SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE, LEVEL OF ANXIETY, AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE FATHER OF WORKING CHILDREN IN THE CITY OF AMMAN

By Aisha Hasan Al Omoush Adviser Dr. Muntaha Gharaibeh
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M.Sc. in Nursing Science

At The Faculty of Graduate Studies Jordan University of Science and Technology

SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE, LEVEL OF ANXIETY, AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE FATHER OF WORKING CHILDREN IN THE CITY OF AMMAN

By Aisha Omoush

Signature of Researcher

Committee Member Dr. Muntaha Gharaibeh (Chairman) Dr. Basel Amarneh Dr. Amal G. Bandak (External Examiner, King Hussain Cancer Center) (Member)

Signature and Date

DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to my beloved mother, sisters, and brothers for their support all the way long during my study, and for all family and friends who believed in me and supported me during hard times. I would dedicate this work especially for my son EZZALDEEN, having you was the only motive for me.

i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work is the result of good mentoring I had by my teachers Dr muntaha Gharaibeh and Dr Basel Amarneh, I would thank them both for their support for me all the way during my study. I would like to thank Dr Muntaha for giving me the chance to get my masters degree, and for believing in me even in the times I wasn't sure about my potentials.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page

DEDICATION.................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................vi LIST OF APPENDECSES ...............................................................................................ix ABSTRACR ......................................................................................................................x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................1 1.1 Background and Significance .....................................................................................1 1.2 Purpose of the Study ...................................................................................................3 1.3 Research Questions .....................................................................................................3 1.4 Operational Definitions of the Variable ......................................................................4 1.5 Study Assumptions .....................................................................................................4 Study limitations ..............................................................................................................4 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................... 6 2.1 Child Labor and Socio- Demographic Profile ............................................................. 6 2.2 Child Labor and Child's Health ................................................................................... 8 2.3 Child Labor and the "Relationship with the Father" .................................................... 12 2.4 Summery ...................................................................................................................... 13 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY .......................................................................... 15 3.1 Design .......................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Population and Sample ................................................................................................ 15 3.3 Setting .......................................................................................................................... 16 3.4 Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 16

iii

3.5 Ethical Considerations ................................................................................................. 17 3.6 Instruments ................................................................................................................... 17 3.6.1 Socio-Demographic Information Part ....................................................................... 17 3.6.2 Father Presence Questionnaire (FPQ) ....................................................................... 18 3.6.3 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale ......................................................................... 19 3.7 Validity and Reliability ................................................................................................ 20 3.8 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................... 21 3.9 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 21 CHAPTER FOUR: THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY ................................................... 23 4.1 Socio-Demographic profile of working children ......................................................... 23 4.2 State-Trait Anxiety of Participants .............................................................................. 26 4.2.1 State Anxiety of participants ..................................................................................... 26 4.2.2. Trait Anxiety of participants .................................................................................... 27 4.3 Working Children Relationship with the Father ..................................................... 29 4.3.1 Feelings about the Father .......................................................................................... 30 4.3.2 Mother's Support for Relationship with Father ......................................................... 31 4.3.3 Perception of Father's Involvement .......................................................................... 33 4.3.4 Physical Relationship with Father ............................................................................ 34 4.3.5 Father-Mother Relationship ...................................................................................... 36 4.4 Relationship between state and trait anxiety, relationship with the father, and the demographic characteristics of participants ....................................................................... 37 4.5 Relationship between State Anxiety scale and "Relationship with the Father" ........... 39 4.6 Relationship between Trait anxiety scale and "Relationship with the father" ............. 40 4.7 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 43

iv

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION...................................................................................... 45 5.1 Socio-demographic profile of working children .......................................................... 45 5.2 Level of Anxiety of Working Children ........................................................................ 46 5.3 Relationship with the Father ........................................................................................ 46 5.4 The Relationship between Anxiety Levels and the "Relationship with the Father" .... 48 5.5 Relationships between Level of Anxiety, Relationship with the Father , and Socio-Demographic Variables of Working Children .................................................. 49

5.5.1 Anxiety and Socio-Demographic Variables ............................................................. 49 5.5.2 Relationship with the Father and Socio-Demographic Variables ......................... 51 5.6 conclusions .................................................................................................................. 54 5.7 Implications of the Study ............................................................................................. 54 5.8 Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 55 References:.......................................................................................................................... 57 APPINDECSES ................................................................................................................. 61 ARABIC ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... 76

v

LIST OF TABLES Table
1

Description
Cronbach s Alpha coefficient value in the pilot and the main study Mean, Standard Deviation, Frequency and Percent of Socio-Demographic Characteristics means and standard deviation of the state anxiety scale items Distribution of Participants According to Levels of State Anxiety Means and Standard Deviations of the Trait Anxiety Scale Distribution of Participants According to Levels of Trait Anxiety Means and Standard Deviations of children Responses on five subscales of the Relationship with the Father Scale Distribution of Participants According to Relationship with the Father Scale

Page
21

2

24

3 4 5 6 7

26 27 28 29 29

8

30

9

Means and Standard Deviations of children s responses on the "Feelings about the Father" subscale Frequencies and Percentages of the Feeling about the Father Subscale Result

31

10

31

11

Means and Standard Deviations of Participants' Responses on the Second subscale "Mother's support for relationship with father"

32

12

distribution of participants according to Mothers Support for the Relationship with Father subscale

33

13

Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Third subscale "Perception of Father's involvement"

33

vi

14

Distribution of Participants According to Perception of the Father Involvement Subscale

34

15

Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fourth subscale "Physical relationship with father"

35

16

Distribution of Participants According to Physical Relationship with Father subscale

35

17

Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fifth subscale Father- Mother Relationship"

36

18

Distribution of Participants According to Father- Mother Relationship subscale

37

19

Pearson s correlation between relationship with the father, state anxiety, and trait anxiety, and selected socio-demographic variables

37

20

Chi-Square of the Socio-Demographic Variable and State Anxiety Scale

38

21

Chi-Square of the Socio-Demographic Variable and Trait Anxiety Scale

38

22

Chi-Square of the socio-demographic variable and the relationship with the father scale

39

23

Results of Chi-Square for association between state anxiety and relationship with the father

40

vii

24 Results of Chi-Square for association between trait anxiety and relationship with the father

40

25 Result of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the Relationship with the Father of Working Children

41

26 Results of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the State Anxiety of Working Children

42

27 Results of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the Trait Anxiety of Working Children

43

viii

LIST OF APPENDECES
Appendix A. B. C. Description Arabic version of questionnaire English version of FPQ Arabic Abstract Page 61 69 75

ix

ABSTRACT

Socio-Demographic Profile, Level of Anxiety, and Relationship with the Father of Working Children in the City of Amman
By: Aisha H.S. Omoush The aim of the study was to identify socio-demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, relationship with the father , and the relationship between level of anxiety, "relationship with the father", and socio-demographic characteristics of working children including, family income, parental level of education, child s level of education, parental social status, type of work, salary, and parental relationship. Descriptive design was used in the study. The target population of this study was children between 12-16 years old, who were working at the time of the study. A convenience sample of 150 working children from three areas in Amman was recruited to participate namely; Khuraebet Al Souk in South side of Amman, Basman in the east side of Amman, and Ras Al-Ayn east side of Amman. A structured interview was used for the data collection, using a three-part-questionnaire, the Socio-Demographic part, the Father Presence Questionnaire (FPQ), and Spielberger State- Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Children found to have moderate to high levels of anxiety, in both the State and Trait Anxiety. Results also indicated that children had neutral to negative relationship with their fathers. The negative scores were reported for the Physical Relation with the Father and the Father-Mother Relationship, neutral feelings were reported for the Mother s Support to the Relationship with the Father, and positive feelings were reported for the Feeling about the Father, and Perception of Father s Involvement. Results also showed that State Anxiety was significantly associated with the child s age, father's education, mother's education, type of work, child s days off, child s days off places, days off spent with. Trait Anxiety was significantly associated with child s age, number of working members in the family, parent s relationship, father s education, father s work, mother s education, mother s work, child s days off places, and days off spent with. The relationship with the father was significantly associated with family income, parent s relationship, social status of parents, child s type of work, child s work place, child s days off, and days off spent with. The study concluded that working children found to be young, belong to poor socioeconomic status, less educated parents and dropped school to work at young age. Working children suffered from moderate to high levels of State anxiety and Trait anxiety (91%), (85.4%) respectively. The relationship with the father found to be neutral to negative (58%). The socio- demographic variables, levels of anxiety, and the relationship with the father found to be significantly correlated. In addition anxiety and relationship with the father were highly explained by the socio-demographic characteristics of working children. According to the study results, acknowledging policy makers about the child labor problems and its consequences on the Child s social, psychological, and physical problems, is urgently needed to plan and apply educational and rehabilitation programs.

x

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background and Significance In the last decade, child labor has become a serious problem worldwide. The spread of this problem in the developing countries, rather than the developed countries, could be referred to the fact that most of studies and reports correlate child labor, poverty and socioeconomic status of the family. In Jordan the poverty measurement results showed that the poverty line in JD is 504 per month, and the 14.8% of the people in urban areas are under the poverty line and 22.8% of the people are also under the poverty line in rural areas. Socio-cultural and socioeconomic variables have a strong effect on the prevalence of the child labor, in which the poor socioeconomic status and the need for survival, forced families to expose their children to the hazardous working conditions (1). The effect of child labor on the psychological and mental status of working children is evident in the results of many studies worldwide, this effect appears in many behavioral and emotional changes, and some of these behaviors are the reaction of the children toward others, and the fact that the children are convinced about the superiority of others over them. The most evident acts that have impact on children s psychological status is abuse, which children are exposed to in its all types, emotional, physical, verbal and sexual. The impact of abuse on children is manifested as feeling of inferiority, helplessness, fear of being approached sexually, poor school achievement and low self-esteem and that lead to poor stimulation of physical and mental development (2, 3). Working children are at a stage in their psychosocial development in which crucial

11

aspects of their identity such as self-esteem, self-confidence and future aspiration are being formed, and negative or positive effect will influence their development at this critical period and affect them to the rest of their lives. Anxiety is one of the most commonly seen consequences of child abuse, another factor contributing to the levels of anxiety on children is the factor arising from the household of children, and that could be the effect of one of the parents or both of them. Child labor in Jordan: In Jordan, 1.8% of the children are working children.(4) The problem started to appear as a growing problem, 26.4% of the children in the 16 year old group are working children, 15% of the 15 year old children, 11% of the 14 year old children and 9.5 % less than 14 years.(5) Around 44.6% of the working children are from Amman, and that maybe related to the fact that Amman has the highest residential rate in Jordan, and it is the biggest city in Jordan with high working opportunities. Mechanical and car maintenance field had the highest percent of the children s interest, 40% of working children in Jordan are in that field. Child s payments were low, 70% of the working children are paid less than 80 JD/month, which is much lower than the average payments for the same work adults do. Regardless of the terms and conditions stated by Ministry of Labor in the Jordan labor law, 54% of the children are working 8 hours or less, the remaining is working more than 9 hours. Child labor was associated with school dropout, 60% of the working children finished their elementary education, and they started the work for different reasons. 52.7% wanted to learn skillful job, 52.1% chose to work to help their families, and 35% had low educational achievements.(5,25) With regard to their parents' education, 64% of the working children have illiterate fathers, and 80% had illiterate mothers.(5,25)

12

In Jordan, there is no clear number of child labor problems. All the reports from Ministry of labor and the ILO, describes child labor problem in a general and vague manner. Till this time, there is no clear picture about child labor in Jordan. On the other hand, child labor is underrepresented in research in Jordan, especially working children psycho-social situations, this study will bring some light on problems associated with the work of the child. The results of this study will give policy makers insight about child labor problem, child labor associated problems, and the characteristics of potential working children. The study will give social workers, educational institutions, governmental and

nongovernmental organizations a clue of where to begin their educational and rehabilitation programs. It will give them the base to plan their programs, and most of all it will bring light for policy-makers about the lack of accurate and in-depth studies in the area of child labor which impedes implementations and development of social and economic policies for such vulnerable group. 1.2 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to identify socio-demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, relationship with the father, and the relationship between level of anxiety, "relationship with the father", and socio-demographic characteristics of working children including, family income, parental level of education, child s level of education, parental social status, type of work, salary, and parental relationship. 1.3 Research Questions: 1- What is the socio-demographic profile for working children in the city of Amman? 2- What is the level of anxiety of working children? 13

3- What is the relationship of the working children and their fathers? 4- What is the relationship between socio-demographic variables, level of anxiety, and relationship with the father, of working children? 1.4 Operational Definitions of the Variables Working children: A child between of 12 16 year old, who was involved in any kind of regular work at the time of the study. Anxiety: The theoretical definition of anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components.(44) the operational definition of anxiety is the anxiety as measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory for children by Spielberger, (1970).(6) Relationship with the father: The son's or daughter's feelings about the father, his/her physical relationship with the father, and the adult child's perception of the father's involvement with him/her,(7) as measured by the father presence questionnaire, by Krampe, and Newton (2006).(7) 1.5 Study Assumptions - Child labor problem is underestimated in Jordan. - The child s relation with his father affects his mental well-being.

1.6 Study limitations - The questionnaire was long, and time consuming, which affected the response rate.

- Instruments used in this study were originally developed in the English language and for children from different cultures.

14

- No inclusion of female children in this study because the percentage of females is low, therefore generalizability of results are limited to male children.

working

15

Chapter 2: Literature review:
In the last decade child labor has become a serious problem worldwide. One of six children is involved in child labor as stated by the ILO report (2004)(1), child labor is spread in the developing countries rather than developed countries, the ILO report (2006) on child labor indicated that child labor decreased 11% in developed countries, and the percent did not change for some developing countries,( ILO, 2006), (10). The high percentage of child labor in the developing countries could be referred to the fact that most of researchers, studied and reported child labor in link with poverty and the cause-effect relation between child labor and socioeconomic status of the family, therefore the socio-cultural variables have a strong effect on the prevalence of the child labor. The poor socioeconomic status and the need for survival forced families to expose their children to the hazardous working conditions and the need for survival had the priority over the health status and education of the children. This chapter provides a synthesis of the available literature related to the child labor, sociodemographic profile of working children, working children and level of anxiety, and the relationship between the father and the working children. 2.1 Child Labor and Socio- Demographic Profile A descriptive study carried out by Ray (2001). (11) showed that early entry into the labor market is one of the primary indicators of poverty. Working children in Bangladesh are particularly open to abusive behaviors. However, the critical issue is not childhood, but

16

poverty and the poverty does not disappear when childhood is past . Another study was conducted in Indonesia in 2005 which supported the study from Bangladesh. The study finds that there is a strong link between child labor and poverty, the profile of child labor largely mirrors the profile of poverty, and poverty found to be an important determinant of working for children. The finding also support the notion that there is a vicious cycle between poverty and child labor, the supply of child labor mostly comes from poor households headed by persons with no or very low levels of formal education. (4). A comparative study was conducted in Peru and Pakistan in 1999 and revealed that income and related considerations do not have much of an effect on children s work input, the study finds that community variables have significant effect on child labor increased provision of public services leading to improved quality of life discourage a household from putting its children into outside paid employment, and encourage their school enrolment, the result of this descriptive study was based on two surveys conducted separately in Peru and Pakistan in 1994 and 1991 respectively, so the difference in the ways used in the two surveys and the time of the surveys may affect the result of this comparative study. (12). Results of these studies suggest the strong relationship between poverty and child labor, except for the study by Ray (2000), (12), which stated that poverty have nothing to do with child labor but community variables have a significant effect on child labor. Child labor was associated with poverty in most cases. Across sectional study conducted in Jordan in (2001), the study was conducted in three Jordanian areas Irbid, Jarash, and north Jordan valley the sample size was 135 working children. (13). Hawamdeh and Spencer stated in their study that family poverty was common among the sample of working children in addition to the high percentage of parental illiteracy and poor

17

education. The survey presents strong evidence suggesting that child labor in Jordan is associated with young age of starting work, long working hours, and low wages. This study is the first of its kind that focused on the socioeconomic and health status of working children in Jordan taking in mind that the sample was not representative sample of working children in Jordan (13). A qualitative descriptive study was carried out in the industrial city of Irbid in the north of Jordan with a convenience sample of 41 boys from the industrial city of Irbid participated in the study, (14). The study findings revealed that children who assumed a working role dropped out of school and came from poor, large, broken families. Children worked longer hours, were underpaid, and their working conditions did not provide a proper physical and mental development, and those children prematurely assumed the role of the head of the household because they had no alternative choice. The authors also stated that children worked because of poverty and the induced pressure to escape from this plight, and children worked to ensure the survival of their families and themselves. This study finding is shucking, and showing a serious problem that needs to be addressed thoroughly, but the sample is under representing the child labor population in Jordan (14). 2.2 Child Labor and Child's Health Child labor has dangerous consequences on the physical, cognitive, emotional and mental development of working children and it may also expose them to injuries and accidents. Working children are subject to different kinds of physical health problems from simple types of injuries like scratches or bruises to serious health problems like substance abuse, neurotoxicity, anemia, stunting and other kinds of problems, in addition to consequences of early age of smoking and caffeine consumption, these behaviors add to the poor health status of the working children. Working children are also easy target for different kinds of abuse, verbal, physical of worst of all sexual abuse, and how that affect

18

the children s mental and psychological status. (14, 15). A study conducted in Wisconsin with children between the ages of 10- 14 years, both males and females, with sample size of 3189 working middle school students. the authors stated that many youth are working in unsafe conditions and without proper training or supervision. The results of the study also stated that children are working and injured in jobs that are not covered by child labor law, and the type and severity of injuries depend on the type of work assigned for the child, the results also showed that the incidence of injuries is higher in males than females. (16). Results of the previous studies indicates that child labor has direct effect on the health status of working children, and that effect appears in different forms of health problems and behavioral problems as well. (14, 15,
16)

The effect of chemicals and toxicity effect was documented by two studies carried out in Jordan and Lebanon (14,15). In the study which were carried out in Lebanon in 2002 neurotoxicity evidenced in working children, they found that higher frequency of working children reported smoking, coffee drinking, and substance sniffing than the non working children, more over higher proportion of eye irritation in working children and higher frequency of injuries in working children, the study results strongly suggest that children who were working in occupations where they were exposed to solvents had significantly poorer neuro behavioral functions compared to non-working children The perception of child labor among working children was examined by a study from Nigeria in (2005), (17), the participants in this study was at the ages of 8- 17 years, the sample size was 225 child, 132 females and 93 males. The study concluded that many of working children are at a stage in their psychosocial development in which crucial aspects of their identity such as self-esteem, self-confidence and future aspiration are being formed, and negative or positive influences will affect their development at this critical

19

period. (17), The finding of this study suggest that the disruption of educational progress in working children may lead to low aspirations for educational attainment, and working children thinks of themselves as deprival and less fortunate. in contrast to that the result by Admassie (2003), (18), results showed positive impact of child labor on the child's self-esteem, the author stated that by working alongside adults under similar work conditions, children were enabled to negotiate a more individualized conception of themselves as co-workers rather than children, participation in the labor force encouraged children to challenge the institutionalization of their status as children within the home, access to paid employment gave them a level of autonomy over spreading money on their own wants, and children considered how their parents positively viewed their work as providing them with increased responsibility and self-reliance, Adding to that the fact that employers deal with them as capable, competent, trustworthy and reliable. (11). The effect of child labor on the psychological and mental status of working children is evident in the reaction of the children toward others and the fact that children are convinced about the superiority of others over them, and the most act that have impact on children s psychological status is the abuse the working children exposed to in all its types emotional, physical, verbal and sexual. Gharaibeh and Hoeman studied the risk for abuse in working children, and results showed a high proportions of working children experienced different types of abuse such as physical (60.9%), sexual (26.8%), and verbal abuse which was reported to be continuous and in association with physical and sexual abuse. The impact of abuse on children were evident by the child's feeling of inferiority, helplessness, fear of being approached sexually, poor achievement and low self-esteem which consequently lead to poor stimulation of physical and mental development. (14). Nuwayhid et al, (2005), conducted a study in Lebanon, which was a cross sectional

20

survey compared 78 male working children with 60 non working children, the results of this study showed that working children reported more acute health complaints, such as musculoskeletal complaints, higher occurrence of injuries among working children, as well as a higher proportion of working children smoking and consuming caffeine with less consumption of vegetables, fruits and milk, compared to non-working children. (15), the study also found that 42% of working children reported frequent physical and verbal abuse, not belonging to houses and had a wider developmental deficit. The study revealed no difference between working and non-working children in their feeling, because of the similarity in socio-cultural and socioeconomic status for both groups. Authors stated that work provided children with a sense of independence and an opportunity to spend long hours outside home (15). Strong evidence presents that stunting and anemia are common among working children, and prevalence of smoking is high (37.8%), (13). The results of this study are consistent with the results of the study by Nuwayhid et al, (2005), the authors stated that working children smoke more than nonworking children of the same age group (15). Gharaibeh and Hoeman (2003) found that 43.2% of working children were smokers, authors stated that child labor puts children in unhealthy physical and psychological situations leading to many problems including breathing chemical fumes and paints, injury from metal parts falling and cutting them, eye burning, hand injuries (14). In a study with UK children in (2000), White and O'Donnell stated that working children of all ages and both sexes experienced a wide range of injuries from their employment, often quite serious in nature and recurring muscular pain due to bad posture or lifting. The study by White and O'Donnell focused on one aspect of health hazards or problems resulted from child labor, this could be attributed to the fact that the study was conducted in a developed country where control over work environment always insured through

21

strong legislations (19). Studies reviewed in regard to child labor showed strong evidence that the working children are abused by their bosses and senior co-workers. And so many other studies linked the child anxiety to the abuse and the psychological impact of the abuse on the child. In a study conducted by Kenny (1997), the author stated in the study that posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and fear are commonly seen in abused children (20). Another study stated that abused children display an elevated anxiety, sexualized behaviors, nightmares, social withdrawal, sleep difficulties, anger or acting out, and physiological symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, and vulnerability to disease
( 21)

. Childhood abuse often disrupts children development, producing symptomatology by

stimulating the development of primitive coping strategies, and by creating cognitive distortion of self, others, on future (21). 2.3 Child Labor and the "Relationship with the Father" The relationship between children and their fathers plays an important role in the lives of children. Despite inconclusive results in this area, a study conducted by Lest and Lee (2000), (22) shows no effect of the father presence on their children s academic achievements. Opposite to that results are the results of a study conducted by Recker, (2006), (23) which found that more frequent and regular contact with the father is associated with more intense relationships and fewer adjustment problems in children. Prior research has indicated father-child relationships have an important influence on child outcomes and well-being. East, (2007), (24) stated that there was an urgent need to pay more attention in both theory and research to father role in the socialization of the children. The authors also stated in their study which was a review of literature for the research conducted in the area of the effect of father presence on the child s psychopathology. Results revealed that the father influence on children is more evident

22

than the mother. The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect Rosenberg, Wilcox stated in their 2006 report that fathers who nurture and take significant responsibility for basic childcare for their children (e.g., feeding, changing diapers) from an early age are significantly less likely to sexually abuse their children. These fathers typically develop such a strong connection with their children that it decreases the likelihood of any maltreatment (25). Guterman and Lee,(2005), (26) stated that children with single parent families headed by the mother are more likely to be maltreated and abused, and these families were below the poverty line, the two conditions of poverty and abuse were documented by researches to be the highly seen in working children. Father absence was also studied and showed to be linked to physiological effect on the children (27). In this study results showed that children in families with no father have early puberty, and hormonal alteration caused by the absent of the father. Another effect of the father absence is associated with antisocial personality. Pfiffner, (1999) studied 161 families of school-age children (ages 5-11) who were consecutive referrals to a university-based research clinic for child attention and disruptive behavior problems in Irvine, California. (28). 2.4 Summery The reviewed literature focused on three areas, the socio- demographic profile of working children, the working children health statues, and the relationship between the father and the child. Child's work is associated with poverty, children suffer from different kinds of physical and psychological health problems, and the child s relationship with his father is affected by mental well- being. Few studies were conducted with Jordanian children in specific and with in western countries, limited literature found in Arab countries in general. These studies also lack strong evidences that link between anxiety, "relationship with the father", and socio-

23

demographic characteristics of working children.

24

Chapter 3: Methodology
The purpose of this study was to identify socio-demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, "relationship with the father", and the relationship between level of anxiety, "relationship with the father", and socio-demographic characteristics of

working children including: family income, parental level of education, child s level of education, parental social status, type of work, salary, and parental relationship. The research design, sampling method, and instrument are presented in this chapter to explore the study variables. 3.1 Design A descriptive design was used in this study to identify the presence of relations between the level of anxiety and the relationship with the father of working children, and the level of anxiety and the socio-demographic factors of the working children. Descriptive design provides the exact type of information needed about the level of anxiety, relationship with the father, socio-demographic variables of the working children, and the relationships among variables of the study. 3.2 Population and Sample The target population of the study was children between 12-16 years old, who were working at the time of the study. A convenience sample of 150 working children was recruited to participate in the study. The inclusion criteria included, children between 1216 years old, working on a regular base, dropped school, and were living with biological fathers or lived with the biological father for a period of time. To determine sample size,

25

Cohen s formula (1988) was used. A sample of 195 was calculated to detect significance at (0.05). A total of 195 questionnaires were distributed to participant who met the inclusion criteria, 150 agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 77%. 3.3 Setting The study was carried out in three areas in the city of Amman. The sites were Khuraebet Al Souk in south side of Amman, Basman in the east side of Amman, and Ras Al-Ayn east side of Amman. The three areas are considered among the poorest areas in Amman. Khuraebet Al Souk, where mostly children worked, has car maintenance shops. In the other two areas, children usually work at traffic lights, sidewalks, or inside shops selling objects like flowers, chewing gum, cigarettes, tissue paper, newspapers, and other stuff. The researcher and the two male assistants met children at one of the offices of an international organization that works with child labor, prior to joining a rehabilitation program for children who drop school. 3.4 Data Collection A structured interview was used for data collection. Data were collected with the help of two male assistants trained on the process of data collection and the questions of instrument before starting data collection. Each assistant performed a supervised successful interview session. Interviewing children was arranged with the international organization before they joined the rehabilitation program. Each child was interviewed separately, after his acceptance to participate in the study. Interviewers sat with each child to complete the questions, who only read the questions and explained how child should respond.

26

3.5 Ethical Considerations The study was approved by the JUST IRB committee, the international organization/ (Quest Scup) and Amman municipality. The agreement of the international organization was conveyed to the researcher. Participants were reassured that their privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality of their responses will be protected. Children were not at any pressure to complete the questionnaire. Participants were assured that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any time, and their names will not be identified. Verbal agreements from each child were obtained before starting the interview. 3.6 Instruments Instrument used for data collection consisted of three parts, the Socio-Demographic information part, the Father Presence Questionnaire (FPQ), and the Spielberger State- Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). 3.6.1 Socio-Demographic Information Part: This part consists of questions on age, number of family members, number of working members in the family, income, parents' relationship, parents' social status, residence, father's level of education, father's employment status, mother's level of education, mother's employment status, child s school level, child's type of work, place of work, payment per day, working hours per day, vacations, places vacations spent in, and with whom they spend the vacation. Questions in this section were decided based on the previous studies indicating the importance of such variables in determining or influencing level of anxiety, relationship with the father, and child labor.

27

3.6.2 Father Presence Questionnaire (FPQ): The Father Presence Questionnaire was developed by Krampe and Newton, (2006),(7) and consists of 134 items divided into 10 scales. Each item in the questionnaire is followed by five possible responses: never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, and always. The 10 scales are divided into three higher order factors or domains: the relationship with the father, beliefs about the father and intergenerational family influences. In this study the researcher used the first domain of the questionnaire which measures the relationship with the father. This part consists of five subscales; Feeling about the Father, Mother s Support for Relationship with Father, Perception of Father Involvement, Physical Relationship with Father, and Father-Mother Relationship. The total number of the 5 subscales is 63 items, Krampe and Newton, (2006).(7) The researchers of the scale established the construct validity of the FPQ using a variety of analytic methods with a sample of adult children (N = 608) from four regions of the United States. In addition to extremely high reliabilities of the individual scales, they established the factorial validity of the FPQ by means of a second-order confirmatory factor analysis. They demonstrated the concurrent validity of the FPQ through correlations with existing measures assessing family relationships. The FPQ appeared to be a theoretically grounded and reliable measure of the adult child's perception of and experience with father. The scale was translated into Arabic, since Arabic is the native language for participants. The scoring system for this scale was obtained from the researchers. The child can chose one of five possible answers and for each answer a score was assigned, "Never" =1, "Seldom" =2; "Occasionally" =3; "Frequently" =4; "Almost Always" =5. The items with an R in front of them scored in reverse, the items were 10 items from the 5 subscales. For

28

example: "R=My father ignored me" should be scored where Never is five, Seldom is four, Occasionally is three, Frequently is two, and Almost Always is one. The interpretation of the results of the scale is simply that, the higher the score the more positive the relationship with the father. After calculating the scores for each subscale, the scores were categorized into three categories, positive relation, neutral relation, and negative relation. Each subscale was calculated and categorized separately since each measures a separate domain. 3.6.3 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale The State-Trait anxiety Inventory Scale for children was developed by Spielberger, 1970(6) and was used to measure level of anxiety of working children. The scale consists of 40 items and is divided to two scales. The first 20 items are the State Anxiety Scale; measures the level of anxiety of the child at the moment. The second 20 items are the Trait Anxiety Scale; measures anxiety as a characteristic of the child. The Arabic version of the questionnaire developed by Bandak (1994)(26) was used since it was translated and validated with Arabic children by Bandak. The scoring system for the state anxiety scale was based on dividing the 20 item scale into 10 anxiety present items, for example "I feel very upset, upset, not upset" , score 1 given to the "not upset" response, 2 for the "upset" response and 3 for the "very upset" response. The higher the score the higher the anxiety level. The total scores ranges between 20-60. Scores were then divided into three categories, high level of anxiety, moderate level of anxiety, and low level of anxiety. In addition, mean items and standared deviations were calculated for all items and total score. The trait anxiety scale, scoring and analysis techniques was treated as the state anxiety scale, score 1 was given to "hardly ever", 2 to "sometimes", and 3 to "often".

29

3.7 Validity and Reliability The questionnaire was initially prepared in English language (except for the anxiety scale), and then translated into Arabic language and translated back by an expert panel from Jordan University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Nursing. This process was achieved to ensure face and content validity of the instrument. Few changes were suggested by the panel of expertise concerning translation of some words, and wording of sentences in some questions. Changes were integrated in the final version. A pilot study was conducted to test the instrument used in this study which is the father presence questionnaire, for reliability, as well as to giving an insight about clarity, understandability, accessibility of the sample, and time needed to fill the questionnaire by participants. Results of the pilot study showed that the questionnaire needed 25-30 minutes to be completed; no problems in the clarity and understandability of the questionnaire were detected. The reliability of the Relationship with the Father Scale and anxiety scale was measured in the pilot study, the Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot study was (0.95), and the Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient for the main study was (0.95). The five sub-scales were measured for the Cronbach s Alpha Coefficient in the pilot and the main study and are presented in table (1).

30

Table 1: Cronbach s Alpha coefficient value in the pilot and the main study Scales Number Cronbach s Cronbach s of items Alpha for Alpha for main pilot study study Feelings about the Father 13 .85 .83 Mother's Support for Relationship 14 .62 .78 with Father Perception of Father's Involvement 14 .93 .89 Physical Relationship with Father 9 .92 .85 Father-Mother Relationship 13 .54 .80 Total relationship with the father 63 .95 .95 State anxiety 20 .50 .77 Trait anxiety 20 .71 .86 3.8 Data Analysis The completed questionnaires were sorted out and prepared for data entry after completion of 150 interviews which lasted for three months. Data revealed from the relationship with the father and anxiety scales were ordinal type of data, data revealed from the socio-demographic variables were both ordinal and categorical data. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. Data obtained from 150 working child were analyzed using parametric and non parametric tests, including frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, Pearson s Correlation Coefficient Chi Square Test and Regression Analysis. 3.9 Summary This chapter provides description of the design and methods used in this study. A convenience sample of 150 working children from three areas in Amman, Khuraebet Al Souk in south side of Amman, Basman in the east side of Amman, and Ras Al-Ayn east side of Amman, was used for sample selection. A structured interview was used for the data collection, using a three part questionnaire, 19 items for the socio-demographic variables, 63 items for the relationship with the father scale by Krampe and Newton, (2006),(7) and 40 items for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children by Spielberger,

31

(1970)(6). The chapter also included the results of reliability testing which showed that the instrument is reliable.

32

Chapter Four: The Findings of the Study
The purpose of this study was to identify socio-demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, relationship with the father and the relationship between level of anxiety, relationship with the father, and socio-demographic characteristics of working children including: family income, parental level of education, child s level of education, parental social status, type of work, salary, and parental relationship. This chapter presents results from a convenience sample of 150 working children. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation were used in addition to Pearson s Correlation Coefficient Chi-Square and Regression Analysis to answer the research questions. 4.1 Socio-Demographic profile of working children Descriptive analysis of socio-demographic data showed that the mean score for age was (13.95± 1.42) with the range of 12-16 years old. The mean score for the number of family members was (5.55±2.12). Mean of working members in the family was (1.97 ± 1.102). The family income mean was (246± 146.43). The mean of the child s payment per day was (3.32 ± 1.37). The mean of working hours per day was (8.62± 2.770), results are presented in table 2. Data on child-parent relationship showed that 42% reported excellent relationship with their parents, and 10% reported weak relationship. Results on the social status of the parents, participant showed that (25%) were divorced, and the majority of children were living with their parents and siblings (71%).

33

Most of the children had parents who have less than high school education, 43.3% for the fathers, and 52.7% for the mothers. The percentage of working parents showed that 70% of fathers are working, and 75.3% of mothers are not working. Data on children s level of education showed that 43.3% of children have elementary school level, 36% have primary school, and 20.7% have secondary school. Most of the children were working in vocational jobs (34.7%) and (42.7%) worked in shops that they do not own. The salary of children varies between less than 1JD (0.7%) and more than 5JDs (19.3%), and the remaining are in between, with 34% take 2.5-3.5JDs. Nearly half of the children were working more than 8 Hrs daily (49.3%), and (51.3%) of them work 40-50 Hrs weekly. Percentage of the children who take days off was 90.7%, where 84% of them spend their free time at home with their families. Table 2: Mean Standard Deviation, Frequency and Percent of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Study Sample. N= 150 Std. Range Variable Mean Deviation Age 13.95 1.432 12-16 Number of family members 5.55 2.119 3-12 Working members in the family 1.97 1.102 1-6 Family income 246.00 146.434 100-660 Salary per day 3.32 1.368 1-7 Working hours/day 8.62 2.770 2-12 Variable Frequency Percentage Perceived parent s relationship 15 10.0 weak 32 21.3 good 40 26.7 very good 63 42.0 Excellent Parent s social status 16 10.7 divorced 113 75.3 not divorced 17 11.3 father dead 4 2.7 mother dead Child lives with 107 71.3 Family 29 19.3 mother and sibling 9 6.0 father and sibling 5 3.3 Friends 34

Father s level of education illiterate high school and less university education and more Father s working status working not working Mother s level of education illiterate high school and less university education and more Mother s working status working not working Child s school level primary school level elementary school level secondary school level Type of work seller vocational jobs farmer carrying objects serving jobs cleaning jobs Child s work place on street family shop shop for others factory Others Child s days off take days off do not take days off Child s days off spent at in the home in the street in the market anywhere with friends Days off spent with with family with friends Alone

46 91 13

30.7 60.6 8.7

105 45 44 96 10 37 113 54 65 31

70.0 30.0 29.3 64 6.7 24.7 75.3 36 43.3 20.7

27 52 3 14 30 24 55 5 70 13 7 136 14 126 15 5 4 114 34 2

18.0 34.7 2.0 9.3 20.0 16.0 36.6 3.3 46.6 8.7 4.8 90.7 9.3 84.0 10.0 3.3 2.7 76.0 22.7 1.3

35

4.2 State-Trait Anxiety of Participants The STAIC consists of two subscales: the State Anxiety Scale and the Trait Anxiety Scale. This section presents results of the state, trait anxiety scales. The two scales were analyzed separately since they measure two different types of anxiety. 4.2.1 State Anxiety of participants The subscale measures the anxiety level at the moment, or the level of situation anxiety. The scores ranged from 20, the lowest score, to 60, the highest score. Results showed that the mean score of state anxiety was 43.56 ±7.04. The mean score ± one standered diviation was used to categorize responses into low, moderate, and high levels of anxiety. The scores less than 36.52 were cosidered low level of anxiety, scores between 36.52-50.6 were considered moderate level of anxiety, and more than 50.6 scores were cosidered high level of anxiety. Means and standard deviations of the State Anxiety Scale items are presented in table (3). Table 3: means and standard deviation of the state anxiety scale items Item Mean Std. Item Item Mean Std. Deviation No. Deviation calm 2.07 .73 11 frightened 2.39 .75 upset 2.34 .73 12 happy 1.97 .7 pleased 1.95 .72 13 Sure 2.07 1.71 nervous 2.33 1.00 14 good 1.97 .69 jittery 2.39 .68 15 Troubled 2.37 .71 rested 1.89 .76 16 Bothered 2.51 .63 scared 2.41 .74 17 Nice 1.95 .72 relaxing 1.83 .75 18 Terrified 2.42 .72 Worried 2.38 .74 19 Mixed-up 2.43 .70 Satisfied 1.93 .76 20 Cheerful 1.88 .77

Item No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Item scores ranges from 1-3

Table (3) shows that means of children responses on their feelings items ranged between 2.51- 1.83 and the standard deviations ranged between 0.63- 0.75.

36

Also the table shows that the highest mean was reported for the statement I m bothered which has the highest mean (M= 2.51± 0.63) followed by the statement scared (M= 2.41±.74), and the two statements (M=2.39±.75). The lowest mean scores for the state anxiety were reported for the statements I m relaxed , (M= 1.83± 0.75), rested (M= 1.89± .76), and pleased with (M= 1.95±.72). The result of this scale showed that 8.7% (n= 13) of participants had low level of state anxiety, 18.7% (n= 28) of the participants had high level of state anxiety, and 72.7% (n= 109) had moderate level of state anxiety. Results of the distribution of participants according to their levels of anxiety are presented in table 4. Table 4: Distribution of Participants According to Levels of State Anxiety Anxiety levels Frequency Percent Low Moderate High Total 4.2.2. Trait Anxiety of participants The trait anxiety scale measures the anxiety as a distinguishing quality or characteristic, as of personality. Using the mean score and standered deviation, scale was categorized into three categories. The mean was 38.55 ±7.99, the mean score ± one standered diviation was used to catigorize children as having low, moderate, and high levels of anxiety. The scores less than 30.5 were cosidered low level of anxiety, scores between 30.5- 46.5 were considered moderate level of anxiety, and more than 46.5 scores were the high level of anxiety. Means and standard deviations of the Trait Anxiety scale items are presented in table 5. 13 109 28 150 8.7 72.7 18.6 100 jittery (M=2.39±.68), and frightened

37

Table 5: Means and Standard Deviations of the Trait Anxiety Scale Item No. Items Mean Std. Dev. 1 I worry about making mistakes 1.99 0.73 2 I feel like crying 1.92 0.74 3 I feel unhappy 2.03 0.73 4 I have trouble making up my mind 1.99 0.81 5 It is difficult for me to face my problems 1.97 0.76 6 I worry too much 1.99 0.74 7 I get upset at home 2.07 0.77 8 I m shy 1.91 0.78 9 I feel trouble 1.85 0.74 10 unimportant run through my mind and bother me 1.95 0.76 11 I worry about school 1.91 0.79 12 I have trouble deciding what to do 1.91 0.74 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I notice my heart beats fast I worry about my parents I worry about things may happen I feel secretly afraid My hand sweating It is hard for me to fall asleep at night I get funny feeling in my stomach I worry about what others think of me 1.91 1.93 1.99 1.89 1.69 1.87 1.85 1.90 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.80 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.81

Item Scores ranged from 1-3

Table (5) shows that, means of children responses on their feelings items ranged between 2.07 1.69, standard deviations ranged between 0.81 0.73. The highest mean

was reported to the item (7) which says I get upset at home which ranked first (M= 2.07 a± 0.77), followed by item (3) which says I feel I m not happy (M= 2.03± 0.73). The lowest mean was reported for item (17) which says my hand sweating (M= 1.69± 0.73), and the item (9) I feel trouble (M= 1.85± .74). Results showed that 14.7% (n= 22) of the children had low level of trait anxiety, 16.7 % (n= 25) had high level of trait anxiety, and 68.7% (n= 103) had moderate level of trait anxiety. Results of the distribution of participants according to their Trait levels of anxiety are presented in table (6).

38

Table 6: Distribution of Participants According to Levels of Trait Anxiety Anxiety levels Low Moderate High Total Frequency 22 103 25 150 Percent 14.6 68.7 16.7 100

The total mean for the trait anxiety scale was (M=1.93±043), which is lower than the total mean score for the state anxiety scale which was (M 2.10± .52). 4.3 Working Children Relationship with the Father : The FPQ measures the father s relation with the child. it consists of five subscales; Feelings about the Father (13 items), Mother s Support for Relationship with Father (14 items), Perception of Father's Involvement (14 items), Physical Relationship with Father (9 items), and the Father-Mother Relationship (13 items). Table (7) shows that the total mean for children relationships toward their fathers was 3.54 and a standard deviation 0.73. Results showed that the Feelings about the father subscale has the highest mean (M=3.74 ±0.87) followed by Mother's support for

relationship with father subscale (M= 3.71, ±0.81), the Father-Mother Relationship (M= 3.57, ± 0.85), and the perception of the father involvement (M=3.42 ±0.90). The lowest mean was reported for the Physical relationship with father (M= 3.14 ±0.97). Results of means and standard deviations for the relationship with the father on five subscales are presented in table 7. Table 7: Means and Standard Deviations of children Responses on five subscales of the Relationship with the Father Scale Std. The subscale No. Mean Dev. Feelings about 1 3.74 0.87 the father 2 Mother's support for relationship with father 3.71 0.81 5 Father- mother 3.57 0.85

39

relationship Perception of 3 father's involvement Physical relationship 4 with father The Total
Item scores ranges from 1-5

3.42 3.14 3.54

0.90 0.97 0.73

The measurement of the five subscales revealed the measurement of the relationship with the father, around 42.7% (n=64) of the children reported positive relation with the father, 30.7% (n= 46) reported negative relation with father, and 26.7% (n= 40) reported neutral relation with the father. Results of distribution of Participants According to relationship with the father scale are presented in table 8. Table 8: Distribution of Participants According to Relationship with the Father Scale Type of relation Negative relation neutral relation Positive relation 4.3.1 Feelings about the Father Means of children responses on the feeling about the father subscale items ranged between 3.99 3.38, standard deviations ranged between 1.18 1.62. Results showed that Frequency 46 40 64 Percent 30.7 26.7 42.7

item (2) which says As a child, I felt warm and safe when I was with my father , had the highest mean (M=3.99±1.20), followed by item (8) which says My father has a special place in my life and no one can replace him (M= 3.98±1.36). While item (1) which says I could/can talk with my father about anything , had the lowest mean (M= 3.74± 0.87). Results of Mean scores and Standard Deviations of children s responses on the "Feelings about the Father" subscale are presented in table 9.

40

Table 9: Means and Standard Deviations of children s responses on the "Feelings about the Father" subscale Std. No. Items Mean Dev. 1 I could/can talk with my father about anything 3.38 1.41 As a child, I felt warm and safe when I was with 2 3.99 1.20 my father 3 I felt/feel close to my father 3.71 1.20 4 My father is very important to me 3.95 1.27 I felt my father was behind me and supported my 5 3.47 1.44 choices or activities 6 I looked up to my father 3.82 1.22 7 I felt/feel inspired by my father 3.63 1.26 My father has a special place in my life and no one 8 3.98 1.36 can replace him 9 I need my father 3.91 1.62 10 My father and I enjoyed/enjoy being together 3.75 1.18 11 I want to be like my father 3.56 1.52 When I remember past experiences with my father, I feel angry 12 3.47 1.32 13 I feel disappointed with my father The Total subscale
Item scores ranges from 1-5

3.95 3.74

1.35 0.87

Result of the subscale Feeling about the father , showed that 50% (n=75) of the children reported positive feelings about the father; the other 50% were divided between the neutral feeling 28 %( n=42), and the negative feeling 22% (n=33), are presented in table 10. Table 10: Frequencies and Percentages of the Feeling about the Father Subscale Results Feelings about the Father Frequency Negative Neutral Positive 33 42 75 Percent 22,0 28,0 50,0

4.3.2 Mother's Support for Relationship with Father Result of the mother s support for relationship with father subscale showed that means of children responses on the second subscale items ranged between 4.00 - 3.20, standard deviations ranged between 1.54 1.08. Item (14) which says My mother thought my

41

father was foolish had the highest mean (M=4.00±1.29), Item (6) which says My mother loved my father very much ranked second (M= 3.93±1.17). While item (1) which says mother encouraged me to talk with my father had the lowest mean (M= 3.20±1.32). The total mean of Mothers Support for Relationship with Father (M=3.71 ±0.81), results of Means and Standard Deviations of Participants' Responses on the Second subscale "Mother's support for relationship with father are presented in table 11. Table 11: Means and Standard Deviations of Participants' Responses on the Second subscale "Mother's support for relationship with father" Std. No. Items Mean Dev. 1 3.20 1.32 My mother encouraged me to talk to my father 2 3.86 1.25 My mother was affectionate to my father 3 3.73 1.25 My mother respected my father's judgment My mother liked it when my father and I 4 3.37 1.28 engaged in activities together 5 1.14 My mother liked it when my father touched her 3.89 6 3.93 1.17 My mother loved my father very much My mother appreciated things my father did for 7 3.82 1.27 us I liked the way my mother talked about my 8 3.68 1.15 father 9 3.60 1.31 My mother really knew my father 10 3.82 1.08 My mother wanted me to be close to my father My mother had high regard for and respected 11 3.92 1.28 my father My mother did not think very highly of my 12 3.54 1.54 father 13 3.51 1.54 My mother was critical of my father 14 4.00 1.29 My mother thought my father was foolish The Total Mean 3.71 0.81
Item scores ranges from 1-5

Results of the Mother s Support for Relationship with Father subscale showed that the majority of children reported neutral support in their relation with the father, 45% (n=68) of the children, 35% (n=53) of children reported positive support of their relation with the father, and 19% (n=29) reported negative support. The results of the distribution

42

of participants according to their mother's support of the relationship with the father are presented in table 12. Table 12: distribution of participants according to Mothers Support for the Relationship with Father subscale Mother s Support for Relationship with Father Frequency Percent Negative 29 19,3 Neutral 68 45,3 Positive 53 35,3 4.3.3 Perception of Father's Involvement Results showed that means of children responses on the perception of father s involvement subscale items ranged between 3.84 - 2.66, standard deviations ranged between 1.51 1.23. Item (9) which says My father taught me right from wrong had the

highest mean (M= 3.84 ±1.23), followed by Item (10) which says My father listened to me when I would talk with him (M=3.83±1.26). While the item (5) which says My father attended my sporting events or other activities in which I participated had lowest mean (M= 2.66±1.51). The overall mean of the children relationships on the domain is 3.42 and standard deviation is 1.26. Results of the Means and Standard Deviations of Participants' Responses on the Third subscale "Perception of Father's involvement" are presented in table 13. Table 13: Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Third subscale "Perception of Father's involvement" Std. No. Items Mean Dev. My father helped me with school work when I 1 3.13 1.50 asked him 2 My father helped me learn new things 3.59 1.34 3 My father attended my school functions 2.87 1.46 My father and I participated in activities or hobbies 4 3.02 1.43 together My father attended my sporting events or other 5 2.66 1.51 activities in which I participated I could go to my father for advice or help with a 6 3.56 1.29 problem

43

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

My father helped me to think about my future My father was concerned about my safety My father taught me right from wrong My father listened to me when I would talk with him My father told me that he loved me My father understood me My father encouraged me When I was a child, my father ignored me Total

3.51 3.71 3.84 3.83 3.57 3.41 3.59 3.56 3.42

1.31 1.29 1.23 1.26 1.36 1.31 1.27 1.50 0.90

Item scores ranges from 1-5

Results of the third subscale,

Perception of Father s Involvement

showed equal

distribution between the three categories (positive, neutral, and negative). The percentages of children in three categories were 33% (n=50), 32% (n=49), and 34% (n=51) for negative, positive, and neutral feelings, respectively. Results of distribution of participants according to Perception of the Father Involvement subscale are presented in table 14. Table 14: Distribution of Participants According to Involvement Subscale Perception of the Father

Perception of Father's Involvement Frequency Negative neutral Positive 4.3.4 Physical Relationship with Father Results showed that means of children responses on the physical relationship with father subscale items ranged between 3.81 - 2.27, standard deviations ranged between 1.51 1.26. Item (4) which says My father held me when I was a baby had highest mean (M= 3.81 ± 1.27), followed by item (9) which says My father would talk with me when I was a baby (M= 3.63±1.26). While the Item (7) which says My father changed my diapers or bathed me when I was a baby had lowest mean (M= 2.27±1.39). The total mean of children relationships on the domain was (M= 3.14 ±0.97). Results of the Means and 50 49 51 Percent 33.3 32.7 34.0

44

Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fourth subscale "Physical relationship with father" are presented in table 15. Table 15: Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fourth subscale "Physical relationship with father" No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Items I sat on my father's lap My father hugged and/or kissed me My father let me sit on his shoulders My father held me when I was a baby My father would hold my hand or put his arm around me My father tucked me into bed My father changed my diapers or bathed me when I was a baby I liked being held by my father My father would talk with me when I was a baby Mean 2.79 3.09 2.87 3.81 3.33 3.08 2.27 3.38 3.63 3.14 Std. Dev. 1.46 1.50 1.51 1.27 1.50 1.51 1.39 1.40 1.26 0.97

The Total Mean
Item scores ranges from 1-5

Physical Relationship with Father, unlike the other scales, showed that the higher percent was reported for the negative relation with the father, 40.7% (n=61) of the children, 24% (n=36) was reported for the neutral relation, and 35 %( n=53) for good relation. Results of the distribution of participants according to physical relationship with father subscale are presented in table 16. Table 16: Distribution of Participants According to Physical Relationship with Father subscale Physical Relationship with Father Frequency Negative Neutral Positive 45 61 36 53 Percent 40.7 24.0 35.3

4.3.5 Father-Mother Relationship Means of children s responses on the father-mother relationship subscale items ranged between 3.82 - 2.27, standard deviations ranged between 1.51 1.26. Item (13) which says

My mother could not stand my father had the highest mean (M=3.82 ±1.36), followed by item (4) which says I hope that my marriage is just like my parents' marriage (M= 3.81±1.27). While the Item (7) which says My father and mother were open and honest with one another was the lowest (M= 2.27±1.39). The total mean of the father-mother relationship was (M= 3.57 ±0.85). Results of Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fifth subscale Father-Mother Relationship presented in table 17. Table 17: Means and Standard Deviations of the Participants' Responses on the Fifth subscale Father- Mother Relationship" Std. No. Items Mean Dev. 1 My mother and father really enjoyed each other's company 2.79 1.46 2 My father's and mother's relationship made me feel good 3.09 1.50 3 My father and mother supported and helped each other 2.87 1.51 4 I hope that my marriage is just like my parents' marriage 3.81 1.27 5 My father and mother understood each other 3.33 1.50 6 My father and mother were emotionally close to one another 3.08 1.51 My father and mother were open and honest with one another 7 2.27 1.39 8 My father listened to my mother 3.38 1.40 9 My father appreciated the things my mother did for us 3.63 1.26 When I was around my father and mother at the same time, 10 3.59 1.42 my body would feel tight or in other ways uncomfortable 11 I wondered why my father and mother married each other 3.51 1.47 12 My father and/or mother disliked each other 3.79 1.31 13 My mother could not stand my father 3.82 1.36 The Total Mean 3.57 0.85
Item scores ranges from 1-5

Results of Father-Mother Relationship, showed that children reported similar distributions for the negative and neutral relations, 36.7% (n=55) and, 36% (n=54) respectively, positive

46

relations reported by children was 27% (n=41). Results of distribution of participants according to Father- Mother Relationship subscale are presented in table 18. Table 18: Distribution of Participants According to subscale Father-Mother Relationship Frequency Negative Neutral Positive 55 54 41 Percent 36.7 36.0 27.3 Father- Mother Relationship

4.4 Relationship between state and trait anxiety, relationship with the father, and the demographic characteristics of participants Result of the relationship with the father, levels of anxiety and continuous variables using Pearson s Correlation are presented in table (19). Results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between relationship with the father and family income (r= - .193) p= .02. The age of the child was positively correlated to the state anxiety level of children (r= .189) p= .02. On the other hand the age was significantly negative correlated to the trait anxiety level, whereas the number of working members in the family was significantly positive correlated to the trait anxiety level (r=.186 ) Results of Pearson s Correlation between relationship with the father, state anxiety, and trait anxiety, and selected socio-demographic variables are presented in table 19. Table 19: Pearson s correlation between relationship with the father, state anxiety, and trait anxiety, and selected socio-demographic variables Variable Relationship State anxiety Trait anxiety with father Age --.189(*) -.207(*) Working members in family ----.186(*) Family income -.193(*) ----* Correlation is significant at 0.05 level (2-tailed).

47

Results of the association between state anxiety levels and demographic variables including father s education level, mother s education level, type of Child s work, days off taken by the child, places where days off being spent, and days off spent with, were all positively associated with state anxiety. Table (20) presents the Chi-Square of the sociodemographic variables and state anxiety. Table 20: Chi-Square of the Socio-Demographic Variable and State Anxiety Scale State anxiety Variable value Fathers education Mothers education Type of work Days off Days off places Days off spent with
Significant at P< 0.05

df 8 6 12 2 6 4

P .002 .004 .000 .055 .000 .004

24.43 19.31 56.05 5.81 24.23 15.44

Results of the association between trait anxiety and socio-demographic variables showed a significant association with parent s relation, father's education, father's work, mother's education, mother's work, days off places, and days off spent with. All were positively associated with the trait anxiety of the children. Table (21) presents the Chi-Square of the socio-demographic variables and trait anxiety. Table 21: Chi-Square of the Socio-Demographic Variable and Trait Anxiety Scale Trait Anxiety Variable value Parents relation Fathers education Fathers work Mothers education Mothers work 34.848 20.59 8.56 25.36 8.60 df 6 8 2 6 2 P .000 .008 .014 .000 .014

48

Days off places Days off spent with
Significant at P< 0.05

12.26 18.16

6 4

.056 .001

Results of the association between the relationship with the father and demographic variables showed significance association with parent s relation, social status of the parents, child s type of work, child s work place, child s days off, and days off spent with. All were positively associated with the relationship with the father. Table 22 shows the results of Chi-Square of the socio-demographic variable and the relationship with the father scale. Table 22: Chi-Square of the socio-demographic variable and the relationship with the father scale Relationship with the father Variable value Perceived Parents relation Social status of parents Type of work Work place Days off Days off spent with
Significant at P< 0.05

df 6 6 12 8 2 4

P .000 .007 .002 .000 .000 .005

30.8 17.7 30.9 30.7 16.6 14.8

4.5 Relationship between State Anxiety scale and "Relationship with the Father": Result showed that the state level of anxiety was significantly associated to the relationship with the father, the Chi-Square value 8.12, P=.017, df= 2. The results of the Chi-Square for association between state anxiety and relationship with the father are presented in table (23).

49

Table 23: Results of Chi-Square for association between state anxiety and relationship with the father Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association
Significance at P< 0.05

df 2 2 1

P .017 .013 .426

8.12 8.74 .63

4.6 Relationship between Trait anxiety scale and "Relationship with the father" The Chi-Square test results showed significant association between the relationship with the father and the trait anxiety levels of the children. Chi-Square value= 14.06, P= .001, df= 2. Results presented in table 24. Table 24: results of Chi-Square for association between trait anxiety and relationship with the father Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association
Significance at P< 0.05

df 2 2 1

P .001 .000 .683

14.063(a) 15.406 .167

Further analysis using multiple regressions was used to investigate the association between the study variables and the relationship with the father scale, and the state- trait anxiety inventory. Results of regression analysis of the relationship with the father scale with the independent variables include age, family size, working members of family, family income, parents' relation, social status of parents, child's residence, father's education, father's work, mother's education, mother's work, child's education, type of work, work place, salary, daily working hours, child's days off, free time places, free time company, state anxiety, and trait anxiety, showed that number of family members, working members on family, child's living with, father's education, mother's education, parent relation, child's days off, child's work place, working hour's/ day, days off spent with, state anxiety, and

50

trait anxiety are significantly associated with the "relationship with the father.

The

variables together explains about 56% of the variance in the "relationship with the father" (R²= .56), Table (25) presents results of regression analysis for variables predicting the relationship with the father of working children. Table 25: Result of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the Relationship with the Father of Working Children Standardized Coefficients Beta Number of family members Working members in family Parent relation Living with Father education Mother education Type of work Work place Working hours/day Days off Days off spent with State anxiety Trait anxiety
R= .75 R²= .56

df Beta 2 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 1

F Std. Error 3.932 3.490 25.893 3.465 5.311 3.524 7.655 5.130 12.494 15.636 6.014 3.760 6.699

P Beta .023 .034 .000 .035 .006 .018 .000 .002 .000 .000 .001 .013 .011

Std. Error .086 .095 .091 .092 .096 .099 .073 .080 .099 .080 .077 .078 .082

.171 .178 .461 .172 -.222 -.185 .202 -.182 -.349 -.315 .189 .152 -.212

Results of regression analysis of the state anxiety scale scores and the study variables including age, family size, working members of family, family income, parents relation, social status of parents, child's residence, father's education, father's work, mother's education, mother's work, child's education, type of work, work place, salary, daily working hours, child's days off, free time places, and free time spent with, showed that Number of family members, Family income, Parent relation, child's Living with, Father's

51

education, Father's work, child's Education, Type of work, Work of place, Salary, Days off, and Days off spent with are significantly associated with the state anxiety. The variables together explains about 47% of the variance in the level of the state anxiety (R²= .47). Table (26) presents results of the regression analysis for variables predicting the state anxiety of working children. Table 26: Results of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the State Anxiety of Working Children Standardized Coefficients Beta Number of family members Family income Parent relation Living with Father's education Father's work Education Type of work Work of place Salary Days off Days off spent with
R= .68 R²= .47

df Beta 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 3

F Std. Error 4.605 4.733 17.207 16.615 6.122 4.731 10.075 6.570 3.351 8.366 14.510 14.269

P Beta .002 .011 .000 .000 .015 .011 .000 .012 .039 .000 .000 .000

Std. Error .084 .083 .106 .089 .113 .091 .086 .081 .087 .084 .084 .081

-.181 -.181 -.438 -.362 .280 .197 .274 .207 .160 .243 .319 -.306

Moreover the results of the regression analysis of the trait anxiety scale scores and study variables including age, family size, working members of family, family income, parents' relation, social status of parents, child's residence, father's education, father's work, mother's education, mother's work, child's education, type of work, work place, salary, daily working hours, child's days off, free time places, and free time company, showed that mother's education, parents' relation, and child's work place, are associated with the trait

52

anxiety for the children. The variables together explained about 57% of the variance in the trait anxiety. Table (27) presents results of the regression analysis for variables predicting the trait anxiety of working children. Table 27: Results of Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the Trait Anxiety of Working Children Standardized Coefficients Beta Number of family members Working members of family Parent relation Parents' social status Living with Father education Father work Mother's education Mother's work Education Workplace Day off Places days off spent in Days off spent with
R= .76 R²= .57

df Beta 1 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1

F Std. Error 6.113 15.200 8.357 3.344 4.247 3.454 12.097 15.445 3.108 14.681 9.028 5.850 7.357 10.315

P Beta .015 .000 .000 .039 .017 .011 .000 .000 .049 .000 .003 .004 .008 .002

Std. Error .077 .084 .087 .075 .092 .099 .077 .095 .077 .076 .077 .079 .110 .112

-.190 .329 -.251 .136 -.189 .183 .267 -.373 -.137 -.291 -.233 -.192 -.298 .358

4.7 Summary This chapter presents the finding of the study on socio-demographic profile, working children s state and trait levels of anxiety, and working children relationship with their fathers. Results showed that mean age of working children was 13.9, working children came from poor families, less educated parents, mean working hours per day for the children was 8.62 Hrs.

53

Children found to have moderate to high levels of anxiety, in both the state and trait anxiety. Children had positive relationship with their fathers, although their scoring of the relationship with the father subscales showed that two of the subscales had negative scores (physical relation with the father, and father-mother relationship), one had neutral score (mother s support to the relationship with the father), two had positive scores (feeling about the father, and perception of father s involvement). Results showed that state anxiety, trait anxiety, and the relationship with the father were significantly associated with the socio-demographic profile of working children, as the correlation tests used and the regression analysis results showed.

54

Chapter five: Discussion
The purpose of this study was to identify socio-demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, relationship with the father and the relationship between level of anxiety, relationship with the father , and socio-demographic characteristics of working children including; family income, parental level of education, child s level of education, parental social status, type of work, salary, and parental relationship. In this chapter the focus will be on the interpretation of the findings from socialcultural perspectives of Jordanians and in relation to the cited literature. The discussion will be guided by the research questions. This chapter will also include the recommendations and implications of the study. 5.1 Socio-demographic profile of working children: The mean age of working children was (13.9yrs) which indicated young workers who came from poor families, less educated parents. Children who work dropout of school at early stages to join the labor force. Most of the children are working on vocational jobs, to learn a profession to secure a financial resource for them and their families. Although the labor laws in Jordan forbids child labor under the age of 15, and allowing it for the age of 16 under certain conditions, almost half of the children are younger than this age and are working more than 8 hours per day, with very low wages. Although children under 16 are allowed to work under certain circumstances such as not to work more than 6 hours with at least one hour break for each 4 hours work, and not to work between 8 pm and 6 am, children in this study worked more than 4 hours with little breaks. (7).

55

5.2 Level of Anxiety of Working Children The study findings revealed that, anxiety levels were moderate to high, for both, the state and trait anxiety. These results can be explained by many ways; the stressful nature of child labor, and the social and economical background of children characterized by the low family income and the low level of education of both the parents and the children. Results of this study are supported by previous studies which found anxiety to be associated with poor school achievement, poor social status, history of being abused, lack of attention from loved ones, and being insecure socially and financially; (9,13,14,19,20,21). The low anxiety among some children can be explained by the fact that these children were interviewed prior to joining a new rehabilitation program, and they were well looked after by the team. 5.3 Relationship with the Father Mothers and fathers play very different roles in the lives of their children. While mothers usually take on more custodial/routine care giving roles such as feeding and cleaning, fathers tend to engage in more social stimulation and interactive activities, for example, play activities, and helping with homework (23). It is expected that the relationship between children and their fathers to be positive, findings from this study showed that children had neutral to negative relationship with the father in four out of five subscales measuring the relationship with the father. Children in this study have negative to positive feelings regarding the relationship with their fathers, with quit good percentage of mixed or undecided feelings. More negative feelings were reported in the areas of the "physical relationship with the father", "the perception of the father s involvement", and finally the "mother- father relationship". These negative feelings are expected and can be explained by some of the socio- demographic characteristic regarding child rearing. The negative feelings describing the "physical

56

relationship with the father" have a cultural roots and practices; men in the Jordanian culture value boys and are very pleased when having them. But men holds a cultural believe that holding and spoiling boys might affect their future personality by becoming weak men . Therefore avoiding physical contact like hugging and kissing once boys reach school age or even younger. The negative feelings toward the perception of father s involvement might be related to cultural believes that men have different roles than women. Men have no role in child care in the early stages of the lives of their children until the boy becomes over the age of five where the father starts to engage children in men activities, but children in this study perceived their parents to have distance from them. The negative feelings toward the perceived "mother- father relationship" can be explained by the financial, educational, and social status of the family; both the mother and father are less educated, unemployed, and poor. In addition 25% of children are not living with a family that has both the mother and the father. Although the direct question of how children describe the relationship between them mother and father, majority of children indicated that the relationship to be good and even excellent, which contradicts the indirect measures of the mother- father relationship subscale. This can be explained by the feeling of children that parental relationships are privet family matters. Children could have problems or differences between them and their parents or siblings, but usually it stays inside the family, and they are not allowed to disclose it to others. Although parents face problems in their life but they stay together and play a very important role in the lives of their children, not only by providing guidance and support, but they also greatly influence the outcomes of their children (25). Being a child having the father as the male figure to look up to, will contribute to support the relationship with the father. It is also important to realize that the amount of time spent with the child,

57

the quality of the experience, and emotional aspects of the father-child relationship benefit children, Recker (2006), (23). 5.4 The Relationship between Anxiety Levels and the Relationship with the Father Anxiety and father relation is significantly correlated in this study, the significance relation between anxiety levels and relationship with the father was evident in the study findings and supported by many previous studies. Having the father as the head of the family, and the one who is responsible for family needs and demands, looking to the father as the base of the child's safety network, all these factors increase the child's feeling of being secure when his father is around. (23, 28). Although there were some studies showed the 17% of perpetrators are biological fathers (25), another studies found that In the absence of the father, children are more likely to be maltreated and abused (27). Father absence might have physiological symptoms on the children like headache, stomachache, and in some cases children may have hormonal alterations (27). Another study found that absence of the father may affect the children s social life; children will have antisocial personality (24). All mentioned studies support the notion that relation with the father influences the child's level of anxiety as documented in this study. This could be explained by the cultural norm that the father is the main figure of family in Jordan, and children lookup to their fathers. On the other hand the study found that the fathers are less attached to their children physically, this could be caused by the fathers underestimation of small gesture like carrying, or holding the child which may increase level of anxiety of these children. Prior research has indicated frequent and regular contact with the father is associated with more intense relationships and fewer adjustment problems in children, and father-child relationships have an important influence on child outcomes and well-being (28). This could lead the child to feel neglected, neglect as any kind of abuse will increase the stress and anxiety levels on the child and decrease the self esteem. Studies have shown that warm

58

and responsive parenting styles predict social competence and cooperative behavior, while hostile and neglectful parenting styles are associated with aggression, deviant behaviors, and adjustment problems (28) The study showed that the father- mother relation negatively affected the child's relationship with the father. The result could be explained by the fact that children came from broken families, less educated parents, and low socioeconomic status. These factors will lead the child to hate the home environment. 5.5 Relationships between Level of Anxiety, Relationship with the Father , and Socio-Demographic Variables of Working Children Children s level of anxiety and relationship with the father was found to be associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the child. Family characteristics are affecting the child s responses toward his surrounding environment, as most of the childhood studies stated. Positive or negative effects enhance or suppress the child s relationship with his father as well as his level of anxiety. 5.5.1 Anxiety and Socio-Demographic Variables Both state and trait anxiety were correlated with child s age, number of working members in the family, family income, father's level of education, mother's level of education, father employment, mother employment, parents relationship, type of work, days off taken, days off places, and days off spent with. The trait anxiety was negatively correlated to the age of the child. This mean that as child grows older, the level of trait anxiety decreases. This may be explained by different ways; with time the child gets used to his circumstances, and develops mixed feeling of what exactly are the causes of his anxieties. On the other hand the more realistic and mature look to the life could change the person s priorities, and shift him to the base of Maslow s hierarchy of needs. The child's state anxiety was positively correlated to age, this could be

59

explained by the fact that the state anxiety is affected by everyday s events and expectations, so the children will keep anxious until they fulfill what they are up to. The trait anxiety is positively associated to the number of the working members in the family. Having families with multi working members, especially if they were children, indicates low socioeconomic state of the family. This result is consistent with the study conducted by Hudson (2005) who stated that the lower the socioeconomic status of an individual is the higher is his or her risk of mental illness (30). Parent s level of education, and parents employment status, found to be significantly associated with the child s level of anxiety; the result is consistent with the results of the study conducted by Phares, et al (2005), (31), in which they stated that incidence of abuse is tend to be higher in children of families below the poverty line, and less educated parents
(31)

. Another study conducted in Jordan by Hawamdeh and Spencer (2001), the authors

stated that poverty is common among working children, parental illiteracy and poor education (13). In a study conducted by Recker (2006), results indicated that father s earnings have a negative effect on their level of involvement with their children during the week and have positive effect on weekends. (23) Children working places, payments, and the child s days off, were significantly associated with levels of anxiety of children. Children are working at uncontrolled or supervised environment. Working children are subjects to different kinds of physical health problems from simple types of injuries like scratches or bruises to serious health problems like substance abuse, neurotoxicity, anemia, stunting and other kinds of problems, all that beside being subject to different kinds of abuse (14,32). Working in such hazardous conditions could explain that association. Furthermore the results showed that, number of family members, number of working members in family, family income, perceived parent's relationship, child living with,

60

father's educational level, father's employment status, mother's educational level, mother's employment status, parent's social status, child's education, child's type of work, salary, child's days off, places days off spent in, and days off spent with, are predicting anxiety levels of the child. Looking to these variables we can see that these variables are describing the child's surrounding environment in home and work, it shows the social, cultural, and financial status of the child. In planning programs targeting working children these factors should be considered to make an actual change in the children's lives. Considering that anxious children will not respond to any change, working on these variables to decrease the child's anxiety should be the first step in planning and applying any program to this vulnerable group. Moreover identifying these factors will help in identifying the high risk group for high levels of anxiety of children, and that will help in targeting these children before its too late to work on the problem. 5.5.2 Relationship with the Father and Socio-Demographic Variables Relationship with the father was found to be correlated with family income, perceived parents relation, social status of parents, type of work, work place, days off, and days off spent with. the negative correlation between the relationship with the father and family income, is consistent with the result of the study conducted by Recker et al, (2006), (23), the results showed that father s earnings have a negative effect on their level of involvement with their children during the week and on weekends this effect is positive. Results showed significant correlation between relationship with father and parent s relationship. This may explained by the fact that children will blame one or both parents on the bad relationship between them, and usually father will gets most of the blame, because children will sympathize with the weaker part, considering their fathers to be the stronger part. On the other hand children will suffer from the consequences of the father- mother relationship, and this will deprive the children from the normal relationship with the father,

61

as the mother gets the custody of the children in cases of divorce. While many people believe that the importance and levels of father-child contact only pertains to those whose families are not intact, research has shown that even in intact families, the level of fatherchild engagement decrease from different variables (23). With today s societal shift from traditional parenting roles, it has become especially important to understand how the parental-child relationships are changing, and how these changes are affecting our children and future generations to come. Research has shown evidence that divorce rates and single mother families have been on the rise (23). Parents allowing their children to be exposed to the bad working environment, and associated hazards, could explain the significance association between relationship with the father and working place, and the work type. Children friends and places where they spent their time on affecting the child father relationship. Children at certain age trust the judgment of their friends some times more than their own; this may justify the significance of the relationship with father and child days off and Childs days off company. Results of regression analysis showed that state anxiety is negatively correlated with number of family members, family income, parent s relation, child living with, and days off spent with. And state anxiety positively correlated with father education, father work, child school level, child s work type, work place, Childs payment, and Childs days off. In regard of trait anxiety regression analysis showed the trait anxiety correlated negatively with number of family members, parent s relation, and child living with, mother education, Childs school level, work place, days off, and places child spent days off in. whereas positively correlated with working members in family, parents social status, fathers education, fathers work, and days off spent with.

62

Result of regression analysis revealed significant negative correlation between relationship with the father and father education, mother education, work place, working hours, days off, and trait anxiety. And positive correlation with number of family members, working family members, parent s relation, Childs living with, type of work, days off spent with, and state anxiety. Furthermore results showed that number of family members, number of working members in the family, perceived parent's relationship, child's living with, father's educational level, mother's educational level, child's type of work, child's work place, working hours per day, child's days off, days off spent with, state anxiety, and trait anxiety, explained most of the variance in the child's relationship with his father. Improving these variables will improve the relationship between the child and his father. These predicting variables will help identifying the type of relationship between the child and his father, knowing that in our Jordanian culture it will be difficult for the child to show the bad relationship with his father, and keeping this bad relationship will keep the child away from his father. For the child to have all these bad feelings will affect his mental wellbeing causing serious social and behavioral problems. Keeping in mind that child- father relationship significantly associated with the child's level of anxiety, improving the relationship between the child and his father will consequently decrease child's level of anxiety. Policy makers, social workers, governmental and nongovernmental organizations working with children must consider these factors to improve the child- father relationship, affecting the child's wellbeing in general.

63

5.6 conclusions This study explored the demographic profile of working children, level of anxiety, and the relationship between the relationship with the father, anxiety level, and socio-demographic profile of working children in the city of Amman. Working children found to be belonging to poor socioeconomic status, less educated parents, dropped school at young age to join workforce. The results were consistent with many national and international studies. Working children are suffering from moderate and high levels of anxiety, the trait anxiety was slightly more than the state anxiety, but the overall percent showed the same result for both state and trait anxiety, which was moderate to high levels. The relationship with the father found to be positive, although the scores were low for all the subscales that measure the relationship with the father, but the high score of the first one feeling about the father pushed the total score to be positive. And the Anxiety level and the relationship with the father were interrelated. Children with higher number of family members, higher family income, good parent s relation, higher mother education, higher school level, good work place, and takes days off, will have lower levels of anxiety. And children with higher father education, higher mother education, good work place, takes days off, and higher trait anxiety, will have lower relationship with their fathers. 5.7 Implications of the Study 5.7.1 In Practice Health care providers and social workers should increase their knowledge about the child labor problem and its consequences on the child's physical and mental well being. Planning and applying programs to fight the child work could be applied in different settings, schools, primary health centers, using media to target children and parents in homes, and

64

focusing on the high risk groups, identified by described socio-demographic profile. Planning educational programs explains the child's working hazards on children s development and health, increasing the awareness of parents and children about the problem, showing them the difference of the child's quality of life with and without the child's work, stimulating the child's future aspirations. Primary health nurses have a continuous contact with the parents of children; they should play an important role in increasing awareness of the community about the child labor problem. 5.7.2 In Research Child labor as well as the relationship with the father in Jordan is under estimated in research, and the actual size of the child labor problem still not clear, future research on both topics should include: Surveying the child labor problem in Jordan is needed to get clear and precise numbers about the size and prevalence of the child labor. Researching causes and consequences of the child labor problem in Jordan is needed. Exploring the relationship with the father from different points of view is needed to understand its real effect on child's development. Replicating the study with a larger sample and in different setting. Conducting more research on child labor and associated social, physical, and psychological problems. 5.8 Recommendations Acknowledging policy makers about the child labor problems and it s consequences on the child's social, psychological, and physical problems. Planning rehabilitation programs for working children to help them deal with their psychological problems.

65

-

Planning educational programs targeting school children to increase their awareness about the long term effects of child labor.

-

Planning and applying educational programs targeting the parents and families of working children.

66

References:
1- International labor organization. Investing in each child, report on child labor. (2004). 2- Department of Statistics. Poverty in Jordan Report: Poverty in Jordan Report; 2005. 3- Shara C. White. From the politics of poverty to the politics of identity? Child rights and working children in Bangladesh. Journal of international development 2002; 14:725-735. 4- Asip Suryahadi, Agus Priyambada, and Sudarno Sumarto. Poverty, school, and work: children during economic crisis in Indonesia. Development and change 2005; 36:351- 373. 5- Department of Statistics. National Survey for Child Labor in Jordan: Report. 2008/2007. 6- Ministry of labor. National strategy for child labor: report. 2006 7- Ministry of labor. Child labor reports. http://www.mol.gov.jo/IndexA.asp?GoTo=Laws Available from URL

8- Charles D. Spielberger, C.D. Edwards, J. Montuori & R. Lushene. The state- trait anxiety inventory for children. 1970. 9- Krampe, Edythe M. Newton, Rae R. The father presence questionnaire: a new measure of the subjective experience of being fathered. Men's Studies Press 2006. 10- International labor organization. International survey on child labor report. (2006). 11- Ranjan Ray. Child labour: a survey of selected asian countries. Asian- pacific economic literature 2001; 1-18. 12- Ranjan Ray. Analysis of child labour in peru and Pakistan: a comparative study. Population economics 1999; 13:3-19. 13- Hawamdeh H, Spencer N. Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84:311-314. 14- Gharaibe and hoeman. Health hazards and risks for abuse among child labor in Jordan. Journal of pediatrics nursing 2003; 18:140-147. 15- Nuwayhid I A, Usta J, Makarem M, Khuder A, El-Zein A. Health of children working in small urban industrial shops. Occup Environ Med 2005; 62:86-94. 16- Zierold K M, Garman S, Anderson H. Summer work and injury among middle school students, aged 10-14 years. Occup Environ Med 2004; 61:518-522.

67

17- F.O. Omokhodion, S. I. Omokhodion, and T. O. Odosute. Perception of child labour among working children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Blackwell publishing Ltd, 2006; 281-286. 18- A. Admassie. Child labour and schooling in the contics of subsistence rural economy: can they be competabel. Educational development 2003; 23:167- 185.

19- L. White and C O Donnell. Working children and accidents: understanding the risk. Child: care, health, and development 2001; 27:23- 35. 20- Maureen C. Kenny. Mother- Child agreement on self report of anxiety in abused children. Journal of anxiety disorders 1997; 11:463- 472. 21- Stephany P. Farrell, Anthony H. Hains. Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexually abused children exhibiting PTSD symptomatology. Behavior therapy 1998; 29:241-255. 22- Jill H. List, Lee M. Wolfle. The effect of father presence in postsecondary educational attainment among white and black. Research in higher education 2000; 41:623- 636. 23- Ashley Recker. Examining the Father-Child Relationship. Hanover College, winter 2006. 24- Leah East, Debora Jackson, Louise O°ien. Father absence and adolescent development: a review of the literature. Journal of child health care 2006; 10:283295. 25- Office on Child Abuse and Neglect Rosenberg, Wilcox. The Importance of Fathers in the Healthy Development of Children. 2006. 26- Neil B. Guterman, Yookyung Lee. The role of father in risk of child physical abuse and neglect: possible pathways and unanswered questions. Child maltreatment 2005; 10:136- 149. 27- Anthony E. Bogaert. Age at puberty and father absence in a national probability sample. Journal of adolescent 2005; 28:541-546. 28- Linda J. Pfiffner, Keith Mcburnett, Poul J. Rathouz. Father absence and familial antisocial characteristics. Journal of abnormal child psychology 2001; 29:357-367. 29- Orabi S. Bandak A. Issa S. Effect of Swimming and Drawing on school-age female students. Sports: Arts and Science (Arabic). (1995); 7:79-90. 30- Christopher G. Hudson, PhD. Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness: Tests of the Social Causation and Selection Hypotheses. 2005; 75:3-18. 31- Basema Saddik, Iman Nuwayhid, Ann Williamson, Debora Black. Evidence of neurotoxicity in working children in Lebanon. neurotoxicology 2003; 24:733-739.

68

32- Vecky Phares, Elena Lopaz, Sherecce Fields, Demetra Komboukos, and Amy M. Duhig. Are father involved in pediatric psychology research and treatment?. Pediatric psychology 2005; 30:631- 643. Bibliography 1- Madelein Leonard. Children attitude to parents, teachers, and employers perception of term time employment. Children and society 2003; 17:349-360. 2- Alessandro Maffie, Nicolai Raabe and Hinrich W. Ursprung. Political repression and child labour: theory and empirical evidence. Blackwell publishing Ltd. 2006; 211- 239. 3- Carl F. Weems, Wendy K Silverman, Annette M. La-Greca. What do youth refer for anxiety problems worry about? Worry and its relation to anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of abnormal child psychology 2000; 28:63-72. 4- Denial Paquettie, Christine Bolte, Genevieve Turcotte, Dian Dubeau, and Camil Bouchard. A new typology of fathering: defining and associated variables. Infant and child development 2000; 9:213-230. 5- Holger Strulik. Child mortality, child labour, and economic development. The economic journal 2004; 114:547-568. 6- Kyle D. Pruett. Role of the father. Pediatrics 1998; 102:1253- 1261. 7- Krisztina Kis-Katos, Gunther G Schulzi. Regulations of child labour. Economics affairs 2005; 24-31. 8- Marjatta Rahikainen. Historical and present day child labour: is there a gap or bridge between them. Continuity and change 2001; 16:137-156. 9- Pam Blesch, Mary M. Fisher. The impact of parental presence on parental anxiety and satisfaction. AORN journal 1996; 63:761-768. 10- Peter Muries, Henk Schmidt, Harald Merckelbach, Erik Schouten. Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents: factor structure and relationships to trait anxiety and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression. Behavior research and therapy 2001; 39:89-100. 11- Saqib Jafarey, Sajal Lahiri. Will trade sanctions reduce child labour? The role of credit markets. Development economics 2002; 68:137- 156. 12- Steven Reiss. Trait anxiety: it_not what you think it is- - journal of anxiety disorders 1997; 11:201- 214. 13- Thomas H. Ollendick, Duane G. Ollendick. General worry and anxiety in children. Psychotherapy in practice 1997; 3:89-102.

69

14- Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Robert W. Schutz. Measurement and correlates of sport-specific cognitive and somatic trait anxiety: The sport anxiety scale. Anxiety, stress & coping. 1990; 2: 263 280.

70

Appendix A

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

Appendix B

79

THE FATHER PRESENCE QUESTIONNAIRE

Relationship with the Father Scale: Feelings about the Father Item Never Seldom Occasionally I could/can talk with my father about anything As a child, I felt warm and safe when I was with my father I felt/feel close to my father My father is very important to me I felt my father was behind me and supported my choices or activities I looked up to my father I felt/feel inspired by my father My father has a special place in my life and no one can replace him I need my father My father and I enjoyed/enjoy being together I want to be like my father R--When I remember past experiences with my father, I feel angry R--I feel disappointed with my father
Scale: Mother's Support for Relationship with Father

Frequently

Always

My mother encouraged me to talk with my father My mother was affectionate with my father My mother respected my father's judgment My mother liked it when my father and I engaged in activities together My mother liked it when my father touched her My mother loved my father very much My mother appreciated things my father did for us I liked the way my mother talked about my father My mother really knew my 80

father My mother wanted me to be close to my father My mother had high regard for and respected my father R--My mother did not think very highly of my father R--My mother was critical of my father R-My mother thought my father was foolish
Scale: Perception of Father's Involvement

My father helped me with schoolwork when I asked him My father helped me learn new things My father attended my school functions My father and I participated in activities or hobbies together My father attended my sporting events or other activities in which I participated I could go to my father for advice or help with a problem My father helped me to think about my future My father was concerned about my safety My father taught me right from wrong My father listened to me when I would talk with him My father told me that he loved me My father understood me My father encouraged me R-When I was a child, my father ignored me
Scale: Physical Relationship with Father

I sat on my father's lap My father hugged and/or kissed me My father let me sit on his shoulders My father held me when I was a baby My father would hold my hand or put his arm around me 81

My father tucked me into bed My father changed my diapers or bathed me when I was a baby I liked being held by my father My father would talk with me when I was a baby
Scale: Father-Mother Relationship

My mother and father really enjoyed each other's company My father's and mother's relationship made me feel good My father and mother supported and helped each other I hope that my marriage is just like my parents' marriage My father and mother understood each other My father and mother were emotionally close to one another My father and mother were open and honest with one another My father listened to my mother My father appreciated the things my mother did for us R--When I was around my father and mother at the same time, my body would feel tight or in other ways uncomfortable R--I wondered why my father and mother married each other R--My father and/or mother disliked each other R--My mother could not stand my father
Beliefs about the Father Scale: Conceptions of God as Father

I believe there is a Father presence or God who watches over all life I pray to or otherwise commune with God My religious or spiritual life is

82

important to me R--I doubt there is a Father presence who created all life R--I doubt there is a Father presence or God who loves and cares about me R--Life is an accident and has no meaning or purpose R--I have a hard time believing God can or wants to help me with my life
Scale: Conceptions of Father's Influence

Girls need their fathers Boys need their fathers Fathers affect their sons' and daughters' relationships with their friends Fathers affect their sons' and daughters' moral values or behavior Fathers affect how well or how poorly their sons and daughters do in school Fathers affect their sons' and daughters' relationships with the opposite sex Fathers affect their sons' and daughters' religious or spiritual beliefs or behavior A child's mother and father are equally important in the child's life
Intergenerational Family Influences Scale: Mother's Relationship with Her Father (+ items)

My mother loved her father very much My mother felt warm and safe when she was with her father My mother and her father enjoyed being together My mother felt close to her father My mother looked up to her father My mother missed her father when he was away
Scale: Mother's Relationship with Her Father (- items)

My mother felt as though she did not know her father My mother's father had a

83

negative influence on her life My mother was disappointed with her father My mother felt tense and "on guard" when her father was around My mother hated her father My mother was afraid of her father
Scale: Father's Relationship with His Father

My father loved his father very much My father felt warm and safe when he was with his father My father and his father enjoyed being together My father felt close to his father My father could talk with his father about anything My father looked up to his father My father wanted to be like his father My father's father had a special place in his life and no one could replace him R--My father felt has though he did not know his father R--When my father remembered past experiences with his father, he felt angry R--My father's father had a negative influence on his life R--My father hated his father My father's relationship with his father had a big effect on my life

84

Appendix C

85

86

This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com. The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful