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Abstract Induction motors have been the workhorse of

industry since decades. With the rapid advancement in


industry and transport the need exists for machines with higher
power per volume, efficient and better reliability to widen the
application range and drive bigger and crucial loads. Higher
phase order machines have been identified as a viable solution
to meet these needs. This paper is on the concept of using a six
phase machine as different devices consisting of three or six
phases. A study is done using a symmetrical six phase structure
and configuring it to operate as a three phase motor, six phase
motor and three phase motor with reactive compensation.
Some parts of mathematical modeling are presented as well as
Matlab/Simulink simulation results.

Index Terms Dynamic Modeling, Matlab/Simulink,
Multiphase Induction Motors, Simulation
I. INTRODUCTION
NDUCTION motors have always been known as the
workhorse of the industry. The advent of power
electronics and therefore the means of controlling the speed
of induction machines, has led to ac variable speed induction
motor drives, which are by far the most popular and most
used in meeting many applications nowadays. It has many
advantages over other types of machines which includes
robustness, can be used in hazardous locations, low
maintenance and economical to manufacture. With the
modern rapid advancement in industry and transport the
need exists for higher power per volume, efficient and more
reliable machines to drive high power and crucial loads.
Research has shown higher phase order (HPO) multiphase
induction machines as a viable solution to the need of
bigger, more reliable machines. Unlike the classical three
phase induction machines HPO machines has a stator
consisting of a phase number of more than three.
Preliminary investigations on five phase induction motors
was documented in [1] while much more work was done in
modeling and control of five phase machines in [2]-[4] . Six
phase induction machines are also well documented in
research articles stretching over the last five decades [5]-[9].
Many surveys and reviews were conducted on the state of
the art of HPO machines [10]-[13], and documented on the
feasibility of HPO induction machines of up to twelve
phases.
HPO machines possess many advantages over their three
phase counterparts which includes reduced torque ripple,
smaller current per phase with the same rating and most
important being fault tolerant. In [5], [12] , [13] the ability

This work was supported in part by the NRF (National Research
Foundation, South Africa) and the Tshwane University of Technology.
P. Venter is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South
Africa (e-mail: venterp@tut.ac.za).
A. A. Jimoh is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria,
South Africa (e-mail: jimohaa@tut.ac.za)
J. L Munda is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South
Africa (e-mail: mundajl@tut.ac.za)
of HPO induction machines operating under open circuit
fault of one or even two phases are documented. This ability
allows for a safe limp home operation which is very useful
in train and ship propulsion.
In this work a 3 & 6 phase induction machine is realized
and studied. This machine consists of one structure being
capable of operating as different devices depending on the
configuration of the stator windings. This is due to the
increased degree of freedom that the high number of stator
phases provides. Some of these devices are identified and
discussed. Simulation results generated in Matlab/Simulink
are used for preliminary analysis of the different devices.
II. 3 & 6 PHASE CONCEPT
A symmetrical six phase induction machine (SPIM), as
indicated by its description, has six phase windings
symmetrically displaced at an angle of 60 around the stator
circumference as shown in Fig. 1. This is a very special
structure that can operate as numerous three-phase or six-
phase devices. With the machine configured in its normal
form it can be used as a six phase induction motor which can
be fed by a sinusoidal six phase voltage source or by a six
phase inverter. In the case of inverter fed, it is usually
preferred to feed the machine with six single phase inverters
which increases the reliability of the drive. It can also be
used as a six phase self excited generator.


Fig. 1. Winding arrangement of SPIM

The winding placement between every second winding is
120. This means that the original six phase structure can be
grouped as two three phase sets of windings which widen its
applications. This machine can therefore also be used as
several three phase devices which include a three phase
motor, three phase motor with reactive power injection, three
phase transformer and concurrent three phase motor and
transformer.
Realization of a 3 & 6 Phase Induction
Machine
P. Venter, A. A. Jimoh and J. L. Munda

I
978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE
445



Fig. 2. 3 & 6 machine and its applications


It is proposed in [14]-[16] that a three phase induction
machine be used as a rotating phase converter. This device
will transform single phase power to three phase power. In
the case of the 3 & 6 phase induction machine the
possibility exists that one can transform from single to three
or six phases or from three to six phases.
Fig. 2 shows all the applications and configurations that
are possible with the novel 3 & 6 phase induction machine
proposed in this work.

1) Prototype
To develop a prototype of this 3 & 6 phase induction
machine the three phase stator winding of a conventional
three phase machine can be removed and a newly designed
six phase winding wound in the stator slots. Both sides of
all six windings are to be terminated externally as shown in
Fig. 3. This will allow the machine to be configured as
different devices by changing the configurations of the
terminals of the stator windings.



Fig. 3. Winding distribution and termination of Novel 3 & 6 induction
machine
III. 3 & 6 PHASE AS THREE PHASE MOTOR
The displacement between every second winding of a
SPIM machine will result in a 120 displacement. This
means that the stator windings of a symmetrical six phase
machine as in Fig. 1 can be divided into two three phase
windings at a displacement of 60 between the two three
phase windings. By connecting two windings in series as in
Fig. 4a or in parallel as in Fig 4b, this machine can be
operated as a three phase induction motor. For these
configurations, the conventional three phase model is used.
The machine parameters of the machine configured in both
these configurations can be determined by open-and-short
circuit tests. The determined machine parameters for the
specific configuration are then used in the mathematical
model to simulate the behavior of the machine.



Fig. 4a Fig. 4b

Fig. 4. Connections for three phase motoring operation

A. Mathematical Model
Modeling and simulation of three phase induction motors
are well documented in [17], [19]. The derived model
described in this section is a dynamic model which is generic
in terms of reference frame. The reference frame for this
model can be changed by setting omega () equal to the
rotational speed of the desired reference frame. The model
was developed in the arbitrary reference frame.

2) Voltage Equations

:
q
s
= r
s
i
q
s
+ z
d
s
+ pz
q
s
(1)

:
d
s
= r
s
i
d
s
-z
q
s
+pz
d
s
(2)

:
0
s
= r
s
i
0
s
+ pz
0
s
(3)

:
q

= r

i
q

+ ( -

)z
d

+ pz
q

(4)

:
d

= r

i
d

-( -

)z
q

+ pz
d

(5)

446

:
0

= r

i
0

+ pz
0

(6)


3) Flux Linkage Equations

z
q
s
= i
q
s
(I
I
s
+ I
m
) + I
m
i
q


(7)

z
d
s
= i
d
s
(I
I
s
+I
m
) + I
m
i
d

(8)

z
q
s
= i
q
s
I
I
s

(9)

z
q

= i
q

(I
I

+ I
m
) +I
m
i
q
s

(10)

z
d

= i
d

(I
I

+ I
m
) + I
m
i
d
s
(11)

z
0

= i
0

I
I

(12)


4) Torque Equation

I
cm
=
S
2
p
2
I
m
(i
d

i
q
s
-i
d
s
i
q

)
(13)

Where subscripts d refers to d-axis and q to q-axis, and
superscripts r refers to rotor parameters and s refers to stator
parameters.
B. Equivalent Circuit
Equivalent circuits of the 3 & 6 phase machine
operating as a three phase induction motor can be developed
using the mathematical model.



Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit of 3 & 6 induction machine operating as a three
phase motor.

C. Simulation Results
The mathematical model was implemented in the
Matlab\Simulink environment and used to generate
simulation results of the machine. For the sake of this
simulation, the parameters of a conventional three phase
induction machine were used. The rotor reference frame
was used as the frame of reference. Parameters of a 1.5kW
three phase induction motor was used in the simulation to
generate the results shown in Fig.6.


Fig. 5. Simulink model of 3 & 6 phase induction machine as three phase
induction motor.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Fig. 6. Free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase induction
machine operating as a three phase motor. a) Torque vs Time, b) Torque vs
Speed, c) Speed vs Time and d) Line Currents vs Time.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
Line Currents


Ia
Ib
Ic
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Time (sec)
S
p
e
e
d

(
r
p
m
)

Speed
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Speed)
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
.
m
)

Torque vs Speed
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Electromagnetic Torque
Time (t)

Tem
Tload
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c

T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
.
m
)

447

The simulation results in Fig 6 shows the free
acceleration dynamic characteristics of a three phase
induction machine which includes the torque, speed and
current. The simulation results are similar to those
documented by other scholars which validate the
mathematical model. These results are also appropriate for
the 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating as a three
phase induction motor. The model can be readily used with
the parameters of the novel machine connected as a three
phase motor with either two phases in series or in parallel as
shown in Fig 4.
IV. 3 & 6 PHASE AS SIX PHASE MOTOR
The 3 & 6 phase induction machine as a six phase
motor is similar to that in Fig.1 where there are six stator
phases displaced symmetrically around the circumference of
the stator, therefore at 60. The modeling of the rotor in this
case of HPO is debatable with some scholars being of
opinion that the squirrel cage rotor be modeled equivalent to
a three phase wound rotor winding, while others are of
opinion that it be modeled equivalent to a six phase wound
rotor. The choice of rotor model will have a direct effect on
the mathematical model of the machine as the flux linkage
equations will differ and therefore the torque produced by
the machine. In this work the rotor is modeled as an
equivalent six phase rotor.

A. Mathematical Model
The mathematical modeling of symmetrical SPIM is
documented in [11], [12] . Because we are dealing with six
phases now, it is expected that the Parks transform will
result in two sets of dq-axes in the arbitrary reference frame.
It can be proven mathematically that these two axes are
perpendicular to each other. This means that it is not
possible for both of these subspaces to produce torque. This
statement is supported by (24) & (25). These two equations
show that there is no coupling between stator and rotor in the
second subspace and therefore no torque is produced by this
subspace.
According to [12] , since the rotor winding is short
circuited, neither the second subspace nor the zero
components will exists. For this reason it is ignored in the
rotor equations.

1) Voltage Equations

:
q1
s
= r
s
i
q1
s
+ z
d1
s
+
J
Jt
z
q1
s

(14)
:
d1
s
= r
s
i
d1
s
-z
q1
s
+
J
Jt
z
d1
s

(15)
:
q2
s
= r
s
i
q2
s
+
J
Jt
z
q2
s

(16)
:
d2
s
= r
s
i
d2
s
+
J
Jt
z
d2
s

(17)
:
01
s
= r
s
i
01
s
+
J
Jt
z
01
s

(18)
:
02
s
= r
s
i
02
s
+
J
Jt
z
02
s

(19)
:
q

= u = r

i
q

+( -

)z
d

+
J
Jt
z
q


(20)
:
d

= u = r

i
d

- ( -

)z
q

+
J
Jt
z
d


(21)


2) Flux Linkage Equations

z
q1
s
= i
q1
s
(I
I
s
+I
m
) + I
m
i
q


(22)
z
d1
s
= i
d1
s
(I
I
s
+ I
m
) +I
m
i
d


(23)
z
q2
s
= i
q2
s
I
I
s

(24)
z
d2
s
= i
d2
s
I
I
s

(25)
z
01
s
= i
01
s
I
I
s

(26)
z
02
s
= i
02
s
I
I
s

(27)
z
q

= i
q

(I
I

+ I
m
) + I
m
i
q1
s

(28)
z
d

= i
d

(I
I

+ I
m
) + I
m
i
d1
s

(29)

3) Torque Equation

I
cm
=
6
2
p
2
I
m
(i
d

i
q
s
-i
d
s
i
q

)
(30)

B. Simulation Results
Above described model are implemented in Simulink and
used to generate dynamic simulation results. The voltage
source in this simulation is a sinusoidal six phase supply.
The model could also have been fed with a voltage source
inverter as this might be the most practical way of supplying
a HPO machine in practice. The parameters for a 1.5kW
SPIM are used. The simulation is done in the rotor reference
frame.

(a)
(b)
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Speed (rpm)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
.
m
)
Torque vs Speed
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Time (Seconds)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
.
m
)
Electromagnetic Torque

Tem
Tload
448

(c)
(d)
Fig. 7. Free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase induction
machine operating as a six phase motor. a) Torque vs Time, b) Torque vs
Speed, c) Speed vs Time and d) Line Currents vs Time.

The free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase
induction machine operating as a six phase induction motor
is shown in Fig 7. The results obtained in this simulation are
very similar to the results obtained by other scholars. The
aim in this paper is not to analyze a specific machine, but
rather to validate the concept. Fig. 7a shows that the
machine has the ability of producing torque at the output if a
load is connected. Stability of the machine is very important
and is validated in Fig 7b. This shows that at a certain
produced torque and at a certain speed, the machine will
reach a point of stability. Fig 7d shows the high inrush
current of an induction motor which is characteristic of an
induction motor. In Fig 7c it is seen that the machine will
runs at a speed close to synchronous speed for a 4 pole
motor. This is because the machine is unloaded. The model
is validated as the simulation results are similar to that found
in other authors work.
V. 3 & 6 PHASE AS THREE PHASE MOTOR WITH
REACTIVE POWER INJECTION
The Novel 3 & 6 induction machine as three phase
motor with reactive compensation will comprise of two three
phase sets of windings displaced at an angle of 60 as in Fig.
8. The two winding sets are electrically isolated and only
magnetically coupled. One set of three phase windings
(main winding) are connected to a three phase supply
voltage while the other set of windings (auxiliary winding)
are connected to a set of static capacitors. When a supply
voltage is connected to the main winding a voltage is
induced in the auxiliary winding which is applied to the
capacitors. Reactive power will now be injected to the
motor and in this process improve the power factor. This
concept was explored in [20] for static capacitors after
which this concept was improved in [21] to have
controllable capacitance by using a PWM connected
between the winding terminals and the capacitors. This
work only differs to the work described in [20], [21] by the
displacement angle between the main and auxiliary
windings. In [20], [21] a displacement of 0 is reported

on which means the main and auxiliary windings are placed
in the same slots on top of each other.



Fig. 8. 3 & 6 phase as three phase motor with reactive power injection

A. Equivalent Circuits


Fig. 9. Equivalent circuits three phase motor with reactive power
injection.

B. Simulation Results
The mathematical model was implemented and
simulation results generated using Matlab/Simulink. Steady
state as well as dynamic results was obtained. The
parameters of the three-phase machine that were used to do
the simulation in this paper are found in Appendix table I

1) Steady-state Results

(a)
(b)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Load Torque (pu)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
p
u
)

Uncompensated
10 microF
20 microF
30 microF
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Load Torque (pu)

Uncompensated
10 microF
20 microF
30 microF
P
o
w
e
r

F
a
c
t
o
r

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Time (Seconds)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

(
M
a
x
)

Line Currents

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
S
p
e
e
d

(
r
p
m
)

Speed
Time (Seconds)
449

(c)
(d)

Fig. 10. Steady-state results of 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating
as a three phase motor with reactive power injection. a) Power Factor vs
Load Torque, b) Current vs Load Torque, c) Power factor vs Capacitance
and d) Efficiency vs Capacitance.

The simulation results in Fig 10 show the feasibility of
this configuration. Fig 10a&b shows the results of the power
factor and current of the machine with a changing capacitor
size. As the size of the capacitor increases, the power factor
increases and the current decreases. There is a limit to the
size of the capacitor as it is not good to over compensate the
system. Fig 10c shows power factor vs capacitance, where
the capacitance value is increased. It shows the limit to the
sizing of the capacitor. At around 35F the power factor is
maximum, when the capacitance is increased more, the
power factor decreases again. This is because the power
factor now becomes leading and therefore over
compensation. Fig 10d shows that the efficiency of the
motor increases as the reactive power injection increases
towards the maximum limit which is logical if it is
considered that the current decreases as the reactive power
injection increases towards the maximum limit (Fig 19d) at
the same load torque. This means that less current is used to
drive the same load and explains the increase in efficiency.
A more advanced solution would be to have a variable
capacitance through a PWM with a feedback loop system.
This will ensure that the desired power factor is achieved
even with varying load.

2) Dynamic Results

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Fig. 11. Dynamic results of 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating as a
three phase motor with reactive power injection. a) Power Factor vs Time,
b) Efficiency vs Load Time, c) Main winding current vs Time and d)
Auxiliary winding vs Time.

The three phase induction machine with reactive power
injection has a power factor that is better than the
uncompensated machine from startup as shown in Fig 11a.
It is known that the power factor of an induction machine is
very low at startup. By using this proposed arrangement the
power factor is improved even at startup. This reasoning
also applies for efficiency of an induction motor; with this
proposed arrangement the efficiency of the motor is also
better at startup as shown in Fig 11b. Fig 11c shows the
high inrush current (main winding) which is typical to
induction motors. The auxiliary winding current is shown in
Fig 11 d.
VI. CONCLUSION
In this work the 3 & 6 phase induction machine has
been realized with some of its applications as shown in Fig
2. Three of these applications was modeled and simulated to
test the feasibility of the machine. The preliminary results
obtained in this work prove that this machine is possible
with some exciting results obtained in Section V.




0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-2
0
2
Ix
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-2
0
2
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
p
u
)

Iy
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-2
0
2
Time (seconds)
Iz
0 0.5 1 1.5
-10
0
10
Ia
0 0.5 1 1.5
-10
0
10
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
p
u
)

Ib
0 0.5 1 1.5
-10
0
10
Time (Seconds)
Ic
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
2.5
3
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y


Uncompensated
Compensated
3
Time
0.5 1 1.5 2 2 5
0.6
0.
0.7
0.
0.8
0.
0.9
1
P
o
w
e
r

F
a
c
t
o
r

Uncompensa
Compensat
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.9
0.91
Capacitance (micro F)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
Capacitance (micro F)
P
o
w
e
r

F
a
c
t
o
r

450

To have a single machine being able
different devices by only changing its co
numerous advantages to its owners. The
was not to test a specific machine with sp
but rather to test the developed mathemati
as the concept.
Future work includes the construction
experimental testing. The parameters of t
various configurations should be determi
the simulation models presented in this w
models needs to be developed for
configurations of the 3 & 6 phase induct

VII. APPENDIX

TABLE I
PARAMETERS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTIO

VIII. REFERENCES
[1] E. E. Ward and H. Harer, "Preliminar
invertor-fed 5-phase induction motor,"
Proceedings of the Institution of, vol. 116
[2] A. Iqbal, S. M. Ahmed, M. A. Khan, M.
Rub, "Modeling, simulation and impleme
induction motor drive system," in Power E
Energy Systems (PEDES) & 2010 Pow
International Conference on, pp. 1-6.
[3] S. Karugaba, W. Ge, O. Ojo, and M. O
steady-state operation of a five phase indu
open stator phase," in Power Symposium,
North American, 2008, pp. 1-8.
[4] K. N. Pavithran, R. Parimelalagan, and
"Studies on inverter-fed five-phase in
Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions o
1988.
[5] G. Aroquiadassou, A. Mpanda-Mabwe,
Capolino, "Six-phase induction machine
tolerant operation," in Diagnostics for Ele
Electronics and Drives, 2009. SDE
International Symposium on, 2009 pp. 1-6
[6] T. A. Lipo, "A d-q MODEL FOR SIX
MACHINES," in Int. conf. of Electr
Athens, 1980, pp. 860 - 867.
[7] R. O. C. Lyra and T. A. Lipo, "Torque De
Six-Phase Induction Motor With Thi
Injection," IEEE Transactions on Industry
pp. 1779 - 1786, 2002.
[8] A. S. O. Ogunjuyigbe, A. A. Jimoh, D.
Nnachi, "Simulation of Six Phase Sp
Machine Using the Matlab/Simulink Env
Electrical Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 33 - 39
[9] G. K. Singh, V. Pant, and Y. P. Singh,
multi-phase (six-phase) induction mac
Electrical Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 727-7
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IX. BIO
Pierre-Jac Venter received the B.Te
University of Technology, Pretoria, So
towards the M.Tech degree with T
Department of Electrical Engineering.
of Electrical Machines and Drives.

Adisa A. Jimoh (M86, SM10) recei
from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU
respectively, and the Ph.D. degree fro
ON, Canada, in 1986.
He was with ABU until 1992, wh
Development Unit, National Electric
Nigeria. He was with NEPA until 1996
Durban-Westville, Durban, South Af
carried out research in high-performan
and power systems and power electr
University of Technology, Pretoria,
Professor, he is the Head of Departme
leader of the Energy and Industrial Pow
research interests are in electric mach
applications in power systems.
Dr. Jimoh is a Registered Enginee
researcher.

Josiah L. Munda received M.Sc. de
Moscow Power Institute and Tver Stat
D.Eng. degree in electrical engineering
in 2002. He is currently an Associate
Technology, South Africa. His researc
renewable energy supplies, hybrid pow
is a member of IEEE and SAIEE.

EE Transactions on Power Apparatus
pp. 47 - 53, 1983.
ments in High Performance Variable-
ction Motor Drives," in SIXTH
UM NIKOLA TESLA, Serbia, 2006
mo, H. A. Toliyat, and S. Williamson,
otor drives - a technology status
pplications, IET, vol. 1, pp. 489-516,
f multi-phase machines," in Industrial
ECON 2005. 31st Annual Conference
Application and Selection of Single-
nverters," in Rural Electric Power
s Presented at the 39th Annual
.
ion of large motors off single phase
ch," in AFRICON, 1999 IEEE, 1999,
"Induction motor performance when
ee phase converters," in Industry
l Meeting, 1990., Conference Record
45-50 vol.1.
of Electric Machinery. New York:
Machine Analysis and Simulation,"
nic Research Centre, University of
on 2000.
ulation of Electric Machinery Using
ey: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997.
and D. W. Novotny, "Power factor
machines by means of solid-state
nics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 4,
Malik, "Power factor correction of
PWM inverter fed auxiliary stator
ion, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14,
OGRAPHIES
ech. degree in 2009 from Tshwane
outh Africa. He is currently working
Tshwane University of Technology
His research interests are in the field
ived the B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees
U), Zaria, Nigeria, in 1977 and 1980,
om McMaster University, Hamilton,
hen he moved to the Research and
Power Authority (NEPA), Lagos,
6 when he moved to the University of
frica, where he taught courses and
nce energy efficient electric machines
ronics. In 2001, he joined Tshwane
South Africa, where, as a Full
ent of Electrical Engineering and the
wer Systems research niche area. His
hines, drives, and power-electronics
er in South Africa and a NRF rated
egree in electrical distribution from
te Technical University in 1991, and
g from the University of the Ryukyus
Professor at Tshwane University of
ch areas are power system stability,
er systems and intelligent control. He
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