary. Of a total of about 200 primary schools. and to present examples of good teaching practices particularly the use of technology in education. The Department for Gender Equality was set up in 2003. 80 of these (mostly very small rural schools). Each school is also getting its own Website. initially as part of the General Secretariat’s office. 177 http://pilprozor. the Ministry of Education and Science has prioritised the introduction of ICTs in education system. The beginning of 2003 saw the launch of a major project.

However. External fibre links are also being expanded and Serbia and. the former public operator privatised in 2005 and now owned by Deutsche Telecom. none dominant. A pilot for FTH (Fibre To the Home) is underway by T-COM 178. Furthermore the nationally owned electricity company is in partnership with an Italian company to build a national fibre network. INA (Informatics Research Institute. There are three mobile operators. • Under the regulator. 180 . Greece). including the Quality of Service (QoS) and speed for broadband. and all offer 3G services. and they also offer a fixed mobile telephony service at low cost for rural users. by undersea cable. covering over 100. Current broadband access is a mixture of ADSL. among others. Overall. Other policy and regulatory developments include: • The preparation of a National Broadband Strategy as part of the bSEE Taskforce. and a National Security Centre. Working closely with the government of Montenegro.000 households in Montenegro. with contributions from the Ministry of Telecommunications and the Ministry of IS. the hope is that Montenegro could become a ‘testbed’ for Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Cable. the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is financing the preparation of a draft regulation on universal service provision. Funding would come from the Greek government. 3G and Wimax. the Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services. 178 T-COM is a subsidiary of Telekom Montenegro.5 to 25 per 100 population.UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE The institutional arrangements needed to support the physical infrastructure are proceeding: a Law on Information Security is expected to pass in the first quarter of 2010.000 of the total of 190. T-Mobile. and a mobile operator is planning to implement LTE (Long Term Evolution) 4G in the near future. fully in line with EU requirements and with the objective of raising the number of broadband subscribers from the current 5. And the Ministry for Information Society plans to establish a Computer Emergency response Team. the issuing the licenses has been greatly simplified. is also part of the group. covering a 4 to 5 year period. intending to extend to the capital Podgorica in 2010. to Italy. and with the political support of the RCC (Regional Cooperation Council). telephony tariffs are comparatively low.

but also relating to social issues. advices and consultations via e-mail. however. the reform of the health system has progressed especially in primary health care. 2. accessible medical data on electronic health card. advice on healthy lifestyles.45 % access to broadband. The Agency feels that the switch to digital broadcasting raises a number of issues in terms of the affect it will have on the media landscape nationally and regionally. As noted. to support all reform activities and ensure integration of business processes and data on the level of the primary system.ekip. The Top Level Domain name for Montenegro. Significant attention is paid to the development of information system (e-Health). 180 Data from the Agency of electronic communications and postal services of Montenegro http://www. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development Montenegro has one of the highest mobile phone penetration rates in the region (185. with the right regulation and structures. . Such local channels. In Montenegro. many of which may be inactive or secondary ones. a National Digital Broadcasting Switchover Strategy has been adopted. can strengthen democratic participation as well as local cultural production and identity.me. The choice of letters has enabled the commercialisation of the domain name beyond national borders.51% at the end of 2008) 179. and through systems for the monitoring of vital life functions at a distance. some supported by municipalities. patients and health care providers. has been available for some time and is managed by the Centre for Information Systems. Benefits can accrue to everyone. 179 This is based in SIM cards issued.me 181 . result in fewer channels with associated concentration of ownership an issue is that Montenegro has a large number of local level television channels. as well as building the foundation to upgrade other parts of the system. and the target for the introduction of digital broadcasting services is April 2012. an expansion of medical access. before these ambitious actions can be consolidated and their success judged. It may. and its sale generated about €5 million during 2008. not just in technical terms. The internet penetration rate is 40. 180 ICTs in health care (e-Health) is an area in which significant benefits can be obtained through providing better management. for instance. The Broadcasting Agency of Montenegro will be the licensing agency for digital switchover and oversees the change.It will be some time. through information such as health portals. and improved care. 7 % with only 3.

Montenegro can expect immediate dividends from the deployment of its e-government eDMS during 2010. in the extra curricular course in Web-development mentioned above. encouraged by the Minister. This approach has proved to be successful.me’ and others. both in terms of the approved number of ICT courses and participants. 182 .me’ and ‘mail.000 required to develop this is not immediately available. undertaken as a collaboration between the Ministry of Education and the Bureau of Education (responsible for approving the National curricula). Thus opportunities will increase for better management in health care institutions and system in general. and the ISP and IPA activities of the 7th Framework R&D Programme. with this now being the third most popular extra curricular course nationally. The Ministry deployed only internally available resources. The Ministry has reserved certain uses. The 2009 Information Society Action Plan has seen its central funding cut from a planned €9 million to about €5 million resulting in the effective postponement (though not the cancellation) of many activities. There years ago very few students had ICT experience and.This includes the development of information systems to enable more efficient consumption and use of resources in all areas and comparison between them. national sources have come under pressure. with a view to developing a partnership with a private company to commercialise the name abroad.me domain. even in the short term. But Montenegro already offers a good example of where benefits can accrue from only a very small investment. trained their teachers and developed the final examination testing. If the experience of elsewhere is anything to go by. but to charge commercial rates to users outside. the €150. 3. An interesting case is the further exploitation of the . The plan would be to offer these for free in Montenegro. is relatively stable for participating projects and programmes. but also in terms of financial benefits as it delivered significant results from modest funding. as well as by uncertainties in private investment. TLD. Although EU support from pre-accession funds. This reform is implemented by the Council for Privatization under its project ˝Strategic Development of the Republic Fund for health insurance to 2011”. However. such as ‘email. This further extends the list of planned projects which the Ministry of Information Society believes could yield a high rate of return. the Ministry prepared and proposed extra curricular (non-obligatory) courses on the ICT skills. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development Plans to develop the information society in Montenegro have been affected by the reduced availability of public funds in general.

the Ministry currently operates with fewer staff than anticipated or required.e. each school has a nominated ICT coordinator. The distribution of benefits in terms of the ‘digital dividend’ . on issues surrounding the digital switchover. This will help them to resolve any disputes on different claims by the operators. including the cost of LLU and interconnection charges. their smaller scale doing little to mitigate the scale of the work involved. including the ITU. A pressing task for the Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services is also to finalise the market overview analysis. Currently. Pedagogical aspects of learning management systems (i.the spectrum released after analogue broadcasting ceases . which could as noted above have serious consequences. The Department of Electronic Communication and Post has a very small number of staff. are subjects for both expert consideration and public concern. and there are 10 regional coordinators who could be trained by the staff at the Ministry to ensure they gain the appropriate skills. a complex analysis that will in turn allow it to develop the Cost Model of operates. but could also offer significant benefits. • • The Ministry for Information Society is lacking sufficient budget not only to implement all planned projects but also to cover the costs of its staff and administration. training of trainers in LMS) has been suggested. As a result.The human capacity to deal with complex aspects of the Information Society is a second area of need. The Broadcasting Agency of Montenegro would like to have a better understanding. and SEE region has experts who could help in this.as well as the use of the new digital channels available. 183 . yet deals with a wide range of international policy and regulatory bodies each with its own set of demands. WARC (on international radio frequency allocations) and European Union Directives. It should be noted that small countries often face the same set of challenges and onerous obligations as larger ones. • • The issue of motivation and high staff turnover was raised by the Ministry of Education and Science. and more public debate. Extra training and development opportunities provided by the Ministry would discourage its staff from moving into the private sector. Such a dynamic cost model is an essential tool for regulators enabling them to estimate to calculate the ‘real’ cost of service provision. whose skilled software developers need additional training and capacity building.

T-COM in many areas owns both fibre and the pipes/ducting through which it runs and has a monopoly on the service. some of which currently lack supporting infrastructure. depends largely on individual awareness among the key actors in government and institutions. may be useful there. the Ministry for Information Society has noted the need for coordination between the development and running of infrastructure (including servers and wide area networks) and e-services. Progress on gender equality and ICTs. This further reinforces the commitment in Montenegro to move towards a knowledge-based society. The importance of interoperability is defined in the new Strategy for Development of Information Society (2009-2013) as an aspect of the vision on modern administration. For instance the Centre for Information Systems (which runs the Montenegro Research and Education Network) is uncertain as to whether it can run its own fibre to the new campus building of the University of Montenegro. Concerns were raised about uncertainties in the development of fibre infrastructure. as well as the high cost of access to backbone broadband. The advantages of the country’s size are also a disadvantage as costs tend to be higher and resources fewer. to reach the right people and highlight the current issues. the government of Montenegro commissioned the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts to prepare a development document “Montenegro in the 21st Century”. Awareness raising workshops. in education at all levels and in public campaigns. it is perceived. Along the same lines. 4.g. or whether they will be obliged to utilise the T-COM pipes at a significant tariffs. 184 .The issue of weak inter-relationships between Ministries and difficulties in coordination was also raised. Those directly involved in gender equality issues strongly feel that gender equality should be included throughout the Information Society Action Plan e. In April 2009. Conclusions The dynamics of ICT development of Montenegro launched early on by the government have put the country in a favourable position in the region. particularly where the leading Ministries have not allocated sufficient resources or provided support to particular areas agreed within the ICT agenda (as in the case of national archives and the slow pace of their digitalisation).

services.net/7/330/25828/20080331202303/graphics. Electronic Information System for awarding transport permits and ABA. has in many ways been supportive to the e-SEE Initiative process. In 2008. 181 The Economist. E-readiness rankings 2008 .eiu.com/upload/ibm_ereadiness_2008. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES While Romania’s income level remains one of the lowest in the European Union. the Agency for Information Society Services was reorganized into 2 national Centers: the National Center for Information Society Management will manage and operate the National Electronic System. There are three objectives: • The first concerns the capacity of public institutions to develop the potential of e. The e-readiness index for Romania has grown steadily since 2003. Moreover. Since 2005 Romania has attached itself to the work of the Taskforce for Broadband (bSEE) by accepting to follow the bSEE Action Plan.ROMANIA Romania joined the European Union on January 1st 2007.g. 329/2009 published in the Official Monitor no. Romania has shown interest in the work of the e-SEE Initiative and has acted as an observer for a number of years. the two national centers are in the process of selecting their staff. It was designed to act as a roadmap. Romania. 761 of 9 November 2009. reforms have led to some growth. while the National Center “Digital Romania” will ensure that Point of ˝Contact Unique˝ electronic strategic project in the context of the Services Directive (Directive 2006/123/EC). The new National Strategy on Digital Romania – e-Strategy for an Information Society began implementation at the end of 2009. Romania was at 45th place in the world. 1. as EU member. and has acted as provider of good practice for the region. before formally deciding to join the Initiative by signing the e-SEE Agenda + on 29th October 2007 in Sarajevo. At this moment.pdf 182 Based on the Law no.akamai. Electronic Procurement System. 185 . developed by the the Ministry of Communications and Information Society (MCIS) 182. unchanged from 2007 181 but well ahead all South Eastern European countries. These objectives are based on a SWOT analysis and evaluation of data regarding the preparation level for implementation of e-services. available at http://a330.

e-Tourism. e-Romania would integrate other subsystems such as: e-Justice. It is being created by the MCIS with the support of the National Institute of Research and Development in Informatics (NIRDI and AISS). e-Transport. The State allocated €10m for the creation of the e-Romania Portal. AISS set up in 2008 is responsible for implementing policy and operating the systems that provide e-Government public services at national level. e-Agriculture.Through these. The ePCU is part of the National Electronic System (SEN). the infrastructure of the national e-Government portal: www. the ePCU will be operational during 2010. According to the national document for the transposition of this Directive. e-Statistics. The contract involves securing a framework agreement with a single operator. Political responsibility lies within the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform (MIRA). e-Environment.• • The second is derived from the European Union recommendations and provisions from existing Romanian legal framework.2013 period of approximately 385 million euros for three purposes: 186 .e-guvernare. whilst the dedicated Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) has executive control. the points of single contact (’ePCU’). MCIS has signed protocols with universities to ensure to e-Romania a high level of reliability and compliance in information. for a period of 45 months. e-Education. e-Government is part of a wider ICT/Information Society strategy. e-Civil servants. e -EMS. e-Association. and focuses mainly on back office infrastructures and services. are under the implementation procedure in Romania. from a distance and by electronic means. being related to the priority supply of services or to their quality. The Portal will be providing services from government at the national level as well as integrating portals at the county or city levels. Pursuant to the ’Emergency Ordinance on the service providers’ freedom to establish and provide services in Romania’.ro. and e-Health. The third is related to the characteristics of an e-Romania portal. providers from the EU Member States will be able to easily complete. the necessary procedures and formalities for accessing and exercising service activities in Romania. The European Union European Regional Development Fund awarded a grant for the 2007. To date the e-Romania portal is still in development. Within the MCIS. e-Citizen. called for by the EU Services Directive. e-Culture.

Develop and increase efficiency of modern electronic public services (e-government. Romania boasts a well-articulated and non-discriminatory legal framework although not explicitly as a part of the ICT policy. 187 . In 2008. In 2002. the national Romanian legislation covers the provisions of the Community legislation on non-discrimination on account of gender. development of high-speed communications infrastructure in disadvantaged areas.1. e-Education and e-Health). and schools to connect high-speed Internet 2. The European Commission emphasised in the evaluation document Agenda 2000 that in the field of equal opportunities. a Consultative Inter-Ministerial Commission on Equality of Treatment for Men and Women (CODES) was established to ensure a permanent exchange of information on the experience and measures in the field of gender equality and the elaboration of recommendations for the authorities of the central public administration. Romania Gender Development Index (GDI) was notably high being second only to Sweden. The steps for improving the legislation concerning equal opportunities between women and men have been created through the ratification of the Revised European Social Charter. at the initiative of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection. Support the use of information technology including high-speed Internet connections for SMEs and NGOs. At governmental level. interoperability of electronic systems. where beneficiaries are central or local public institutions 3. Development of e-economy dedicated to supporting SMEs for the introduction of electronic systems (software and hardware) in the companies or the development of electronic commerce. The Commission monitors the application of the provisions of the National Plan of Action for equal opportunities between women and men in sector policies as well as the progress achieved. Romania hosted the Pan-European Preparatory Ministerial Conference for the World Summit on the Information Society entitled ˝Building a Gender Sensitive Information Society˝. the adoption of the National Action Plan for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (2000) and the Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (2002).

VAT. The electronic submission system was extended to all contributors including individuals through the web page of the National Agency for Fiscal Administration 185.ro http://www. The online customs declarations service allows declarations to be filled in online for all types of companies and agents that perform activities in this sector.ro http://www.onrc.SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS Romania stands now at 45% of the 20 basic online services identified by the EU 183.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/benchmarking/egov_benchmark_2009. The e-forms service provides access to the intelligent forms that can be electronically signed and sent to the competent authority.europa.insse. 183 184 185 186 187 http://ec.ro/public/wps/portal/ANAF http://www. Romania was among the first countries in the world to use a government-wide e-procurement system at such a large scale and for so large and diversified number of products. companies can submit their declarations online 184 for employee social contributions. Three companies have received accreditation as Certification service providers and deliver qualified certification.pdf https://formularunic. The next stage of development of the online customs declarations service will allow electronic payments through banks. After having requested an electronic certificate from former ASSI.e-guvernare. Registration of a new company can be done online 186. which will offer remote payment services.ro site and should soon be included in the e-Romania government portal. income tax and corporate tax. The registration process can be completed in 3 days.ro 188 . The existing e-government services are now located in the e-guvernare. This service ensures authentication of users through digital certificates. The electronic collection system of statistical data e-statistica has been in operation since 2004 and is accessible through the National Institute of Statistics page 187.anaf. This service currently functions in a restricted access regime.

which processes and consolidates them to the central payment engine. The Treasury collections are then routed to the clients’ accounts. The system was designed to be compliant with the standards and regulations of SEPA (Single Euro Payments Area) eliminating future issues of interoperability. All clients (citizens and entities paying or collecting taxes) are directly placing their payment orders to the Treasury. small and medium business taxpayers of Bucharest and the Ilfov county have the option of submitting online their “Declaration regarding the payment duties towards the social insurance budget and the unemployment budget of the National Employment Agency” 189. Romania claims to be the first State Treasury in Europe to implement a range of operations and a level of commissions available previously only to a commercial bank. As a first step. 188 www.ro) and are transferred to the EU Official Journal. The partnership between ASSI and the National Employment Agency (ANOFM) aims at enhancing the users’ trust by means of regulated and secure systems. providing a base for cash management and forecast features. all Romanian contracting authorities must publish on e-licitatie their Public Procurement notices. Since January 2007. Company wishing to learn about contracts with the Romanian government can visit the national e-procurement website and register as a supplier. Pursuant to the new public procurement legislation (2006) that has brought Romanian Procurement legislation in compliance with EU provisions.e-licitatie.ro 189 Through the e-guvernare. and the transfers (payments and collections) are centralized. all government public procurement announcements must be published on the national portal (www. Since 19 May 2009. while still maintaining the stability and credibility of a State institution – which in the current financial and economic crisis is a major advantage. It has thus become easier and faster for companies to participate in public procurement by simplifying access to information and to the bidding process. especially important for SMEs. Legal entities wishing to make use of this feature must request a digital certificate to the Agency for the Information Society Services (ASSI). The Romanian State Treasury Electronic Payment System (STEPS) within the Ministry of Finance has a centralized payment system that allows all transactions to be performed online in real time.ro site 189 .e-licitatie. the service has been extended to all legal taxpayers of Bucharest and the Ilfov county. Since then. the system has assisted in the award of more than one million public acquisitions.The Romanian e-Procurement (e-licitatie) system 188 was launched in March 2002.

ro/eKontentGhiseulFiles/acasa/servicii_disponibile/servicii_disponibile/index.ro 190 .ro http://www. An online job search of labour offices database has been available since 2002.ro site http://www. several e-Health strategies were adopted in the nineties by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH). and reimbursement of medical costs are available online. It is designed to: • Collect and manage the economic and medical information necessary for the efficient operation of the Health Insurance System. child allowances.semm.ghiseul. Online payment of taxes is possible as is the payment of fines 191. and forms can be downloaded but must be filled in by hand and brought back to the office. A project for a Computerised System for Health Insurance in Romania (SIUI) is underway. mainly for coding. unemployment insurance and benefits procedures. SEMM) managed by the Ministry of Labour. Payment of local taxes via the Internet is currently used in 50% of the Romanian municipalities. In Romania. In 2008. Online applications can be done through the Electronic Labour Mediation Service site 193 (Serviciul Electronic de Mediere a Muncii.SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Income taxes declaration forms 190 may be signed electronically according to the legislation in force and sent to the agencies through electronic means that guarantee delivery. 190 191 192 193 On the e-guvernare. The National Centre for Organising and Ensuring the Health Information System (NCOEHIS) is responsible for introducing in the Romanian healthcare environment a set of regulations and standards. Family and Information on social security benefits. and after 2000 in cooperation with the MCIS. recommended also for e-Health projects. MPH announced a National e-Health Strategy for Romania (2008-2010) for integrated health services information system. • Increase transparency regarding the control and management of the budgetary funds the National Health System. with patient monitoring.html http://www.anofm. operating under the National Agency for Occupation and Labour (ANOFM) 192.

• • • • • Provide evidence of the insured persons and of the medical services suppliers through creating and administering the National Registry of Insured Persons and the National Registry of Medical Services Suppliers. The system can assign each cultural object a label with an associated certificate such as an export certificate (EC). Provide an online and offline interfaces for the interconnection with entities outside the system and with the medical and pharmaceutical service suppliers. The 13 digit identification number each Romanian possesses will allow the procurement of ID cards. Ensure uniformity in the application of the norms and legislation at national level. In 2009. Building permits are issued by the Local Public Administration. The e-health portal will be integrated in the e-Romania portal. In the cultural field. The purpose is to improve the capacity of ministries and subordinate bodies involved in protecting cultural assets to combat illegal trade and export. with a budget of 1.714. the national electronic prescription which allows following the patient’s medication record was implemented 194. have developed the Sole-Central Permit. destruction and forgery of cultural property. The National Person Identity System is being gradually put in place. so it can be accessed by the different partners both from their private networks and the internet. only partly over the Internet. a one-stop service for issuing all certificates.500 lei. a grading certificate or a certificate of sale. however. Some Local Councils. passports and driver’s license 195. 195 http://ec. and theft. Keep records and control of costs for each person insured. Make the data reports to medical services suppliers more efficient. the Ministry of Culture is implementing the PHARE 2006 for integrated information management system for the protection of movable cultural heritage and cultural assets. etc. other certificates such as the certificate of Urbanism need to be submitted in paper form.75 million Euro. For the latter a pilot online service is available on the e-guvernare portal.eu/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=32290 191 . Indeed. A web-based integrated MIS system for Mobile Cultural Heritage (such as artefacts. before the final permit is issued.europa.) was developed and implemented within the project. 194 The project has a total budget of 88. paintings.

aspx 192 .primaria-constanta.ro/ http://www. Each school in Romania now has at least one computerized educational platform i. and 530 educational modules are available for teaching in high schools. etc. The first stage of the programme was implemented in secondary education. There are currently 1. computers. printer and other equipment. All regional systems are in turn integrated into a national network connected to the Internet and controlled by SEI Program Management Unit. ready to be used by teachers and students. Each computer lab installed in schools is itself an integrated solution. The city of Constanta has introduced an e-Petitions management system 199 in which citizens can file their petitions online and follow its resolution course. The ambitious SEI national programme for e-learning is a complex programme initiated by the Ministry of Education and Research in 2001 whose basic objective is to support teaching-learning in undergraduate education with cutting-edge technologies. methodology and teacher training for teaching mathematics. It is conducted by a public-private partnership. electronic multimedia educational content. and if the answer has been sent and how. the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca website 198 provides a module for online registration for final exams (bachelor.Online catalogue search and reservation facilities are not offered by public libraries such as the National Library.ro/ http://www. such as the one of the Polytechnic University of Timisoara 196.library. history.e. 196 197 198 199 http://www. A few libraries. The programme supports the objectives of education reform under the eEurope 2005 Action Plan. where a typical platform contains 25 computers. Romanian. online registration for exams that students have failed and for improving their marks. a combination of technology. SEI is designed as an integrated national network composed of local and regional solutions. a server. physics. Major universities offer the possibility of enrolling online 197. IT laboratories (local solutions) are integrated into a logical network comprising all the schools in a region. launched by the European Union as part of the European eLearning initiative.edu.ro/ http://www. master diploma) and a module for students attending the courses. A total of 600 high schools were connected to broad-band internet. For instance.utt. chemistry. if the due time of the resolution has expired and for how many days.510 platforms installed in schools and training centres. At any time citizens can trace the location of their document (which Department or employee holds it) and how it has been resolved.ro/PrimariaConstanta/English/Machete/Macheta6Eng. offer a full list of e-Services. Internet. biology.utcluj.

65 million with access to broadband. almost 2. MCIS will focus on developing a hybrid infrastructure especially in rural areas.11_Raport%20 DS%20sem%20I%202009%2027.these funds are intended for the 10 counties with the lowest penetration of broadband). parks. A National Broadband Strategy was adopted by the government for the period 2009-2012.UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE Almost 4.11_V2. 200 Website of National Regulatory Authority: http://www.ro/Portals/57ad7180-c5e7-49f5-b282-c6475cdb7ee7/2009.anrcti.).42 Romanians have a cable TV subscription 200. The Romanian Government plans to switch to digital terrestrial television on January 1. decoder.5 million Romanians have internet connection. Establish optimal solutions provided that the during the switch. etc.8 million allocated by the EU for the next four years.pdf ) 193 . The MCIS is hoping to reduce the existing digital divide between urban and rural areas and to stimulate information content and increase e-services utilization. • Since the beginning of 2009. To support the development of broadband infrastructures and services. the MCIS has put as a priority the development of interoperability of all state institutions systems with a fund of €10. etc. analogue transmissions and digital broadcast will be simultaneous. A first step in this regard will be to establish some 345 hotspots (wireless network providing free Internet service in a public area) in every district capital city but also in public areas easily accessible such as Universities. such that end users can have access to all existing sources (TV) without needing to be equipped with several receivers (colour. 3. These hotspots are being put into service progressively since June 2009. 2012 Find a balanced development of infrastructure to provide digital television services and the implementation of legislative measures necessary to ensure a sharing of digital terrestrial broadcasting infrastructure.01. MCIS has secured EU Structural Funds (approximately €80 million) and the anti-crisis funds (amounting to €60 million . The implementation of WiMAX type networks will also help to ensure access to broadband services in areas of interest. 2012 by: • • Achieving full and effective transition from analogue television services to digital TV services in DVB-T type and complete cessation of analogue emissions by January 1.

240.367. 9. The national network for research and education in Romania is a legally registered public institution under the Ministry of Education. until 9 November 2009. In 2007. Cluj Napoca and Timisoara. 55. 2008 the Romanian Government approved the Decision for the amendment and completion of the norms to enforce provisions pertaining to public procurement contracts assigned through electronic means.066.173. the percentage foreseen for 2010 is 25% of the total annual public procurement using electronic means and for the year 2013 it is estimated to a rate of 40%.uk/egov2005conference/documents/proceedings/pdf/051124declaration. Such assessment. Nevertheless. the Electronic Procurement System recorded a rate of approximately 13% of the total value of procurement conducted by electronic means. the Ministers responsible for e-Government policies within the EU set out the objective of at least 50 % of public procurement above the European thresholds to be carried out electronically by 2010.952. 201 The Ministerial declaration on e-Government in the EU signed in Manchester in 2005 and approved in Lisbon 2007 http://archive. whilst other relate directly to users of eServices.414.000 notices and invitations to tender were published through e-licitatie. The network is administered centrally in Bucharest with four regional operating hubs in Bucharest. Following the adoption of this legislative act.gov. Despite this obligation. A total of 29.cabinetoffice.pdf 202 4.2 RON = 1 Euro 194 .000 contracting authorities used the public e-procurement and 160. here relies mainly on EU wide comparative research and on awards. starting in 2008. The adoption of this Decision represents an important step towards the fulfilment of the commitments laid down in the Manchester Declaration 201. contracting authorities are compelled to use electronic means for at least 20 % of public procurement. which means cost-saving of 4. Iasi. The network is linked to the European network GEANT.36. is administered by the National Agency for Education and Research Network.823. Research and Youth. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development Some of the impacts and benefits can be assessed in terms of achieving EU norms and requirements.The Romanian National Research and Education Network (RoEduNet). however. Already since the beginning of 2009.356.295 procurement procedures were initiated of which 19.684 procedures were awarded with an estimated value of 21.73 RON 202 amounting to over 30%. 2. In February 27.09 RON (lei). By signing this declaration.179. The value at which the procedures were awarded was 16.207 were conducted online.

Romania scores slightly below the EU27+ average 203. education system. €7 billion. resulting in an active management of the financial flows. that accounts for a reduction in the interest payments by 30% . taxes and fees). In terms of accessibility of the national portal. http://bacalaureat.ro 195 . social security. on both public and private sectors.edu. In a country where 23% of workers receive cash salaries and 50% of citizens are unbanked.The User Experience of Romanian web sites is still lagging behind. The system includes a self-adjustable forecasting tool that allows for automated or manual quick decision-making.an over €10 million return of investment for this application. Usability stands at 25% and the One-Stop-Shop Approach achieves a score of 10% only. unemployment. It is shown that by expanding electronic payment the system has diminished the share of the shadow economy in the country.6 million visitors in one week.edu.400 registered users and 271. Romania received a 0% score in two aspects of User Experience: User Satisfaction Monitoring and User-focused Portal Design. The other indicators show modest results. this improvement is significant. The STEPS received a Good Practise Label in the category ˝e-Government enabling administrative efficiency and effectiveness˝. with benefits for a large range of stakeholders and with an impact in easing the financial flows throughout the whole Romanian economy with multiplication effects. In 2006. the SEI Educational Portal had 61.ro. Given the nation-wide range of operations covered by the State Treasury.198 forum posts. The EU pointed to STEPS as a model which might become the core of the EU state treasury model. The portal provides also access to university enrolment and exam results 204. In June-July 2009 it registered a record 2. and its implementation might be replicated in the European area. The loss in tax and social security contribution is estimated at approx. health system. by reducing the pressure on the state budget and allowing quicker and cheaper access to the services provided.ro and http://forum.edu. The SEI programme of e-learning was awarded the Good Practice label in the framework of the European e-Government Awards 2009 in the category ˝e-government empowering citizens˝. 203 i2010 benchmarking – e-Government benchmark survey 2009 204 http://admitere. the impact and benefits of the STEPS system are huge and they reflect on the citizens (anyone who pays or collects an amount regarding social benefits.

the Romanian government involved key stakeholders. The digital divide that exists between the urban and rural areas and between generations is an important problem in Romania. launched advertising campaigns. but it is also the fear of change that has slowed down the training process 205 which should gain momentum once the critical number of teachers is trained. the pace is not fast enough. The transition to the Gigabit Ethernet in 2007 eliminated the congestion of national lines and the increase in bandwidth rose sharply. 205 http://portal. The State monopoly on telecommunications with national guidelines until 2007 offered insufficient bandwidth and limited the development of for example RoEduNet network.edu. In addition.000 teachers in Romania. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development E-procurement in Romania has come a long way from when it began as a pilot project in March 2002. 60. to help evolve the public mentality. to deliver an extended and diverse ICT educational offer within the non-formal educational system. it will be necessary to educate the population. The large number of teachers inevitably leads to a certain inertia. The development of user-friendly. Out of the 300. To face those challenges. created training programmes and put an emphasis on SME-user friendliness. applications and content in native language will be a vital part of any programme designed to accelerate the popular adoption of ICT-based services. and to make the agencies and other specialised bodies more visible and active. There is room to improve progress reporting and transparency (have reports and statistics available). 3. The lack of secure digital technology and long-term procurement strategy hampered implementation.000 from the secondary levels have completed some computer education. to enhance collaboration among specialized organisations and bodies at all levels.Although Romania has made important steps forward in the field of gender equality and is moving in the right direction. and to help citizens understand and develop the ability to use modern technologies. a gradual implementation and strong political commitment helped to make it successful. The problem of e-Skills is a sensitive one.ro/ 196 .

While the investment in ICT would have alleviated the budget crisis by drastically reducing spending. Romania’s ambitious programmes for integrated e-government are now an example for the EU as well. Being a late starter in the delivery of e-services. the country now faces a double challenge: having to serve the heightened expectations of customers with constrained public resources. the vital ingredient that all public agencies should focus on is the development of trust. However. exacerbated by the imbalance between working and non-working populations. 197 . stepping in after a dictatorial regime means that the government needs to build and retain citizen confidence in the ability of the administration to appropriately manage personal information. Being an example for countries in South Eastern Europe. And it is important to the social cohesion of the country too. Romania will have to face new national challenges such as escalating healthcare costs. in line with the EU27+’s average growth rates. Romania is in a good position to step up the pace of developing its e-services to further e-enable its administration and reap the significant benefits and impacts it can procure. an aging society and life-style changes.Romania has achieved rapid and swift transition to democracy. 4. there remains a significant gap between those digitally enabled and those not – through either choice or circumstance. Conclusions With its steady growth. While significant steps have been taken to advance the use of technology in public service delivery. Closing this gap is crucial to the economic performance of Romania. Finally Romania like the rest of the world has been confronted with a recession. Hence. These represent a growing and substantial financial burden on society.

as well as the needs of EU integration. 198 .REPUBLIC OF SERBIA Serbia was one of six republics that made up the country of Yugoslavia. with the new time horizon of 2009 to 2012. With the formation of the Ministry of Telecommunications the Information Society in May 2007. those outstanding from the original e-SEE Agenda. An Inter-ministerial Task Force has also been established by the Ministry to overhaul and update the original 2006 National Action Plan for the Information Society. Indeed. In February 2003. the Initiative was flawlessly chaired by Dr. Marijana Vidas. throughout the first generation of Electronic South Eastern Europe Initiative (2002-2007). encompassing priorities of the e-SEE Agenda+. In 2006. Montenegro split from Serbia. the e-SEE Agenda+ officially became a direct responsibility for a new Assistant Minister for the Information Society. strategies and action plans relating to telecommunications and more broadly to the Information Society.3 million 206 Serbia has submitted its application to EU membership at the end of 2009. 1. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES Serbia has played a key role in the development of the Information Society in South Eastern Europe. Since then the Ministry has devoted very considerable time and energy into finalising legislation. This began to bear fruit during 2009 with the launch or imminent emergence of a range of services. forming a loose federation. responsibility for most strategic and legal issues relating to the Information Society and for the e-SEE Agenda were transferred from the National Information Technology and Internet Agency to the Ministry. which broke up in the 1990s. With a population of 7. Mr Nebojša Vasiljević. From January 2009. Serbia and Montenegro were the remaining two republics of the rump of Yugoslavia.Bubanja from Serbia. 206 2009 estimate.

some key components of the system have been deployed since June 2009. In the private sector the Chamber of Commerce is already deploying the same e-signature in a pioneering scheme for e-business services. An ‘unqualified electronic signature’ represents a bilateral agreement. It mentions in reference to education that ˝incentive measures to increase the participation of women when it comes to using information and communication technologies (ICT)˝ should be developed.rs 208 The ‘qualified electronic signature’ is officially validated by the government. the Ministry of the Interior is now fully geared up to issue e-signatures for public servants enabling them to securely access e-government services.minrzs. A few of the larger Ministries already have document management systems. and there are plans to gradually extend the system into Ministries beginning in 2010. SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS A Strategy and Action Plan has been developed for e-Government.The Gender Equality Board. All documentation for government meetings and preparatory meetings are now digitised. commonly used by Banks. the Law on approving e-signatures in principle was passed in 2004. A separate chapter in the new Information Society Action Plan will be devoted to improve the environment for and overcoming barriers to e-commerce. and the Gender Equality Directorate at the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy 207 drafted a new law on gender equality (to be adopted in the first half of 2010). but actual implementation requires further specific enabling legislation in relation to the public service. The National Strategy for Improving the Position of Women and Enhancing Gender Equality (2009-2015) has been adopted in February 2009. 209 In the Republic of Serbia. Banks are not yet fully oriented towards e-payments and a number of trivial and not so trivial obstacles still exist. raising issues of interoperability. A recent initiative has been the introduction of an Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) into government deliberations. pending only legal approval). Although the general legal basis 209 has been in place since 2004. e-Government. Although awaiting the e-signature (it is technically ready to be implemented. and a key component of effective e-services for government and business is now in place with the creation of a system for qualified electronic signatures 208. and can therefore be used for a wide range of purposes. 199 . 207 www.gov. Government of the Republic of Serbia.

but only very limited interactivity. SERVICES FOR PEOPLE Currently the e-government portal 210 provides information. ICTs were deployed to launch a one-stop-shop for public services. led by the municipality of Inđija.e-Business. the Chamber is actively planning further e-services including: • • • Online submission of customs declaration (In an earlier setback. In an innovative scheme.gov. Building on public sector reforms begun in 2000.000 e-signature cards to SMEs by March 2010. distributed through a second organisation legally entitled to issue them: the Chamber of Commerce. more interesting developments have taken place. a single window approach to customs and e-trading documentation was abandoned after funding for a pilot ended.euprava. The cards can be used initially: • • • To submit VAT returns and pay online. An e-procurement platform. Below the national level. however. aiming to build a critical mass of service users. This is expected to bring at least a basic set of services to almost full online status. and the card doubles as a credit card for the SMEs using them. Services available on other government websites are not standardised. Qualified electronic signatures are already in use by businesses. reducing ease of usage. The first authorised body is the Post Office. As a payment gateway to selling goods online. Government to business e-services are in one respect ahead of those for citizens.yu 200 . which has yet to act on it. to the user public.) Applying for and issuing of trading licenses in sectors such as drugs and agricultural goods. The smart card system comes with a reader that directly plugs into a computer through a USB port.000 people. for SMEs to engage in bulk buying of goods at lower cost through pooling their requirements. serving both citizens and 210 www. In collaboration with various authorities. a city of about 60. A comprehensive e-government Portal is expected to be launched in February 2010. To provide details of employees to the supervising administration. the Chamber is distributing for free up to 20.

At least one NGO. with 80% of the cost coming from the Greek government and the rest from the Serbian government. Under the more recent SEELight programme 213 this access could rise to as high as 10 gigabits per second. Equal Opportunities. with a number of innovative projects. and all now have access to the internet on a 5 year contract with Telecom Serbia for a token fee. expecting to cost about €1 million.geant. particularly those marginalised. though no specific action has yet been taken. run by staff at the Computing Centre in the University of Belgrade. leased from Telecom Serbia. a City Statistical System that monitors all purchases and usage of goods and services by the Municipality (see further on). In the future it is hoped to link the schools and the AMRES network. A second phase saw the creation of City 48. The Academic Network of Serbia (AMRES) links about 126 institutions in 50 different locations throughout Serbia. and is a cost efficient means to transport high volumes of data. can share in the benefits of the Information Society.org/ 213 Funded by the Hellenic Plan for the Economic Reconstruction of the Balkans to acquire access to dark fibre and interconnections in SEE 201 . both primary and secondary. 50% funded by the EU and by the government. All schools are now equipped with at least one computer and many with computer labs. This will be submitted to tender in coming months. A tender for the equipment required to connect AMRES members has been issued. under the SEEREN 2 project 212. has been active to try to ensure that women.businesses. with the remainder of the €6.000 kilometres nationally of ‘dark fibre’ running at volumes of up to a gigabit a second. Dark Fibre allows bandwidth to be increased and reduced at will.net 212 http://www. They are a part of the European GEANT network 211 and have external links in several directions including a 34 mbits link to Greece. The gender equality gap is acknowledged in the Information Society Action Plan of 2005. Since 2000 AMRES has participated in various programmes (initially with support from the EU and the Max Plank Institute) that enabled the gradual growth of its network to a point where they now have about 2. Serbia also has a relatively advanced academic research network in terms of its internal and external connectivity and services. 211 Gigabit European Advanced Network Technology http://www.1 million total budget going on bandwidth of a 15 year period. The approach is now being adopted more widely.seeren. There has also been some progress in e-education below third level.

Funded by OSI. According to the data taken from the analysis conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. compiling and classifying their CVs for use by employers seeking skilled staff and perhaps a better gender balance in their workforce. 202 . adoption is foreseen in 2010. They are completed at the learner’s own pace. A certificate is awarded on successful completion of a final test.9% of Serbian households having broadband Internet connection. it launched on online course on gender equality. UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE In December 2008 a two year Action Plan for Telecommunications was launched. Several aspects of the plan have been implemented: • • • • • Competition has been introduced into fixed telephony with a second license now issued.000 have registered to the course with almost 100 certificates awarded so far. in 2006 Equal Opportunities developed guidelines and checklists for the inclusion of gender issues in ICT policies. the final one on mainstreaming gender into projects. In tandem.• • • • In collaboration with the Ministry of Education. although the broadband component of it was extracted and comprises a separate Broadband Strategy in line with the bSEE Action Plan. A new law on electronic communications is supposed to replace the Telecommunications Law from 2003 and harmonize the regulations in this area with the EU regulatory framework from 2002 with the exception of the functional separation of operations for Telecom Serbia. About 3. RATEL now has much of the executive power relating to telecommunications. The scope of universal service has been defined. The number of those obtaining assignments is growing. Internet penetration is 39% with 22. Four modules are available. funded by CIDA. they authored a number of articles for the press on the benefits of ICTs for women. to improve their job prospects and empower them generally. RATEL. Public consultations were held at the end of 2009. several of which chose to publish them. It produced a database of 1. By-laws have been adopted for the independent regulator. Equal Opportunities ran a project to build the capacity of single mothers in computer use. empowering it to extend its regulatory activities. In June 2008. Two new mobile phone licenses have been issued. circulating them to policymakers and others.500 women experts in Serbia.

Ministers and others will be able to directly edit the documents according to their authorised level of access. generating about 1. after being physically authorised. In principle.As noted a National Digital Switchover Strategy has been adopted.500 pages for each of twenty eight Ministers. and the target for introduction of digital broadcasting services is April 2012. documents will in the first place be received by the Filing Office and authorised in digital form. The Government meetings themselves are now virtually paperless. 2. and to deploy effectively the tools of an Information Society. Meetings of government Ministers involve a significant amount of preparation. simply copying the documentation would require a full day. The government electronic document management system (EDMS). sort and compile these without ever printing them out. the need for paper will be eliminated. checking and compiling the documentation. Thus. and collectively or individually store the edited version. with agendas comprising 30 or 40 items each with its associated documentation. The Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Telecommunications and the Information Society are responsible. For example. in e-education it may take a decade or more before results can be seen in young adults better educated and equipped to obtain and create employment. all documents are scanned and turned into PDF files. more amenable to assessment. and hence without the need for hard copy. Currently. as Ministries become more automated. supplied with personal log in cards (but not yet a full e-signature) receive them in digital form. and proceed from there. The Committees review. Each of these documents in turn would have been authorised and physically stamped by the Government Filing Office. and can print specific items. The EDMS transforms this process in stages. Before each meeting relevant Committees go through their respective segments of the agenda. if they wish to annotate or otherwise edit hard copy. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development The beneficial effects of the implementation of ICTs are not always felt immediately. Other areas yield more immediate and tangible benefits. A few illustrative examples are presented below. 203 . Up to recently. Furthermore. Ministers and others. or have before them greatly reduced volumes of documents. The imminent introduction of secure e-signatures will enable the digital authorisation of documents without a physical stamp.

The benefits of this approach are numerous. improved electricity fee collection. Potentially the greatest benefit may come in the future in the form of enhanced government transparency. to identify and fix problems in local government. Committees and Government meetings get through their business in significantly less time.000 – will be recouped through savings in the administration process within a period of just 6 to 8 months. Through System 48. thereafter yielding an ongoing budgetary saving. also enabling more timely meetings. the Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Society.000 in the first year alone. Inđija came in at number 18. and instituted an automated public parking system.000 investment costreaching $73. Of the top 25 global external investment destinations. have calculated that the cost of implementing the project – about €300. reorganized city lighting. who use a comprehensive data tracking system and then develop and implement timely and effective solutions to identified problems. It relies on the active participation of citizens. and on proactive management by municipal officials. A full day is saved on document copying alone. First is a saving of time and a growth in productivity. With all documentation prepared and edited in electronic form. Citizens can make a phone call. With more manageable documentation. Budget expenses have moreover been cut by 15%. The Inđija Municipality 214 offers a spectacular example of benefits. 214 http://www. Its ICT driven e-services and one-stop-shop approach are largely credited with enabling it to attract a huge volume of inward investment. attracting €400 million in just five years. and generate work orders for the appropriate public enterprise or department. a creative replication of the CitiStat system developed in Baltimore.indjija. Those implementing the project. One of the services offered by the Inđija Municipality is System 48. 7 days a week.net/ 204 . e-mail or access the website of the municipality to make requests which are automatically routed to make the service available 24 hours a day. But direct benefits also accrue to the local population in terms of improved services. a relatively small step is needed to make as much as possible available to the public in real time. Inđija’s public officials have removed illegal waste dumps. who can report concerns through various channels. Parking collection rates have doubled and collections have already exceeded the $34. There is also the cost saving.

And the Chamber of Commerce e-services not alone save time and money for services. The smart cards used for the electronic signature double as Diners Club cards. in the right circumstances. will begin to use them as such. to work and to live. beyond the reach of most SMEs. 3. is willing to offer them the service for a guarantee of about €10. Sufficient funding. but have been instrumental in opening up new markets such as online selling.000 of the most innovative SMEs. A further incentive is offered through Diners Club support for e-commerce. and the partnership offered a unique means to recruit up to 20. which are often not the same. Inđija Municipality came to be regarded as the most efficient and effective municipality in the country delivering fast modern services to both citizens and businesses. remains a perennial problem especially in the current climate. although under no obligation to do so. of course. be effective. Immediate benefits of the implementation of ICTs are evident from the other activities mentioned above. Those who use the AMRES network have little doubt of its benefits for the research communities. and the expectation is that many of the SMEs. The Chamber of Commerce e-services project described above is a partnership with Diners Club. in this scheme. and access to resources. Projects that partner with corporations can.000. High speed networking afforded by AMRES facilitates research collaboration nationally and internationally. The key is to ensure that both parties can achieve their respective goals. 205 . that would otherwise be inconceivable (and still is for some countries in the region).000 as a condition for supporting online sales. and ultimately underpinning its success as a place to invest. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development The realisation of an Information Society that can benefit all sectors of society faces obstacles at every level and in a variety of forms. Diners Club. But innovative solutions are also being found.In time. In the past major banks have required guarantees of up to €200. the credit card financial institution. Diners Club was seeking a way to expand its customer base in Serbia. It has been replicated in dozens of municipalities around Serbia.

000. and improve the educational experience through supporting groups working together. faculties. that could reap significant benefits. They are soon to renegotiate access to the dark fibre from Telecom Serbia. building cumulatively towards an ultimately successful outcome. for instance. were the funding available. Emphasising the key role played by academics in national development and the non-commercial nature of their activities. like most regulators. The first step was to undertake fundamental reform of the system of public administration. RATEL. Many more projects are planned. who bears the cost of funding bandwidth for academic and educational use is an ongoing issue in several countries. 206 . The project was carefully planned and managed in a sequence of steps. faces a difficult task in overseeing and policing an ever more complex sector. The success of the Inđija Municipality was no accident. as the latter treated the high profile project as a loss leader to gain experience and a track record in an expanding market. The project team calculated that the cost to them of about €30. In fact. discussion groups and resource providers.The EDMS project team also made significant savings by being able to negotiate major discounts with suppliers of the system. save time through shared resources. they hope to reduce how much they pay out to the state owned operator. for instance through building a platform for communications within individual faculties enabling students and staff to work together more closely online. The human capacity to deal with complex aspects of the Information Society is a second area of need. Programme management skills are also needed for the planning and implementation of large scale projects. AMRES. AMRES also faces funding problems: the high and ongoing cost of the high bandwidth they need. currently costing about €1. They would like to extend further into e-learning and engage the end users more directly. believes that further significant benefits could be gained through the development of additional services. greatly simplifying the multiple user names and authentification procedures used by libraries.000 had a market value closer to €450.0 million a year and paid for by the Ministry for Telecommunications and Information Society. This would considerably improve communications between and among teachers and learning. A further practical aim is to develop a single authentication system for the many services the academics and students use. one in which new licenses have been granted and more will probably follow.

the one-stop-shop approach would have been impossible to implement. the contract was signed at the end of 2008. As in many countries. most politicians and many government officials have limited experience of ICTs and capacity to use them. The first phase was running by mid June 2009. however. Motivating people. through direct experience. Such effective planning and management skills are critical to success.Processes were redesigned. but unfortunately in short supply. and would like to build capacity there. the concrete benefits of a system and how it can motivate action. the issue was quickly pushed high on the agenda and is expected to pass before the end of the year. After the initial planning phase. political commitment is especially required to overcome resistance and gain the benefits. is also a widespread concern. relates to how the partial implementation of the system facilitated its final completion. Once Ministers could view documents in PDF form on their computers. The introduction of ICTs into the process was accompanied by further training and skill development. Without this. The implementation of the government EDMS above is a good illustration of the value of being able to demonstrate. but just as important was training and education on how to reform from being a bureaucracy executing a set of processes to being an agency focused on serving client needs. When advised that it would require a relatively minor legislation amendment to introduce a digital signature. and significant training and support provided. not only did they recognise the immediate benefits but they questioned why they were unable to edit and comment on them directly online. What the project team had spent many hours trying to persuade the government of earlier in the year was instantly accepted when the 207 . At the top level. As a whole the process of implementation of EDMS was relatively straightforward. They are keenly aware of their limitations in terms of improving relations with and influence among their own member institutions and decision making more widely. whose staff are basically IT scientists with little experience of public relations and promoting the major (if informal) enterprise that AMRES has become. and hence require some convincing of the benefits and perhaps incentives to take a risk on them. and raising their understanding of the potential benefits of ICTs. through employing a specialist. The most interesting point. and rapid. Another dimension of capacity needs is demonstrated at AMRES.

Conclusions A well guided effort for the popularisation and development of ICTs in all segments of population and in trading activities. many sincerely do not perceive that a problem exists at all. to produce a database of local products as an import replacement mechanism. in business and work. varying from about €0. in decision-making and political structures.20 to under one Euro. can be observed in Serbia. This is precisely the issue addressed through the distribution of up to 20. with incentives tailored to the needs. For instance. Currently being piloted in four of Serbia’s 168 municipalities. This underlines the value of practical demonstrations in influencing policy makers’ understanding of ICT issues. a key challenge for launching new services is the relatively low level of access to ICTs. But others involved in gender issues point to the patriarchal tradition of society.potential benefits could be clearly perceived.000 free e-service smart cards. The Chamber of Commerce scheme also tackled the incentive issue among Ministries and agencies. but resentment among other staff can retard such developments. and in their personal lives. Each of their services has been negotiated and developed with the relevant Ministry. and the introduction of e-administration at various levels with its corollary of increased efficiency and transparency and reduced corruption. which not alone generates sometimes subtle barriers to women gaining the full benefits in ICTs in education. The Chamber of Commerce is also working on a further project. the SMEs pay a small fee each time they use a service. a major concern is that the threshold of services users needed to make such a service viable may not be there yet. In the case of the VAT payment service. The recent application for EU membership will certainly further accelerate the process. 208 . support of the VAT office was secured in part through the sharing of this small but growing fee: the VAT office receives 20% of this. Regarding progress on gender equality and ICTs. too. For the AMRES. For SMEs and for the public alike. and the absence of the skills needed to use them effectively. A couple of universities introduced extra payments for such staff. but also tends to hide the existence of these barriers from the women (and men) themselves. one of the challenges for improving their existing services and expanding into new ones is the need to motivate faculty members to put in the extra time needed to initially engage with and then use the system. Finally is the issue of a threshold level of access and usage in society of services. 4.

Its nine years as a UN-administered territory did see some developments. and one non UN state. As early as 2006 it approved the Information Society Strategy for 2006-2012. Its independence is recognized by 64 UN Member States (out of 192). Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Assembly of Kosovo declared Kosovo’s independence as the Republic of Kosovo. for instance in terms of basic infrastructure. The Ministry of Transport and Communications (MTPT) 215 has overall responsibility for the telecommunications sector and leads the e-SEE Agenda+ there. In February 2008. such as the lack of high level internet domain name (the two letter country code) and the fact that it is not a member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). But with regard to e-services and the Information Society. does not make references to it as a territory. 215 http://www.mtpt.UNMIK/KOSOVO After the war and the 1999 NATO bombing of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 1. reference to Kosovo in this document. the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution asking the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion on the issue of Kosovo’s declaration of independence.org/?page=1&lang=2 216 Approved by the Ministry. Based on the e-SEE Agenda+. upon the request of Serbia. which is now updated with the 2009 MTPT 216 strategy and Action Plan. This process is currently ongoing. though few projects have clear deadlines for completion. as the key resource to the e-Leadership Programme for the Western Balkans. UNMIK/Kosovo is still largely at the planning stage. if any. and is made pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). most of whose roles were assumed by the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) in December 2008. It has been pursuing its 2007 Telecommunications Sector Policy. On 8 October 2008. it still needs to be approved by the Government of UNMIK/Kosovo 209 . Kosovo came under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). or country. province. Progress with the Information Society BASIC STRUCTURES The development of an Information Society in UNMIK/Kosovo bears many signs of its recent history.

aspx?ID=759 http://www. and Data Protection (a further Law is being drafted here) following EU Directives. The AOGG also chairs the Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Gender Equality which is composed of Ministerial Focal Point on Gender Issues (MFPGI). Prizreni.aspx http://www. Ferizaj.org/civpol/gender/doc/Kosovo-Action-Plan-for-gender-Equality.The Law on Gender Equality (2004) of UNMIK/Kosovo enacted the creation of the Office of Gender Equality under the Prime Minister.net/en-US/Pages/Fillimi. The National Action Plan on the Achievement of Gender Equality in UNMIK/Kosovo developed with the support of UNIFEM (approved by the government in 2004) does not mention ICTs but includes recommendations for women to have a better access to technology and to professions stereotyped as ˝male˝ 220. Also. Mitrovica. and coordinates and monitors the implementation of gender policy. Peja. and it performs advocacy. and a Law on Cybercrime adopted in 2009. It has the authority to formulategovernment policy concerning equal gender status. a fibre optic “electronic highway” interconnects 8 municipalities with this Government network 221. 219 An Advisory Office on Good Governance. mainstreaming policies internally within the UN agencies.ks-gov. Gjakova. Equal Opportunities and Gender Issues (AOGG) was established in 2001. Klina. but effectively started to work in March 2002.unmikonline.pdf http://www. The 2005 Law on Information Society Services had already provided a legal framework for e-Commerce. for which a strategy was approved in December 2008 218 with the support of UNDP.ks-gov.net/map/News. e-Signatures. Gjilani.org/civpol/gender/doc/Kosovo-Action-Plan-for-gender-Equality. SERVICES FOR GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS Most of central government institutions (90%) are linked by optical fibre of Post and Telecommunications of UNMIK/Kosovo (PTK).aspx It can be downloaded at http://www.rks-gov. 210 . and e-services are being added regularly. A basic e-Government Portal has been established and offers mainly information.unmikonline. Human Rights.The Department of Information Technology in the Ministry of Public Administration (MPA) 217 is responsible for e-Governance.net/map/Default. Additionally the UN Mission in UNMIK/Kosovo (UNMIK) has an Office of Gender Affairs responsible for gender equality.pdf Municipalities connected to this Government “electronic highway” are: Prishtina. 217 218 219 220 221 http://www. A draft Action Plan emerged in October 2009 covering the period 2009 to 2015.

electricity and other services. security and equipment and management of the Data Centre. donated by the Norwegian Parliament. e-Business services are relatively undeveloped. but it is little used so far and no secure authentication system exists here or elsewhere in the public service. websites and file management. 222 The Ministry of Finance has implemented a relatively advanced Budget Development Management Systems (BDMS). Ministry of Energy and Mining. The Case Management Information System (CMIS) is now fully integrated into the daily operations of the Courts. Some aspects will be funded under a World Bank loan approved in November 2009 aimed at modernising the public sector. Online registration for legal entities is also in the final stages of development. The Assembly also has electronic voting. This facilitates a coordinated approach to infrastructure development.(MEST) contains roads. designed to improve government efficiency but also enabling the range of services included in the strategy. building on the inherited UNMIK microwave network. A Document Management System (DMS) has been installed in the Parliament (though it does not have its own dedicated IT system). for use by all Ministries to plan and monitor the stage of each of their projects. is being implemented in the project of expansion of strengthening of the network interconnecting 32 municipalities of UNMIK/Kosovo with the IT Centre System. 222 http://www. and will also include the Cadastre (though this is a political issue since much property ownership is traditional).A microwave network.(MEM) and Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. that enables finance sections to view the complete current state of spending online. And a Project Cycle Management System is in the final stages of development. automation and interoperability of government work processes. and a protocol has been developed to allow others to gain access to it and the system will be extended to municipality level. Services provided are basic: telephony. and Draft Laws. The creation of a Data Centre is a key part of this. including e-procurement (including e-transactions). e-administration features prominently in the e-Government Strategy. A WebGIS system managed by the government working group comprised by representatives of MTPT.assembly-kosova. assembly transcripts and other information are available online. connecting all Ministries and Municipalities. Needless to say. e-mails.org/?cid=2.1 211 .

with World Bank loan and some support from Soros Foundation. Phase 1 begins in early 2010. 223 http://www. customs video surveillance. three companies have been issued with licenses to sell the registers. The Ministry of Education has an e-Learning Strategy in place. emphasising three components: • • • learning to use ICTs. Training of teachers is also being launched. among the most developed being e-commerce. which will become obligatory for all businesses. driver’s license and car license application. SERVICES FOR PEOPLE e-services for citizens are similarly limited at present. Companies can then also download the Excel sheet and email directly. e-procurement and electronic payment systems. and a project to connect all cash registers to the tax office – for this last. Forms for passport applications. each with broadband access to the Internet. At the moment companies can access the Business Register from the government portal after having registered once. USAID. ID card and drivers’ licenses can be downloaded and collection readiness confirmed. Those in an advanced stage of planning include online birth and civil status certifications online. A central registry for job applications is also online. with a plan to have a lab with thirty six computers in ever school by 2013.org 212 . Some forms can be downloaded from the e-Portal. There is already progress in some areas. or upload the data on the site of the UNMIK/Kosovo Pension Savings Trust (Trusti) and the tax services 223. and an e-Cadastre for Pristina. but most services do not go beyond descriptions. learning English using ICTs. DFiD and UNDP. the mathematics curriculum.The e-government strategy includes a suite of services for businesses. The e-Governance Strategy again contains a wide range of aspirations for services. payment of property tax. Donors and funding sources include the World Bank.trusti.

began to work more efficiently in September 2009 after nine months during which no Board was in place. TRA. The independence of the above Commission as well as the ongoing financing of public service broadcasting also face difficulties.MTC available at: http://www.pdf 213 .vienna-economic-forum.MVNO’s with relatively low tariffs. the UK Embassy and the Italian Government. and a programme of digitisation of cultural artefacts is underway. each inputting data for central verification and sorting.The Cultural Heritage Division of the Ministry of Culture is making progress. And they have begun a project for the digitisation of vocal (voice) heritage.700 items has begun. has begun the re-indexing of its catalogue. and has proposals to build a UNMIK/Kosovo Library Portal and to digitise the entire contents of the National Library including about a 1. There are three fixed line licenses issued (one not yet taken up) two mobile phone operators. Internet penetration by the end of 2009 should be 25% 224. This brings together nine cultural institutions. and two Mobile Virtual Network Operators . Their target is to have the inventory complete by the end of 2010.200 volume oriental collection. and the Independent Media Commission but there has been little progress. despite the destruction of many of its holdings during the war. more is needed. The database has been designed and digitisation of an inventory of about 2.Pristina Meeting on ˝Telecommunications Sector in UNMIK/Kosovo˝ by Agim Kukaj. funding by the European Commission TAIEX Programme. Despite three external fibre links. Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA). The National Library. 224 Presentation to Vienna Economic Talks. Internet penetration had reached 23% in March 2009 and according to the “Telecommunications sector policy” document approved by the Government. According to the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority.com/uploads/media/Kukaj. a working group has been established comprising MTPT. broadband penetration is around 6%.Director of ICT Department. UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE The regulator. In relation to the switchover to digital broadcasting.

Expenditures are managed and over-sighted through “Free Balance System”. Hindering and Helping Factors to Information Society Development Some problems faced by UNMIK/Kosovo in this area relate to recent history. taking into account those destroyed. For instance the fact that UNMIK/Kosovo is not a member of the ITU leaves them with a unique challenge in gaining sufficient international frequency allocation for digital television. Although this cannot happen until issues around UNMIK/Kosovo’s independence are resolved. And as noted. it is difficult to discern impact at this time. the first facilitating steps have been taken by the MTC for laying down the legal base and the establishment of a Country Code Top level Domain Manager 226. in the post-war situation.php 226 Administrative decision nr1/2009 on 10. Impact and Benefits of Information Society Development Given the relatively low level of development of the Information Society in UNMIK/Kosovo. some operators began without licensed frequencies. All budget planning is now done through the automated system. 3.telekomi.2. See: http://www. the absence of a national domain name complicates and retards Internet use.net/tk/en/index. and the fact that much of the existing documentation as well as many of cultural artefacts are in Serbia. 225 Prices range from 8€ per month and up to 20€ per month for Internet and TV. ADSL from PTK is 8 € per month.2009 from the MTC 214 . and reallocating them is now proving difficult. Another problem for TRA is that.12. Market liberalization of telecommunications sector has had a great impact on creating cheaper 225 and quality advanced services. But the Budget Development Management System in the Ministry of Finance is already seeing benefits through the improved monitoring of spending. Digitalisation of culture has also faced post-war problems with the reconstruction of a national monument inventory.

but also benefits from the outpouring of international development assistance. Overall the capacity of public institutions is often weak in terms of project management. and the points of influence . which potentially can save significant time and cost. the government approved additional payment to IT staff in the public sector. the database design is inadequate and lacks security 227. and so forth .are not fully committed.the Speaker. implementation skills and ICT knowledge. some establishing their own systems without considering interoperability issues. The Document Management System in the Parliament. political parties.Incentivising and encouraging the use ICTs is also an issue. focused help for the development of e-services with all its implications is necessary. In order to address this. A key problem is the significant leakage of trained ICT staff from the public sector to the private sector. 4. in several areas. Conclusions The specific political situation of UNMIK/Kosovo is double edged for it introduces impediments in terms of structures and legislation. Weaknesses in the UNMIK/Kosovo Police Information System (KPIS) have been observed. Procurement delays also cost projects a lot of time. 227 EULEX 2009 Mission Report 215 . Data inputs at regional level are often five to seven days subsequent to the event and not always correctly uploaded on the system. is greatly underutilised at present due to some reluctance among parliamentarians. now in place for 12 months with some considerable success. hampered by bureaucratic procedures and fragmented administrations. in the past. as well as the necessary controls. compounded by an occasional lack of coordination among them with. For UNMIK/Kosovo to move steadily towards an Information Society.










Mont: 43. many by using EUROSTAT methodology. Identify best practices at the regional/European level for Internet usage and content availability. 230 It is a process and most countries have done a good job and met this target. in many other countries benchmarking is not regular and is not covering all aspects of Information Society. 3. Deadline could be removed from this activity altogether 220 .htm Alb: 20. 2. Mac:43. Rom:33. c. Development and accessibility of rich online content and transfer from conventional format.7%. Availability of high speed broadband networks and secure services a.9%. Establish national Internet exchange centers by end 2010 d.7%. Establish national computer emergency response centers and start the exchange of information by end 2010. Agree on a common subset of i2010 indicators of the development of information society by end 2010 and start regular benchmarking 229 in 2011.4%. Increase penetration of broadband services on a technological neutral basis in telecommunication to reach 50% of EU average by 2012 228. BiH: 31.com/stats4. Source: Internet World Stats: http://www. EU Average: 63. Serbia:44. Aggregate demand for domestic/local rich content by 2009 230.8% 229 Some countries.internetworldstats. 228 September 2009. b. 1.6%. e.2%. Define national/regional priorities for domestic/local rich content using EU’s roadmap and experiences. Mold:19.7%. Macedonia and Serbia have introduced benchmarking. 2. UNMIK/Kosovo: 20.9%. Develop interactive contents in the official languages. However. like Croatia.WE ARE DEVOTED To accomplishment of following list of objectives by the end of 2014: A) PRIORITY AREA: SINGLE SEE INFORMATION SPACE 1. Establish regional high-bandwidth backbone by end 2011 connected to EU. Cro: 50%. a.

Establish regional CA trusts Centers by mid 2013 . Adopt efficient radio spectrum management strategy on the national level for the future needs and harmonize it with the region by end 2008 235. however. while Albania. 3. 1.Window for international trade and electronic trade documents in cooperation with UNECE. harmonized with the European Interoperability Framework for administrations by end 2011 233. 233 Several countries are in the process. 231 Adopted by the Council and the European Parliament on 11 May 2005 232 The proposal is to leave this deadline unchanged. filtering technology and fighting spam. Adopt converging broadcasting policies and harmonize it with the positive European experience by end 2010 234. Establish National Root CAs by mid 2011 236.b. projects and initiatives aimed at raising safer Internet awareness (Croatia. 4. Raising safer Internet awareness among teachers. a. still a lot needs to be done in the rest of the region to accomplish this item. Interoperability in accordance with the European Interoperability Framework. yet a lot needs to be done to fully implement this e-SEE Agenda+ item 234 Most countries have accomplished this task. Promoting a safer environment through Safer Internet Forum. 3. Montenegro and UNMIK/Kosovo are in the process of its adoption 235 This item is fully accomplished 236 Most countries are still in the process of forming National Root CA 237 Thanks to UNECE efforts commendable progress has been made in Macedonia and Croatia. as well as many activities. 5. Recognising the effort to negotiate a single free trade area (CEFTA) for SEE to create the environment for electronic Single. Harmonization of rules for Information Society and media. Limiting unwanted and harmful content through content rating. 2. a. Fighting illegal content through public support. Moldova. 4. c. and have introduced cyber-crime legislation. b. Serbia). Adopt national interoperability framework. Follow European Safer Internet Plus 231 practice by 2011 232. 221 . b. National/regional electronic identity management. since most countries are on the way of implementing this item. Romania. parents and children. a. the World Bank and other relevant organizations by 2014 237.

Romania and Serbia. Develop programs for continuous learning of government officials in the sphere of contemporary information and communication technologies by mid 2010 243. b. Croatia and Macedonia have reached this target 241 This is currently mandatory only in Macedonia and Montenegro. a. Support and fund local academic networks and professional organizations to implement the regional and local ICT research by end 2012. 3. with several countries already reaching these targets mostly in secondary schools. 4. Implement across the region uniform standards for minimum of ICT skills. especially in elementary schools. Create an open. national database of research professionals and institutions by the beginning of 2011 . Curriculum for ICT skills. a. and few are funded by Government except in Macedonia. a. supported by the proper regulatory framework. Make ICT curricula mandatory on all education levels. 242 Very few countries have introduced systematic programs. 240 Currently ranges anywhere from nil to 15% on average. by end 2012 241. d. Computers and access to Internet in all schools. Fund life-long learning programs for adults by end 2014 242. A lot still needs to be done in primary schools 239 Currently ranges between 1. Further development of national academic and research networks and improvement of regional interconnection. Establish national/regional competence center for OSS policy by mid 2011. by end of 2012 239. Number of pupils per computers should be less than 20. b. b. Broadband Internet access should be made available in all schools. b. c. while some like Montenegro. 2. Measure and track intellectual capacity in IT industry by end 2014 238 Major progress is made in this area across SEE Region. by 2014. Establish vocational training in ICT.5 in Macedonia to 40 in Albania. 243 This target will be accomplished in time since all signatories currently have some form of such training provided.B) PRIORITY AREA: INNOVATION AND INVESTMENT IN ICT RESEARCH AND EDUCATION 1. a. by the end of 2014 240 in a technological neutral manner. Every school should have a computer laboratory and internet connection available for the pupils by the end of 2011 238. 222 . c.

there is room for improving quality. 250 Although most countries have adopted the relevant legislation. on universal service and users’ rights relating to electronic communications networks and services (Universal Service Directive) 245 Each country will review the existing national policies related to digital access and adopt the national Action Plans for E-Accessibility for the period 2007-2010. UNECE. b. b. Fostering the development of e-Business.hence there is a need to extend this deadline to reach all features agreed in the Annex 2. 249 Ministerial Conclusions signed by the ICT Ministers of e-SEE Initiative Member States at the Regional Ministerial Conference on Information Society held on 1st July 2005 in Thessaloniki. content and interactivity level of portals in most countries. Adopt the national Action Plans for e-Accessibility for the period 2008-2011 244 by mid 2010 245 . however emphasis needs to be made on services to citizens which are ranking lowest according to the e-Leadership assessment 248 Except for Albania.C) PRIORITY AREA: INCLUSIVE INFORMATION SOCIETY 1. c. The countries shall develop a strategy for e-business based on the Regional Guidelines developed by UNECE and adopted by the e-SEE Working Group in Thessaloniki on 1st July 2005 249 . Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. a. 3. 247 On the way of being implemented. by end 2012 250. 246 Each country will review the existing national strategies and policies related to introduction of ICT enabled public services and adopt the national Action Plans for E-Government for the period 2008-2011. of 7 March 2002. In order to prevent the brain-drain and foster the successful ICT business climate in the region. Action Plans will address the issues of stimulation measures for making ICT easier to use for a wider range of people. this task was accomplished by most in some form. and decrease of the digital divides. there are many measures that need to be taken to remove all such obstacles. especially in rural environments and having in mind the gender component. 223 . Introduce the set of basic e-Government services by 2011 247 (given in Annex 1). Stability Pact for SEE. a. Adopt the national Action Plans for e-Government for the period 2011-2014 by end 2010 246. Reach the minimal 50% of Internet penetration level by 2012. UNDP and INA Academy. and several countries are taking initiative to this end. improvement of digital literacy. Introduce the central e-Government systems and portal by 2012 248 (given in Annex 2). Greece under the auspices of Hellenic Ministry of Transport and Communications. Access to technology and equal opportunities. ICT enabled public services and e-Government issues. a. 2. b. the countries will take active measures to overcome all obstacles for development of e-Businesses. While Croatia and Macedonia excel. 244 Directive 2002/22/EC of the European Parliament And Of The Council.

Foster creation of favorable environment for IT professionals by stimulating business incubators. by 2013 c. e-Participation and e-Democracy.c. g. by 2011. Digital libraries and heritage. as well as their drafts. UNMIK-Kosovo still have a long way to go. Montenegro. Governments will introduce National Programs for Digitalization of Libraries with the emphasis on the national and regional cooperation and interconnectivity. Action Plans for implementation of ICT in electoral process and implementation of electronic vote will be adopted by end 2014 251 All public. a. Programs will be institutionalized as long-term. by2011. National Programs for Digitalization of Libraries will be adopted by the end of 2008 and all libraries will have access to digital systems by 2013 251. Create environment for all companies to use ICT in their daily operations and to use modern technologies as a tool for participation in the global economy. Albania. Create environment conducive to decrease of the running costs and the consequent cost of services of software companies. b. as a part of e-Government services. 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Introduce favorable and growth–oriented tax schemes for IT sector. by 2011 2. d. b. school and special libraries will be equipped with library information systems. techno-parks and business start up centers through partnership with universities and private sector. 252 Series of studies and research will be performed and programs of digitalization of the cultural and historic heritage will be started by 2009. 224 . Further removal of obstacles to both direct foreign and domestic investments in order to stimulate the development of IT Sector in South Eastern Europe. will be available for online discussion by 2011 253. continuous effort of countries on providing non-discriminatory access. There will be a significant increase in participation of citizens and business. e. a. 253 In many countries there is partial availability of decisions. f. All decisions that require public discussion. Serbia. by 2013. 5. storing into memory and distribution of its heritage and know-how from the field of culture through information society technologies. by 2011. Programs of digitalization of the cultural and historic heritage will commence by 2011 252.


226 .

WE WELCOME the outcome of the High Level Meeting on the Western Balkans. regional competitiveness and improved quality of life. We acknowledge the role of the e-SEE Agenda and e SEE Agenda+ in building a regionally coordinated Information Society that is instrumental in overcoming current economic challenges and moving towards a knowledge-driven society. organised by the Council of the European Union Presidency.Broadband South Eastern Europe signed on 1 July 2005 in Thessaloniki.Initiative for ‘bSEE’ . signed on 29 October 2007 in Sarajevo. WE RECOGNISE the success of the implementation of the e-SEE Agenda signed on 29 October 2002 in Belgrade. while acknowledging that an enormous challenge still remains in ensuring that high speed Internet is available to all. 227 . aiming to further enhance the cooperation on economic and social development in South Eastern Europe and reap the full potential of the ICTs to spur innovation. and reinforcement of its results through the e-SEE Agenda+. WE RECOGNISE the progress of the b SEE Taskforce in implementing the Memorandum of Understanding on the development of a unified market of broadband networks fully interconnected to the European and global networks .ANNEX 4: MINISTERIAL DECLARATION WE the Ministers responsible for the development of Information Society in South Eastern Europe and the representative of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo on behalf of Kosovo in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 have met within the context of the eSouth Eastern Europe Initiative of the Regional Cooperation Council with the purpose of evaluating the progress and reaffirming the commitment to the implementation of the eSEE Agenda+. WE WELCOME the work of the Regional Cooperation Council in promoting regional cooperation in the area of Information Society. which took place on 2 June 2010 in Sarajevo to mark the 10th anniversary of the Zagreb summit and reaffirming of the Council’s unequivocal commitment to the European perspective of the Western Balkan countries in line with the Thessaloniki Agenda and in accordance with the renewed consensus on enlargement. economic growth. and their efforts in encouraging the SEE countries on their path to Euro-Atlantic integration.

254 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament. technical assistance and visibility to the e SEE Initiative. implemented through the e-SEE Initiative Secretariat hosted by UNDP.2010 COM(2010) 245. interoperability and standards.eu/information_society/ digital-agenda/documents/digital-agenda-communication-en. Brussels.3.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/benchmarking/ benchmarking_digital_europe_2011-2015.eu/eu2020/pdf/COMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%20007%20-%20Europe%202020%20-%20EN%20 version. as called for in the Malmö and Granada Declarations 256. at an ever faster rate. 257 • An annual Digital Assembly involving many stakeholders. • An annual scoreboard on performance indicators and policy actions. WE TAKE NOTE of the EU’s commitment there to: • A reinforced process of joint governance and coordination among Member States.europa.2010 COM(2010) 2020 Communication from the Commission: EUROPE 2020 A Strategy for Smart. Article 25. and implementing the actions to address them.pdf 256 Ministerial Declaration on eGovernment Malmö. 19 April 2010 http://www. with the funds of the Italian Government. 3.europa. 19. fast and ultra fast internet access. consulting and research issues related to eGovernance in the region.WE ACKNOWLEDGE the support of the UNDP through hosting of the e SEE Initiative Secretariat that fostered successful implementation of e SEE Agenda and e SEE Agenda+ by providing guidance. and the potential of e-SEE Initiative for contributing to EU integration. educational. in implementing the legislative initiatives. WE WELCOME the results of the first Phase of the e-Leadership Programme for the Western Balkans. WE ACKNOWLEDGE the success of the Centre for e Governance Development in establishing a public-private partnership for addressing the training. 18 November 2009. the Council.pdf 255 Brussels. A Digital Agenda for Europe 254 demonstrates the EU’s commitment to constantly pushing forward the Information Society.europa. http://ec. Granada Ministerial Declaration.eu2010. WE RECOGNISE the importance of coordinating closely with a wider European Information Society. in establishing the Regional e-Governance Taskforce REGATA network.pdf 228 . identifying the key areas for capacity building in relation to implementing the Information Society.05. WE NOTE the extensive commonalities of the e-SEE Agenda+ priorities and the EU’s seven priority areas of: building a digital single market. the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A Digital Agenda for Europe. as one of seven flagships actions of the EU core strategy EUROPE 2020 255.es/export/sites/presidencia/comun/descargas/Ministerios/en_declaracion 257 Benchmarking Framework 2011 – 2015 http://ec. Sustainable and Inclusive Growth http://ec.

fully compatible with EU Benchmarks.boosting trust and security. CIP ICT. and also in the Multi-beneficiary Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance projects relating to ICTs. 229 . and the activities of the Centre for e Governance Development. financial and technical assistance. Offer an ongoing and updated set of Benchmarks for progress towards the Information Society. WE FULLY ENDORSE the updated and revised deadlines for the e-SEE Agenda+. and look forward to and are committed to supporting a further strengthening of this initiative. WE THEREFORE REAFFIRM our strong resolve to take all necessary steps and to deploy the resources needed to achieve the goals of the revised e-SEE Agenda+ and continue implementation of the b SEE Action Plan. We commit to continue our active involvement and take full advantage of the opportunities offered through the e Leadership Programme. and the e SEE Initiative cooperation recognising that they: Provide a mechanism for ever closer cooperation and exchange between the governments of the SEE countries in their efforts to develop an Information Society. WE INVITE the European Commission. UNDP and other international partners to continue supporting the implementation of this agenda. enhancing digital literacy skills and inclusion. by means of political. and Support actions to enable the participation of a wide range of stakeholders. We believe that a full implementation of this Programme will make a significant contribution to enhancing the capacity of e-leaders in the region and achieving the objectives of the e SEE Agenda+ and the implementation of Millennium Development Goals. the Regional Cooperation Council. and leveraging the benefits of ICTs for society. WE REAFFIRM our continuing commitment to the implementation of the e-SEE Agenda+. WE ENCOURAGE and are committed to facilitating joint participation of e-SEE Initiative Members in the ICT thematic area of the ongoing EU 7th Framework Programme. research and innovation. WE FULLY SUPPORT the actions undertaken by the e-Leadership Programme to develop capacities and exchange best practices within the region.

230 .

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