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industry and transport the need exists for machines with higher

power per volume, efficient and better reliability to widen the

application range and drive bigger and crucial loads. Higher

phase order machines have been identified as a viable solution

to meet these needs. This paper is on the concept of using a six

phase machine as different devices consisting of three or six

phases. A study is done using a symmetrical six phase structure

and configuring it to operate as a three phase motor, six phase

motor and three phase motor with reactive compensation.

Some parts of mathematical modeling are presented as well as

Matlab/Simulink simulation results.

Index Terms Dynamic Modeling, Matlab/Simulink,

Multiphase Induction Motors, Simulation

I. INTRODUCTION

NDUCTION motors have always been known as the

workhorse of the industry. The advent of power

electronics and therefore the means of controlling the speed

of induction machines, has led to ac variable speed induction

motor drives, which are by far the most popular and most

used in meeting many applications nowadays. It has many

advantages over other types of machines which includes

robustness, can be used in hazardous locations, low

maintenance and economical to manufacture. With the

modern rapid advancement in industry and transport the

need exists for higher power per volume, efficient and more

reliable machines to drive high power and crucial loads.

Research has shown higher phase order (HPO) multiphase

induction machines as a viable solution to the need of

bigger, more reliable machines. Unlike the classical three

phase induction machines HPO machines has a stator

consisting of a phase number of more than three.

Preliminary investigations on five phase induction motors

was documented in [1] while much more work was done in

modeling and control of five phase machines in [2]-[4] . Six

phase induction machines are also well documented in

research articles stretching over the last five decades [5]-[9].

Many surveys and reviews were conducted on the state of

the art of HPO machines [10]-[13], and documented on the

feasibility of HPO induction machines of up to twelve

phases.

HPO machines possess many advantages over their three

phase counterparts which includes reduced torque ripple,

smaller current per phase with the same rating and most

important being fault tolerant. In [5], [12] , [13] the ability

This work was supported in part by the NRF (National Research

Foundation, South Africa) and the Tshwane University of Technology.

P. Venter is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South

Africa (e-mail: venterp@tut.ac.za).

A. A. Jimoh is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria,

South Africa (e-mail: jimohaa@tut.ac.za)

J. L Munda is with Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South

Africa (e-mail: mundajl@tut.ac.za)

of HPO induction machines operating under open circuit

fault of one or even two phases are documented. This ability

allows for a safe limp home operation which is very useful

in train and ship propulsion.

In this work a 3 & 6 phase induction machine is realized

and studied. This machine consists of one structure being

capable of operating as different devices depending on the

configuration of the stator windings. This is due to the

increased degree of freedom that the high number of stator

phases provides. Some of these devices are identified and

discussed. Simulation results generated in Matlab/Simulink

are used for preliminary analysis of the different devices.

II. 3 & 6 PHASE CONCEPT

A symmetrical six phase induction machine (SPIM), as

indicated by its description, has six phase windings

symmetrically displaced at an angle of 60 around the stator

circumference as shown in Fig. 1. This is a very special

structure that can operate as numerous three-phase or six-

phase devices. With the machine configured in its normal

form it can be used as a six phase induction motor which can

be fed by a sinusoidal six phase voltage source or by a six

phase inverter. In the case of inverter fed, it is usually

preferred to feed the machine with six single phase inverters

which increases the reliability of the drive. It can also be

used as a six phase self excited generator.

Fig. 1. Winding arrangement of SPIM

The winding placement between every second winding is

120. This means that the original six phase structure can be

grouped as two three phase sets of windings which widen its

applications. This machine can therefore also be used as

several three phase devices which include a three phase

motor, three phase motor with reactive power injection, three

phase transformer and concurrent three phase motor and

transformer.

Realization of a 3 & 6 Phase Induction

Machine

P. Venter, A. A. Jimoh and J. L. Munda

I

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE

445

Fig. 2. 3 & 6 machine and its applications

It is proposed in [14]-[16] that a three phase induction

machine be used as a rotating phase converter. This device

will transform single phase power to three phase power. In

the case of the 3 & 6 phase induction machine the

possibility exists that one can transform from single to three

or six phases or from three to six phases.

Fig. 2 shows all the applications and configurations that

are possible with the novel 3 & 6 phase induction machine

proposed in this work.

1) Prototype

To develop a prototype of this 3 & 6 phase induction

machine the three phase stator winding of a conventional

three phase machine can be removed and a newly designed

six phase winding wound in the stator slots. Both sides of

all six windings are to be terminated externally as shown in

Fig. 3. This will allow the machine to be configured as

different devices by changing the configurations of the

terminals of the stator windings.

Fig. 3. Winding distribution and termination of Novel 3 & 6 induction

machine

III. 3 & 6 PHASE AS THREE PHASE MOTOR

The displacement between every second winding of a

SPIM machine will result in a 120 displacement. This

means that the stator windings of a symmetrical six phase

machine as in Fig. 1 can be divided into two three phase

windings at a displacement of 60 between the two three

phase windings. By connecting two windings in series as in

Fig. 4a or in parallel as in Fig 4b, this machine can be

operated as a three phase induction motor. For these

configurations, the conventional three phase model is used.

The machine parameters of the machine configured in both

these configurations can be determined by open-and-short

circuit tests. The determined machine parameters for the

specific configuration are then used in the mathematical

model to simulate the behavior of the machine.

Fig. 4a Fig. 4b

Fig. 4. Connections for three phase motoring operation

A. Mathematical Model

Modeling and simulation of three phase induction motors

are well documented in [17], [19]. The derived model

described in this section is a dynamic model which is generic

in terms of reference frame. The reference frame for this

model can be changed by setting omega () equal to the

rotational speed of the desired reference frame. The model

was developed in the arbitrary reference frame.

2) Voltage Equations

:

q

s

= r

s

i

q

s

+ z

d

s

+ pz

q

s

(1)

:

d

s

= r

s

i

d

s

-z

q

s

+pz

d

s

(2)

:

0

s

= r

s

i

0

s

+ pz

0

s

(3)

:

q

= r

i

q

+ ( -

)z

d

+ pz

q

(4)

:

d

= r

i

d

-( -

)z

q

+ pz

d

(5)

446

:

0

= r

i

0

+ pz

0

(6)

3) Flux Linkage Equations

z

q

s

= i

q

s

(I

I

s

+ I

m

) + I

m

i

q

(7)

z

d

s

= i

d

s

(I

I

s

+I

m

) + I

m

i

d

(8)

z

q

s

= i

q

s

I

I

s

(9)

z

q

= i

q

(I

I

+ I

m

) +I

m

i

q

s

(10)

z

d

= i

d

(I

I

+ I

m

) + I

m

i

d

s

(11)

z

0

= i

0

I

I

(12)

4) Torque Equation

I

cm

=

S

2

p

2

I

m

(i

d

i

q

s

-i

d

s

i

q

)

(13)

Where subscripts d refers to d-axis and q to q-axis, and

superscripts r refers to rotor parameters and s refers to stator

parameters.

B. Equivalent Circuit

Equivalent circuits of the 3 & 6 phase machine

operating as a three phase induction motor can be developed

using the mathematical model.

Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit of 3 & 6 induction machine operating as a three

phase motor.

C. Simulation Results

The mathematical model was implemented in the

Matlab\Simulink environment and used to generate

simulation results of the machine. For the sake of this

simulation, the parameters of a conventional three phase

induction machine were used. The rotor reference frame

was used as the frame of reference. Parameters of a 1.5kW

three phase induction motor was used in the simulation to

generate the results shown in Fig.6.

Fig. 5. Simulink model of 3 & 6 phase induction machine as three phase

induction motor.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 6. Free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase induction

machine operating as a three phase motor. a) Torque vs Time, b) Torque vs

Speed, c) Speed vs Time and d) Line Currents vs Time.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

Time (sec)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

Line Currents

Ia

Ib

Ic

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Time (sec)

S

p

e

e

d

(

r

p

m

)

Speed

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Speed)

E

l

e

c

t

r

o

m

a

g

n

e

t

i

c

T

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

.

m

)

Torque vs Speed

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Electromagnetic Torque

Time (t)

Tem

Tload

E

l

e

c

t

r

o

m

a

g

n

e

t

i

c

T

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

.

m

)

447

The simulation results in Fig 6 shows the free

acceleration dynamic characteristics of a three phase

induction machine which includes the torque, speed and

current. The simulation results are similar to those

documented by other scholars which validate the

mathematical model. These results are also appropriate for

the 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating as a three

phase induction motor. The model can be readily used with

the parameters of the novel machine connected as a three

phase motor with either two phases in series or in parallel as

shown in Fig 4.

IV. 3 & 6 PHASE AS SIX PHASE MOTOR

The 3 & 6 phase induction machine as a six phase

motor is similar to that in Fig.1 where there are six stator

phases displaced symmetrically around the circumference of

the stator, therefore at 60. The modeling of the rotor in this

case of HPO is debatable with some scholars being of

opinion that the squirrel cage rotor be modeled equivalent to

a three phase wound rotor winding, while others are of

opinion that it be modeled equivalent to a six phase wound

rotor. The choice of rotor model will have a direct effect on

the mathematical model of the machine as the flux linkage

equations will differ and therefore the torque produced by

the machine. In this work the rotor is modeled as an

equivalent six phase rotor.

A. Mathematical Model

The mathematical modeling of symmetrical SPIM is

documented in [11], [12] . Because we are dealing with six

phases now, it is expected that the Parks transform will

result in two sets of dq-axes in the arbitrary reference frame.

It can be proven mathematically that these two axes are

perpendicular to each other. This means that it is not

possible for both of these subspaces to produce torque. This

statement is supported by (24) & (25). These two equations

show that there is no coupling between stator and rotor in the

second subspace and therefore no torque is produced by this

subspace.

According to [12] , since the rotor winding is short

circuited, neither the second subspace nor the zero

components will exists. For this reason it is ignored in the

rotor equations.

1) Voltage Equations

:

q1

s

= r

s

i

q1

s

+ z

d1

s

+

J

Jt

z

q1

s

(14)

:

d1

s

= r

s

i

d1

s

-z

q1

s

+

J

Jt

z

d1

s

(15)

:

q2

s

= r

s

i

q2

s

+

J

Jt

z

q2

s

(16)

:

d2

s

= r

s

i

d2

s

+

J

Jt

z

d2

s

(17)

:

01

s

= r

s

i

01

s

+

J

Jt

z

01

s

(18)

:

02

s

= r

s

i

02

s

+

J

Jt

z

02

s

(19)

:

q

= u = r

i

q

+( -

)z

d

+

J

Jt

z

q

(20)

:

d

= u = r

i

d

- ( -

)z

q

+

J

Jt

z

d

(21)

2) Flux Linkage Equations

z

q1

s

= i

q1

s

(I

I

s

+I

m

) + I

m

i

q

(22)

z

d1

s

= i

d1

s

(I

I

s

+ I

m

) +I

m

i

d

(23)

z

q2

s

= i

q2

s

I

I

s

(24)

z

d2

s

= i

d2

s

I

I

s

(25)

z

01

s

= i

01

s

I

I

s

(26)

z

02

s

= i

02

s

I

I

s

(27)

z

q

= i

q

(I

I

+ I

m

) + I

m

i

q1

s

(28)

z

d

= i

d

(I

I

+ I

m

) + I

m

i

d1

s

(29)

3) Torque Equation

I

cm

=

6

2

p

2

I

m

(i

d

i

q

s

-i

d

s

i

q

)

(30)

B. Simulation Results

Above described model are implemented in Simulink and

used to generate dynamic simulation results. The voltage

source in this simulation is a sinusoidal six phase supply.

The model could also have been fed with a voltage source

inverter as this might be the most practical way of supplying

a HPO machine in practice. The parameters for a 1.5kW

SPIM are used. The simulation is done in the rotor reference

frame.

(a)

(b)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Speed (rpm)

T

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

.

m

)

Torque vs Speed

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (Seconds)

T

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

.

m

)

Electromagnetic Torque

Tem

Tload

448

(c)

(d)

Fig. 7. Free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase induction

machine operating as a six phase motor. a) Torque vs Time, b) Torque vs

Speed, c) Speed vs Time and d) Line Currents vs Time.

The free acceleration characteristics of the 3 & 6 phase

induction machine operating as a six phase induction motor

is shown in Fig 7. The results obtained in this simulation are

very similar to the results obtained by other scholars. The

aim in this paper is not to analyze a specific machine, but

rather to validate the concept. Fig. 7a shows that the

machine has the ability of producing torque at the output if a

load is connected. Stability of the machine is very important

and is validated in Fig 7b. This shows that at a certain

produced torque and at a certain speed, the machine will

reach a point of stability. Fig 7d shows the high inrush

current of an induction motor which is characteristic of an

induction motor. In Fig 7c it is seen that the machine will

runs at a speed close to synchronous speed for a 4 pole

motor. This is because the machine is unloaded. The model

is validated as the simulation results are similar to that found

in other authors work.

V. 3 & 6 PHASE AS THREE PHASE MOTOR WITH

REACTIVE POWER INJECTION

The Novel 3 & 6 induction machine as three phase

motor with reactive compensation will comprise of two three

phase sets of windings displaced at an angle of 60 as in Fig.

8. The two winding sets are electrically isolated and only

magnetically coupled. One set of three phase windings

(main winding) are connected to a three phase supply

voltage while the other set of windings (auxiliary winding)

are connected to a set of static capacitors. When a supply

voltage is connected to the main winding a voltage is

induced in the auxiliary winding which is applied to the

capacitors. Reactive power will now be injected to the

motor and in this process improve the power factor. This

concept was explored in [20] for static capacitors after

which this concept was improved in [21] to have

controllable capacitance by using a PWM connected

between the winding terminals and the capacitors. This

work only differs to the work described in [20], [21] by the

displacement angle between the main and auxiliary

windings. In [20], [21] a displacement of 0 is reported

on which means the main and auxiliary windings are placed

in the same slots on top of each other.

Fig. 8. 3 & 6 phase as three phase motor with reactive power injection

A. Equivalent Circuits

Fig. 9. Equivalent circuits three phase motor with reactive power

injection.

B. Simulation Results

The mathematical model was implemented and

simulation results generated using Matlab/Simulink. Steady

state as well as dynamic results was obtained. The

parameters of the three-phase machine that were used to do

the simulation in this paper are found in Appendix table I

1) Steady-state Results

(a)

(b)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Load Torque (pu)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

p

u

)

Uncompensated

10 microF

20 microF

30 microF

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Load Torque (pu)

Uncompensated

10 microF

20 microF

30 microF

P

o

w

e

r

F

a

c

t

o

r

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

Time (Seconds)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

s

(

M

a

x

)

Line Currents

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

S

p

e

e

d

(

r

p

m

)

Speed

Time (Seconds)

449

(c)

(d)

Fig. 10. Steady-state results of 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating

as a three phase motor with reactive power injection. a) Power Factor vs

Load Torque, b) Current vs Load Torque, c) Power factor vs Capacitance

and d) Efficiency vs Capacitance.

The simulation results in Fig 10 show the feasibility of

this configuration. Fig 10a&b shows the results of the power

factor and current of the machine with a changing capacitor

size. As the size of the capacitor increases, the power factor

increases and the current decreases. There is a limit to the

size of the capacitor as it is not good to over compensate the

system. Fig 10c shows power factor vs capacitance, where

the capacitance value is increased. It shows the limit to the

sizing of the capacitor. At around 35F the power factor is

maximum, when the capacitance is increased more, the

power factor decreases again. This is because the power

factor now becomes leading and therefore over

compensation. Fig 10d shows that the efficiency of the

motor increases as the reactive power injection increases

towards the maximum limit which is logical if it is

considered that the current decreases as the reactive power

injection increases towards the maximum limit (Fig 19d) at

the same load torque. This means that less current is used to

drive the same load and explains the increase in efficiency.

A more advanced solution would be to have a variable

capacitance through a PWM with a feedback loop system.

This will ensure that the desired power factor is achieved

even with varying load.

2) Dynamic Results

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 11. Dynamic results of 3 & 6 phase induction machine operating as a

three phase motor with reactive power injection. a) Power Factor vs Time,

b) Efficiency vs Load Time, c) Main winding current vs Time and d)

Auxiliary winding vs Time.

The three phase induction machine with reactive power

injection has a power factor that is better than the

uncompensated machine from startup as shown in Fig 11a.

It is known that the power factor of an induction machine is

very low at startup. By using this proposed arrangement the

power factor is improved even at startup. This reasoning

also applies for efficiency of an induction motor; with this

proposed arrangement the efficiency of the motor is also

better at startup as shown in Fig 11b. Fig 11c shows the

high inrush current (main winding) which is typical to

induction motors. The auxiliary winding current is shown in

Fig 11 d.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this work the 3 & 6 phase induction machine has

been realized with some of its applications as shown in Fig

2. Three of these applications was modeled and simulated to

test the feasibility of the machine. The preliminary results

obtained in this work prove that this machine is possible

with some exciting results obtained in Section V.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

-2

0

2

Ix

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

-2

0

2

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

p

u

)

Iy

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

-2

0

2

Time (seconds)

Iz

0 0.5 1 1.5

-10

0

10

Ia

0 0.5 1 1.5

-10

0

10

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

p

u

)

Ib

0 0.5 1 1.5

-10

0

10

Time (Seconds)

Ic

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

2.5

3

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

Uncompensated

Compensated

3

Time

0.5 1 1.5 2 2 5

0.6

0.

0.7

0.

0.8

0.

0.9

1

P

o

w

e

r

F

a

c

t

o

r

Uncompensa

Compensat

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

0.83

0.84

0.85

0.86

0.87

0.88

0.89

0.9

0.91

Capacitance (micro F)

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

Capacitance (micro F)

P

o

w

e

r

F

a

c

t

o

r

450

To have a single machine being able

different devices by only changing its co

numerous advantages to its owners. The

was not to test a specific machine with sp

but rather to test the developed mathemati

as the concept.

Future work includes the construction

experimental testing. The parameters of t

various configurations should be determi

the simulation models presented in this w

models needs to be developed for

configurations of the 3 & 6 phase induct

VII. APPENDIX

TABLE I

PARAMETERS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTIO

VIII. REFERENCES

[1] E. E. Ward and H. Harer, "Preliminar

invertor-fed 5-phase induction motor,"

Proceedings of the Institution of, vol. 116

[2] A. Iqbal, S. M. Ahmed, M. A. Khan, M.

Rub, "Modeling, simulation and impleme

induction motor drive system," in Power E

Energy Systems (PEDES) & 2010 Pow

International Conference on, pp. 1-6.

[3] S. Karugaba, W. Ge, O. Ojo, and M. O

steady-state operation of a five phase indu

open stator phase," in Power Symposium,

North American, 2008, pp. 1-8.

[4] K. N. Pavithran, R. Parimelalagan, and

"Studies on inverter-fed five-phase in

Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions o

1988.

[5] G. Aroquiadassou, A. Mpanda-Mabwe,

Capolino, "Six-phase induction machine

tolerant operation," in Diagnostics for Ele

Electronics and Drives, 2009. SDE

International Symposium on, 2009 pp. 1-6

[6] T. A. Lipo, "A d-q MODEL FOR SIX

MACHINES," in Int. conf. of Electr

Athens, 1980, pp. 860 - 867.

[7] R. O. C. Lyra and T. A. Lipo, "Torque De

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[8] A. S. O. Ogunjuyigbe, A. A. Jimoh, D.

Nnachi, "Simulation of Six Phase Sp

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[10] E. A. Klingshirn, "HIGH PHASE O

MOTORS - PART I - DESCRIPTION A

e to operate as ten

onfiguration holds

e aim of this work

pecific parameters,

ical models as well

of a prototype and

the machine in the

ined to be used in

work. Mathematical

r the remaining

tion machine.

ON MACHINE

ry investigation of an

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, pp. 980-984, 1969.

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, 2008. NAPS '08. 40th

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ectric Machines, Power

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6.

PHASE INDUCTION

ical Machines, ICEM

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V. Nicolae, and A. F.

lit Winding Induction

vironment," Journal of

, 2008.

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chine," Computers &

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AND THEORETICAL

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IX. BIO

Pierre-Jac Venter received the B.Te

University of Technology, Pretoria, So

towards the M.Tech degree with T

Department of Electrical Engineering.

of Electrical Machines and Drives.

Adisa A. Jimoh (M86, SM10) recei

from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU

respectively, and the Ph.D. degree fro

ON, Canada, in 1986.

He was with ABU until 1992, wh

Development Unit, National Electric

Nigeria. He was with NEPA until 1996

Durban-Westville, Durban, South Af

carried out research in high-performan

and power systems and power electr

University of Technology, Pretoria,

Professor, he is the Head of Departme

leader of the Energy and Industrial Pow

research interests are in electric mach

applications in power systems.

Dr. Jimoh is a Registered Enginee

researcher.

Josiah L. Munda received M.Sc. de

Moscow Power Institute and Tver Stat

D.Eng. degree in electrical engineering

in 2002. He is currently an Associate

Technology, South Africa. His researc

renewable energy supplies, hybrid pow

is a member of IEEE and SAIEE.

EE Transactions on Power Apparatus

pp. 47 - 53, 1983.

ments in High Performance Variable-

ction Motor Drives," in SIXTH

UM NIKOLA TESLA, Serbia, 2006

mo, H. A. Toliyat, and S. Williamson,

otor drives - a technology status

pplications, IET, vol. 1, pp. 489-516,

f multi-phase machines," in Industrial

ECON 2005. 31st Annual Conference

Application and Selection of Single-

nverters," in Rural Electric Power

s Presented at the 39th Annual

.

ion of large motors off single phase

ch," in AFRICON, 1999 IEEE, 1999,

"Induction motor performance when

ee phase converters," in Industry

l Meeting, 1990., Conference Record

45-50 vol.1.

of Electric Machinery. New York:

Machine Analysis and Simulation,"

nic Research Centre, University of

on 2000.

ulation of Electric Machinery Using

ey: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997.

and D. W. Novotny, "Power factor

machines by means of solid-state

nics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 4,

Malik, "Power factor correction of

PWM inverter fed auxiliary stator

ion, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14,

OGRAPHIES

ech. degree in 2009 from Tshwane

outh Africa. He is currently working

Tshwane University of Technology

His research interests are in the field

ived the B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees

U), Zaria, Nigeria, in 1977 and 1980,

om McMaster University, Hamilton,

hen he moved to the Research and

Power Authority (NEPA), Lagos,

6 when he moved to the University of

frica, where he taught courses and

nce energy efficient electric machines

ronics. In 2001, he joined Tshwane

South Africa, where, as a Full

ent of Electrical Engineering and the

wer Systems research niche area. His

hines, drives, and power-electronics

er in South Africa and a NRF rated

egree in electrical distribution from

te Technical University in 1991, and

g from the University of the Ryukyus

Professor at Tshwane University of

ch areas are power system stability,

er systems and intelligent control. He

451

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