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Use of Infrared thermography for computation of heating curves and preliminary failure detection in induction motors

M.J. Picazo-Rdenas, R. Royo, J. Antonino-Daviu, J. Roger-Folch

Abstract -- This paper proposes a methodology for the computation of the energy balance and heating curves of an induction motor taking as a basis the information provided by the application of the infrared thermography. Moreover, use of infrared thermography data to diagnose rotor bar failures is preliminarily studied. In the paper, a 1.1 kW induction motor is tested. Thermography images of the chassis temperature are captured at each second during the whole startup transient, from standstill till steady-state, by using an infrared camera connected to a laptop computer fitted with an acquisition and analysis program. A model based on the calculation of the heat losses by convection and radiation through the frame of the machine is developed. It uses the geometrical dimensions as well as temperature values obtained from the thermography images. The developed model enables studying any motor configuration and operating conditions by just varying thermal and geometry parameters. Finally, a preliminary study relying on the possible use of Thermography data for diagnosis of rotor failures is carried out. Experimental data corresponding to a healthy machine and a machine with broken bars are analysed and compared. This methodology will be the baseline for further complex failure diagnosis in electric motors. Index TermsInfrared thermography, thermal analysis, induction motors, fault diagnosis, startup transient, broken rotor bars

Ti Ts Trefl Tm Ta Ts_model Gr G D

Ra Pr Nu Cond L

Air inlet temperature (K) Stefan- Boltzmanns constant (5,6710-8 W/m2/k4) Emissivity (0,95) Surface temperature (K) Reflected temperature (K) Medium temperature (K) Air temperature (K) Model surface temperature (K) Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient Grashof number Gravitational acceleration (9,8 m/s2) Motor diameter (m) Kinematic viscosity (Pas) Raileigh Number Prantl number Nusselt number Thermal conductivity (W/Km) Stator length II. INTRODUCTION

I. h A Ts Tr U Plosses Qtota M Ce


Va AV Tout

Natural convection coefficient Surface (m2) Surface temperature (K) Air temperature (K) Internal Energy of the machine (W) Power losses (W) Dissipated heat (W) Mass of machines housing (9 kg for the tested machine) Specific heat capacity of the aluminium machines housing (897 J/kg K) Air flow (kg/s) Air output speed (m/s) Air density (at normal conditions, 1,2 kg/m3) Fan transversal section (m2) Air output temperature (K)

This work was supported by the Vicerectorat dInvestigaci, Universitat Politcnica de Valncia under program the program Proyectos de Nuevas Lneas de Investigacin Multidisciplinares (PID05-11) (project reference 2842) and by the Conselleria dEducaci, Formaci i Ocupaci of the Generalitat Valenciana, in the framework of the Ayudas para la Realizacin de Proyectos de I+D para Grupos de Investigacin Emergentes, project reference GV/2012/020. M.J. Picazo-Rdenas, R. Royo, J. Antonino-Daviu and J. Roger-Folch are with Instituto de Ingeniera Energtica, Universitat Politcnica de Valncia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia SPAIN (e-mails:,,,jroger@die.upv. es).

NDUCTION motors are the most spread electrical machines in the industry. According to the information provided by several surveys [1-2], these machines demand around 40-50% of the power generated in a developed country. This fact shows the relevance of these motors, which participate in an uncountable number of processes and applications. Infrared Thermography is a technique enabling the measurement and visualization, with enough precision, of the temperatures at different points of the surface of a certain machine or element. This technique does not require any contact with the surface; therefore, it has the advantage of not interfering with the normal operation of the analysed machine or installation. This non-invasive nature is crucial in many industrial applications where any perturbation or stop may imply significant costs. Furthermore, it avoids hazardous situations for the users, decreasing the probability of eventual contacts with the diagnosed machine or device. Infrared radiation measurements are converted into temperature data which are finally transformed into electrical signals. The measurement device consists of an infrared camera, which measures the superficial temperature gradients by means of its infrared sensors, through the capture of high quality images. In electrical engineering, the infrared thermography has been applied in the field of predictive maintenance for the detection of failures both in electric installations (defects in electric panelboards, damages in electric cables or busbars) as well as in electrical machines, mainly static (transformers). Nonetheless, the application of the technique to the analysis and diagnosis of electric motors is very limited. The few contributions have focused on the diagnosis of

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE


faults as: insulation failures in the magnetic circuit, deficient connections or misalignments [3]-[7]. Nonetheless, most of the contributions aim to detect simple failures, often external to the machine. Moreover, the interpretation of the resulting images is carried out in a very qualitative way, requiring the user expertness for the identification of the anomaly. In [7], motor groundwall insulation system is evaluated by using infrared thermography. In [8] the use of infrared thermography for detecting stator turn insulation failures in electric motors and high resistance connections was investigated. Misalignment effects and their implications in thermography were studied in [6]. Accordingly, the use of the infrared thermography for the study of the thermal behaviour of electric motors has neither been very abundant, in spite of some interesting results obtained in recent contributions [9]. This situation is not in concordance with the current context, in which evolution of infrared cameras has been remarkable. Nowadays, there are cameras, with certainly reduced prices, enabling the capture of high resolution images with which the user can visualize with great precision the accurate temperatures in different points of the registered area. Most of these cameras make even the capture of thermal transients possible. These transients are represented by means of sequences of images, which enable to obtain the temperature evolution in any point of the captured image, as well as to compute diverse statistic parameters related to the registered thermal map. Hence, the application of the thermography to electric motors is far from being enough exploited. There is a wide area in which the application of this technique can provide very valuable information both for electric machine diagnosis and for behaviour analysis. In Sections II and III of this paper, a methodology has been designed in order to obtain a model on a 1.1 kW selfventilated squirrel-cage induction motor induction motor, which enables to perform its energy balance by using Infrared Thermography data. The cooling of the externally finned frame is achieved by a fan fixed at the border of the shaft and covered by a cowling. With the temperature values obtained from the thermography images, it is possible to calculate heat losses through the external frame of the motor, by using the corresponding Heat Transmission expressions. Additionally, in Section IV, a preliminary study relying on the possible use of thermography data for diagnosis of rotor failures is carried out. Experimental data corresponding to a healthy machine and a machine with broken bars are analysed and compared. This methodology will be the baseline for further complex failure diagnosis in electric motors. III. METHOD Theoretical foundations An induction motor is a rotating electrical machine in which electric power (Pe) is converted into mechanical power (Pmec). In this power conversion process, a portion of the demanded energy is lost due to friction, iron losses, joule losses, etc. These energy losses are dissipated as heat, leading to an increment in the internal energy of the machine and, consequently, to an increase in its temperature. As a consequence of this thermal increment, heat is evacuated towards the near environment through convection and radiation. Hence, the temperature will A.

slowly increase, reaching a thermal balance in the machine once the evacuated heat gets equal to the generated heat [10, 12-13]. This process is in agreement with the First Law of Thermodynamics, an expression of the principle of Energy conservation. The correlation between the aforementioned principle, summarised by equations (1) to (4), and Infrared Thermography is the basis of the methodology proposed in this paper. For this purpose, using thermography, temperature measurements of the motor frame temperature (Ts), air temperature (Tr), air output fan temperature (Tout) and air inlet fan temperature (Ti) are registered at each second. = = = = (1) (2) (3) (4)

Equations (1) to (4) are converted in steady-state into expressions (5) and (6): = = =0 (5) (6)

It is well-known that in an electric self-ventilated induction motor, heat is dissipated through the external surface of the frame by forced convection (Qfconv) and radiation (Qrad), as indicated by [7] [14]. The following sections explain the basic guidelines of each of these transfer mechanisms. = + (7)

1) Convection heat transfer process In electrical machines, convection is the main phenomenon for transferring heat out of the machine [15], [16]. The convection process consists of the heat transfer through fluid motion. In natural convection, the fluid motion is caused to buoyancy forces arising from density variations in the fluid.The Newtons law of cooling/heating, given by (8), provides the total natural convection heat transfer rate: = (8)

On the other hand, forced convection is a type of convection in which the fluid movement is caused by an external force. In self-ventilated electric motors it is very significant due to the fan fixed at the shaft border, which blows air in the axial direction. On one hand, part of motor heat transfer causes to heat up this air output flow, leading to an increase in its temperature. Additionally, this output air flow is distributed along the motor surface, leading to the cooling of the machine. This is the main mechanism for transferring heat out the machine by forced convection. The following equations represent these heat transfer mechanisms: = (9)



(10) (11)

2) Radiation heat transfer process Radiation mechanism does not need the presence of a medium. Heat-transfer studies are mainly focused on thermal radiation, which is a type of radiation emitted by the bodies due to their temperature; it represents the difference between the amount of energy absorbed and transmitted by the body. Stefan- Boltzmanns law gives the heat transfer through radiation between the motor frame and the surrounding. This law is given by (11). = (12)

In this paper, all the calculations are carried out considering the motor specifications, the formulation based on heat transfer theory and the information extracted from tests. IV. EXPERIMENTS Several experiments were carried out by using a 1,1 kW induction motor, the characteristics of which are displayed in the Appendix. The test bed was based on the motor driving an auxiliary DC machine acting as load. A power analyzer was used for measuring the electric power, whereas a torque transducer and a digital tachometer were used for measuring, respectively, the mechanical torque and the speed. These data were used for further calculation of the mechanical power. Fig. 1 shows a picture of the experimental test bed. The experiments consisted of starting the machine direct on-line by connecting it to the grid. During the experiments, the values of electric power, mechanical torque and shaft speed were also measured, at intervals of five minutes, with the aforementioned devices. Moreover, geometric dimensions were considered for the calculation of the surfaces of all the elements of the motor frame. In the Appendix, all these dimensions are provided. The cooling air speed flowing in the open fin channel from the fan cowling have been measured by means of an digital thermo anemometer. This process has been supported by several papers [9], [16]-[20] and technical documentation [21]. An infrared camera was used for capturing images of the motor frame at each second, first, during the startup transient until the steady-state was well-established. The camera used for the tests was a high-sensitivity long wave FLIR S65 Series, with a firewire connection enabling its connection with a portable computer. The computer was fitted with an acquisition and analysis software, Thermacam Reseacher, which permitted the visualization of the captured images. This software enabled knowing, with high accuracy, the temperature distribution on the frame of the motor at any time. Fig. 2 depicts a capture of a part of the thermal analysis program interface. At the left side of the figure, the infrared image is displayed. In this image, the color variation is in agreement with the temperature gradient in the surface, according to the temperature bar scale placed beside the image. The program enables an accurate temperature measurement and computation of different statistical tools.

In this sense, the software includes different toolbars for carrying out the image acquisition process as well as the computation of different statistical parameters relying on the thermal data. A results table window included in the software enables visualizing the temperature evolution in any selected point. The program contains different analysis options such as the spot meter, flying spot meter, line, box area, circle area, polygon area, isotherm, formulas and removal tool. These options enable to obtain the maximum, minimum and average value of temperature in every spot, line, box, circle or polygon in the image. On the other hand, the graphical evolution of temperatures can be exported and displayed in any graphic software. Value of Tout (used in expression (9)) was measured by means of several pieces of paper glued to the motor. The value of Trefl (used in expression (12)) was measured by using a piece of aluminum paper placed beside. With all the measured quantities as well as the motor specifications and dimensions, all the necessary information for the development of the model is available.

Fig.1. Experimental bench

Fig.2. Capture of a part of the software analysis interface



A. Computation of motor power losses The motor electric power (Pelec) was measured by using a power analyzer, at time intervals of 5 minutes. By interpolating the measured data, an electric power evolution curve can be plotted (Fig. 3). On the other hand, the mechanical power (Pmec) evolution can be also computed from the mechanical torque and the speed measured, respectively, with the torque transducer and digital tachometer. Expression (13) enables the calculation of the mechanical power, with T being the mechanical torque in Nm and the rotational speed in rad/sec. Fig.3 also represents the evolution of Pmec.


= (13) Finally, motor power losses were calculated at every instant by applying (14), taking as a basis the aforementioned two curves. The power losses evolution is hereby obtained is also plotted in Fig. 3. Note that power losses remain almost constant during the test.
Electric Power Mechanical Power Power losses


C. Air output fan flow calculation The next step consists on the determination of the air output fan flow. The following equations allow the calculation of this parameter with the measured value of the required temperatures and the cooling air speed. Additionally, the value of the fan transversal section is also necessary: T = = =
. /

(15) (16) (17) (18)

1600 Power [W]



= 0,0234kg/s


0 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000 8000

Fig.3. Evolutions of electric and mechanical power and power losses.

B. Previous thermal calculations The values of temperatures, necessary for the computation of an energy balance and heating curves, were obtained from the thermography images captured with the infrared camera, which provide an accurate thermal map of the motor frame. Values of Ts, Tout, Tin and Trefl were obtained from the infrared image by using the box area tool. Trefl was measured with the aid of a piece of aluminium foil paper placed beside the motor. Tout and Tin were determined using several small pieces of paper glued to the motor frame. Finally, Tr was measured with the spot meter. Preliminary tests were carried out to compare the heating through different faces of the motor frame to select the most representative frame area. Fig. 4 plots the evolutions of the measured temperatures during the heating process, once the information from Thermacam Researcher has been exported to graphic software. The mentioned temperatures, from the startup, will be applied to the corresponding equations of the different heat transfer processes.

D. Heating Process validation and Heat Transfer calculations The following step consists on the validation between the motor heating process and the First Law of the Thermodynamics. To this aim, the experimental surface temperature measurements on the motor frame were compared with the theoretical values obtained from (18), expressed as a function of model surface temperature: =


In this expression, while the value of mCe depends on the mass and on the frame characteristics, the power losses are calculated from the electrical and mechanical power measured during the test. Note that all the necessary information to apply (19) is known, except on Qtotal, which is the sum of the heat losses due to forced convection and radiation (see (7)), and dT/dt which is the dependent variable. The following step involves rewriting all the equations describing each of the heat transfer mechanisms equations as functions of the model surface temperature. With regards to the dissipated heat through the radiation mechanism (Qrad), there is a straight forward expression, given by (20), in which the only unknown parameter is Ts_model. =


320 Temperature[K]
Ts Tr Tout Trefl



Heat transfer through forced convection is determined by the sum of two contributions of this heat transfer mechanism like it was mentioned in Section III (A). On one hand, in order to calculate the first contribution, the value of a is the one previously calculated from the experimental data. In order to define Tout_model as a function of the Ts_model, the NTU and efficiency () parameters must be calculated (see (22) and (23)). To do so, the fan was characterized as a heat exchanger. Consequently, the forced convection equation will be given by (21).

290 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000


C =T +

T (21) T (22) (23)

Fig.4. Temperatures evolution

= 1 e


On the other hand, to calculate the main forced convection contribution, the h parameter must be calculated. This is achieved by querying the theoretical databases of air properties, tabulated as a function of the temperature and applying the well-known correlations (23) to (28). These equations are valid for laminar flow over a flat plate, but can be used for a cylindrical housing when the airflow is along its axial length, as the surface is flat for each filament of air. In the machine, axial fins are included on the housing surface to increase the convection heat transfer. Finally, an average value of h=17,7 was obtained. T = =


320 Temperature[K]

Ts Ts_model



(24) (25)


4000 Time [s]



Fig.6. Experimental and Model Heating Curves of the induction motor

= 0,664

(26) (27)

Consequently, the value of forced convection along the surface fins will be given by (28)

The evolution of the dissipated heat through the different heat transfer mechanisms (Qfconv_s, Qfconv and Qrad) under transient conditions is represented in Fig 7. This Figure proves the fact that the forced convection heat transfer mechanism along the motor surface (Qfconv_s) is one of the most critical for an accurate energetic balance in an induction machine, as expected [12].


Once the whole heating process had been characterized and just remaining the term dTs_model/dt as unknown, (19) was applied. The results are plotted in Fig. 5.This Figure shows how the value of dT/dt decreases during the test while it remains constant in steady state, when dissipated heat gets equal to the generated heat. This is in agreement with the Heat Transfer Theory described in Section III (A). Finally, taking as a basis the Heating rate results, the Ts_model as a function of time was calculated. When comparing the heating curve obtained from the model and experimental Heating Curves, a great similarity is observed (Fig.6). This supports the fact that, since the motor heating process behaves in accordance with the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, any motor configuration and operating conditions can be accurately studied using this procedure by just varying the parameters: mCe, NTU, and/or fan diameter.

120 Qtotal[W]



Qrad_model Qfconv_model Qfconv_s_model

0 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000 8000

Fig.7. Forced Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer evolution

VI. METHODOLOGY APPLIED UNDER DIFFERENT FAULTY CONDITIONS Most conditions causing induction machine failures are revealed under the form of abnormal vibration levels or excessive temperature. So, Infrared Thermography may be a suitable method to detect these failures. According to several surveys, [22]-[23] most frequent and critical failures in induction machines are mechanical ones and rotor asymmetries. A preliminary study was carried out focused in rotor asymmetries diagnosis. After an initial test with a healthy motor, a second test with the motor operating with a significant number of broken rotor bars was performed, in order to check the main differences in the thermal behavior between both conditions. The preliminary results obtained may give the guidelines of a methodology oriented to failure diagnosis in electric motors based on infrared data. A. Failure description The broken bar failure appears because of welding or injection defects, high-strength joints, hot spots, expansion and mechanical stresses. It is a degenerative process, which may be accelerated due to variable regimes and that can

0.03 dT/dt[K/s]



-0.01 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000 8000

Fig.5.dT/ dt evolution


propagate towards adjacent bars. Once a joint resistance appears in the bar, significant heat dissipation takes place around that point; the subsequent temperature gradients contribute to the degeneration of the failure up to the total rupture [28]. The failure may be progressively propagated towards the adjacent bars due to increase in currents (and temperatures) of neighbor bars which contribute to their breakage. Therefore, the rotor bar failures are somehow related to thermal gradients. So, thermography may enable to obtain valuable information to diagnose these failures. B. Experimental work Tests were performed with the 1.1 kW motor considered before, but changing its rotor; firstly, a healthy rotor was used and, afterwards, one with broken bars. The mechanical power and the main parameters were adjusted to a similar value in order to keep the same working conditions in both cases. As in the previous tests, additional devices were used to measure the electric and mechanical quantities. Additionally, thermography images of the housing temperature were captured at each second, from the startup transient until the well-established steadystate. C. Results After applying to a damage motor the same methodology describe in the previous section, we can conclude that the process is applicable. In the same way, the whole heating process can be characterized after applying the equation 18. In Fig. 8, results are plotted and reflect how the value of dT/dt decreases during the test while it remains constant in steady state, when dissipated heat is equal to the generated heat. This is in agreement with the Heat Transfer Theory described in Section III(A). In the same way, when comparing the surface model to the experimental heating curve, a great similarity is observed (Fig.9). Additionaly, when comparing with the healthy motor, a significant difference in Thermal behavior is observed. As expected, results show an increase in the demanded electric power, with the subsequent lower efficiency, and a higher value of Power losses in the damaged machine (Fig.10). According to the thermography analysis, an increase in the temperatures measured in the damaged machine is observed. This can be attributed to the broken bars failure which, as commented leads to a significant current increment in the adjacent bars. Higher losses are detected leading to an overheating in the machine.


330 Temperature[K]




Ts_HEALTHY Ts_model_HEALTHY Ts_9B Ts_model_9B

290 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000 8000

Fig.9. Experimental and Model Heating Curves of the healthy and damage induction motor
Electric Power_HEALTHY Mechanical Power_HEALTHY Power losses_HEALTHY Electric Power_ 9B Mechanical Power_ 9B Power losses_ 9B

1600 Power [W]




0 0 2000 4000 Time [s] 6000 8000

Fig.10. Evolutions of electric and mechanical power and power losses in the healthy and damage motor.



0.04 dT/dt[K/s]
dT/dt_HEALTHY dT/dt_9B


The Infrared Thermography technique is used in the present paper to develop a thermal model of an induction motor. In the paper, the concordance between the motor heating process and the thermal equations representing the 1st Law of Thermodynamics is validated. The developed model proves that Infrared Thermography can be considered a valuable tool to perform the energy balance of the motor as well as to obtain the heating curves of the machine with enough accuracy. This methodology will be able to simulate any motor configuration and operating conditions. This statement is evidenced after the application to a healthy and a damage motor, under different faulty conditions. Additionally, when comparing both motors, a significant difference in Thermal behavior is observed. Preliminary results will be the baseline for further complex failure diagnosis in electric motors, in wich the application of Infrared Thermography can provide very valuable information both for electric machine diagnosis and for behaviour analysis. VIII. APPENDIX A. Induction motor specifications
Model 1LA2080-4AA10 Rated power (PN) Rated speed (nN) Rated voltage (UN) Rated current (IN) Rated power factor (Cos ) 1.1 kW 1410 rpm 400(Y)/230 () 2.7(Y)/4.6 () 0.8


Fig.8.dT/ dt evolution healthy and damage motor

4000 Time [s]





Motor geometric dimensions

Element A (m2) 1.4210-2 2.2710-2 1.3410-2 1.5210-2 4.3810-2 9.1010-3 2.7310-3 1.5310-1 9.9810-4 1.6810-2 7.3510-4 Element A (m2) Other elements Nameplate 2.0010-3 Support 2.1010-2 Top cover 7.5710-3 Top 5,0010-4 coverscuare Front and lateral 2.0110-2 cover Bearings 1.7410-3 TOTAL 0,335

Cylinder Front circle Back circle Left lateral cylinder Right lateral cylinder Free Lateral cylinder Fins Fin Transversal Fin end Fin lateral Fin Transversal superiorsuperior Fin end Fin Lateral superior

[1] W.T. Thomson, M. Fenger, Current signature analysis to detect induction motor faults IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., pp. 26-34, Jul/Aug 2001. [2] D.B.Durocher, G.R. Feldmeier ,Predictive versus preventive maintenance, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Vol. 10, No.5, October 2004, pp. 12-21 [3] B. Li, X. Zhu, S. Zhao and W. Niu, HV Power Equipment Diagnosis Based on Infrared Imaging Analyzing, International Conference on Power System Technology, 2006. [4] Y. Chou and L. Yao, Automatic Diagnosis System of Electrical Equipment using Infrared Thermography, International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, 2009. [5]Y. Han and Y.H. Song, Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electrical Equipment, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 18, no. 1, January 2003. [6] B. Bortnem, F. Pray, and P. Grover; Measuring Shaft Misalignment with Infrared Thermography, P/PM Technology, pp 20-21, February 1995. [7] S. U. Haq and T. Bashir, Evaluation of Induction Motor Groundwall Insulation using Infrared Thermography, 2nd International Conference on Emerging Technologies Peshawar, Pakistan, 13-14 November 2006. [8] J.Yun, K.Lee, J. Yoo, L.W. Lee, S.B. Lee, J. Yun, Detection and Classification of Stator Turn Faults and High- Resistance Electrical Connections for Induction Machines IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 45, no. 2, Apr. 2009. [9] A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, D. Staton, M.Shanel, M.Mueller, and C. Mejuto, Evolution and modern approaches Thermal Analysis of Electrical Machines, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.56, n.3, 2009. [10] S. Sheghir-Oualil, S. Harmand, and D.Laloy, Study of the thermal behaviour of a synchronous motor with permament magnets, International Journal of Engineering, vol.3, pp. 3, November 2009. [11] Y. Huai, R.V.N. Melnik, and P.B. Thogersen,Computational analysis of temperature rise phenomena in electric induction motors, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 23, p 779-795, 2003. [12] M.Cortes. Curso moderno de mquinas elctricas. Editores Tcnicos Asociados, S.A., Barcelona 1990. [13] B.Bai, Q. Yu, H. He, and X. Wang, 3-D Thermal Analysis and Computation of Flameproof Induction Motor, Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific, 2010. [14] G.D. Demetriades, H. Zelaya de la Parra , E.Andersson and H.Olsson A Real-Time Thermal Model of a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 25, n 2, 2010. [15]M. Jskelinen,Determination of coefficients of thermal convection in a high-speed electrical machine,HelsinkyUniversity Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Automation Department of Electrical Engineering, 2009. [16] D.Staton, and A.Cavagnino, Convection Heat Transfer and Flow Calculations for Electric Machines Thermal models, IEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.55, n.10, 2008. [17] A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, and D. Staton, TEFC Induction motors Thermal Models: a parameter Sensitivite Analysis,IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.41, n.3, 2005. [18] K. Farsane, P. Desevaux, and P.K. Panday, Experimental study of the cooling of a closed type electric motor, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 20, pp.1321-1334, 2000.

[19] K. Takahashi, Airflow and Thermal Conductance in a Totally Enclosed Induction Motor, Heat Transfer-Asian Research, vol.31,n. 1, 2002. [20] R. Pechnek, Model of Air Flow In Cooling System Of Induction Machines, XI International PhD Workshop, OWD, 2009. [21] Technical documentation Low-Voltage Motors IEC Squirrel-Cage Motors. Catalog D 81.1, 2006. [22] IEEE Motor Reliability Working Group, Report of large motor reliability survey of industrial commercial installations, Part I, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol IA-21, pp. 853-872, July/Aug. 1985. [23] O.V. Thorsen and M. Dalva, Condition monitoring methods, failure identification and analysis for high voltage motors in petrochemical industry, in Proc. 8th Inst. Elec. Eng. Int. Conf., EMD97, University of Cambridge, no. 444, pp. 109-113. [24] JM Corbern and R.Royo,HeatTransmissionNotes. Departamento de Termodinmica Aplicada. Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, 2001. [25] A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, and D. Staton, TEFC Induction motors Thermal Models: a parameter Sensitivite Analysis,IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.41, n.3, 2005. [26] F. Incropera, D. P. deWitt Fundamentals of Heat and Mass transfer, Ed. John Wiley & Sons, United States of America, 2006. [27] J.M. Cubert, Use of electronic controllers in order to increase the service life on asynchronous motors, Proc. European seminar on electro-technologies for industry, Bilbao, May 1992, pp.393-404



Mara J. Picazo received the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio of Madrid in 2003 and a Master degree in Maintenance Engineering in 2008 from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain She is currently performing her Ph. D. Degree Studies in Thermographic techniques as a predictive tool to diagnostic failures in electrical equipments in the Electric Machines Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. She has been certified with Level 1 in Infrared Thermography by Infrared Training Center (ITC) and in Maintenance Engineering Management by the Spanish Maintenance Society (AEM). Professionally, she is in charge of the Maintenance Department in the Hospital Clinic of Valencia. Rafael Royo Pastor holds a PhD in Mechanical Industrial Engineering and is currently a Professor at the Instituto de Ingeniera Energtica- Universidad Politcnica de Valencia (UPV) - Spain. He is a specialist in heat transfer, with two particular domains of applications: internal combustion engines and energy optimization. Rafael has authored several international papers on engines for SAE, some of them with the research department of Renault Spain which has been a leading partner of UPV since 1993. Rafael also manages the Energy Simulation Group of the Energy engineering institute, carrying applied research projects for important companies such as ACCIONA and ASSYCE. Since 2009, he has been teaching Energy Optimization of Industrial Installations, and New Energy Technologies for Buildings at the Master of Sustainable Development. Finally, Rafael is a key partner for ITC, leading the pool of instructors in Spain, and educating operators in both Spain and Latin America. Furthermore, he is not only an ITC level 3 certified operator, but also an active co-developer of ITC training programs. Jose Antonino-Daviu (S04/M08) received his M.S. and Ph. D. degrees in Electrical Engineering, both from the Universitat Politcnica de Valncia, in 2000 and 2006, respectively. He was working for IBM during 2 years, being involved in several international projects. Currently, he is Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the mentioned University, where he develops his docent and research work. He has been invited professor in Helsinki University of Technology (Finland) in 2005 and 2007 and in Michigan State University (USA) in 2010. He has over 60 publications between international journals, conferences and books. His primary research interests are condition monitoring of electric machines, wavelet theory and its application to fault diagnosis and design and optimization of electrical installations and systems. Jos Roger Folch obtained his M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1970 from the Polytechnic University of Catalua and his Ph.D in 1980 from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain. From 1971 to 1978 he worked in the Electrical Industry as Project Engineer. Since 1978, he joined the Polytechnic University of Valencia and he is currently Professor of Electrical Installations and Machines. His main research areas are the Numerical Methods (F.E.M. and others) applied to the Design and Maintenance of Electrical Machines and Equipments.


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