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Prediction of Field Currents in Flux-Modulating Synchronous Machines Under Loaded Conditions

Tadashi Fukami, Kazuo Shima, Toshihiro Tsuda, and Mitsuhiro Kawamura


0 , , , , , at time = 0. Phase-U ux linkage of . Phase-U winding function of . Phase-U current of , = 2 cos( ). Phase-U terminal voltage (line-toneutral voltage) of , = 2 cos( + ). Phase angle between and . Root-mean-square (RMS) values of and . Mean value of the dc eld current. Radius and stack length of the rotor. Synchronous inductance, = + (3/2) . Leakage and self inductances. Mutual inductances between and each phase of . Output power and efciency. Per-phase resistance of . Resistance of . Core and mechanical losses. I. I NTRODUCTION ULTIPOLE synchronous machines (SMs) are widely used in low-speed gearless drives for wind power generation, electric ship propulsion, and elevator traction machines [1]-[4]. They can be classied into permanentmagnet and wound-eld SMs according to the form of eld excitation. The permanent-magnet SM is a brushless structure because no excitation input is required, but it cannot control the eld excitation. On the other hand, in the wound-eld SM that can control reactive power with the eld winding, excitation power is fed to the eld winding on the rotor through brushes and slip rings. To eliminate these disadvantages, the authors previously proposed a new type of multipole SM [5]-[7], which does not use permanent magnets, brushes, and slip rings. This multipole SM has a reluctance rotor, and a three-phase armature winding along with a dc eld winding is housed in the stator. Since the magnetomotive force (MMF) due to the eld winding is modulated by the reluctance rotor to generate the rotating magnetic eld, it is called the uxmodulating SM (FMSM). The structure of the FMSM appears to be similar to that of switched reluctance machines [8], [9]; however, the electromotive force (EMF) waveform induced in the armature winding can be designed to be nearly sinusoidal, and the torque ripple is relatively small. Moreover, owing to an inherent magnetic-gearing effect, the FMSM can be designed with a smaller number of poles than that of conventional multipole SMs.

AbstractIn this paper, a method is presented for calculating the on-load eld currents of ux-modulating synchronous machines (SMs) (FMSMs) from no-load test data. The FMSM is a new type of multipole SM in which the magnetomotive force (MMF) due to the stator eld winding is modulated by the reluctance rotor to produce the rotating magnetic eld. Owing to an inherent magnetic-gearing effect, the rotating magnetic eld rotates at a faster speed than the rotor. Using openand short-circuit characteristics obtained by nite element analysis (FEA), eld currents in a 300-kVA machine feeding resistive loads are calculated. Experimental results conducted on a prototype 4-kVA machine are also provided to justify the calculation method. Index TermsBrushless machines, electric machines, generators, motors, rotating machines, variable speed drives.

N OMENCLATURE , 2 , 2 2 , 00 01 Armature and eld windings. Number of poles of and . Number of poles in the reluctance rotor, 2 = (2 + 2 )/2. Number of teeth per pole with respect to 2 , = 2 /2 . Frequency of electromotive forces (EMFs) induced in . Rotor speed, = 120 /(2 +2 ). Magnetomotive forces (MMFs) produced by and . Mechanical angle between the phaseU axis of and a given point M in the air gap. Angular frequency of EMFs induced in , = 2 . Effective turns per phase per pole pair of . Effective turns per pole pair of . Air-gap permeance per unit area. Average value of . Maximum value of the rst-order component in pulsation of . Air-gap ux density. Mechanical angle between the phaseU axis of and the rotor axis, = + 0 . Angular rotor speed, = /(2 ) = 2 /60.

T. Fukami and K. Shima are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi 921-8501, Japan (e-mail: fukami@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; k shima@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp). T. Tsuda is with the Large Rotating Machinery Department, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (e-mail: TSUDA.toshihiro@tmeic.co.jp). M. Kawamura is with the Strategic Planning & Administration Department, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (e-mail: KAWAMURA.mitsuhiro@tmeic.co.jp).

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE

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Phase-U axis of Wa Rotor axis Nr 2pf-pole dc field winding Wf


r

Phase-U axis of Wa Rotor axis ( Nr


r)

r = r t1 + r0
Wf

2pa-pole rotating magnetic field Bfa01

r)

Stator 2pa-pole three-phase armature winding Wa If Ia= 0


U W V

Stator
U
V

(1 + K) Nr )

Wa 2pr-pole reluctance rotor

M
W
W V

Nr

r' = r t2 + r0

2pf -pole stationary magnetic field Bff 00

2pr-pole reluctance rotor


Fig. 1. Basic structure of the FMSM (2 = 16, 2 = 24, 2 = 20, and = 1.5).

In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the eld current in the FMSM under actual loading conditions from the open- and short-circuit characteristics. Its validity is also veried by both sides of nite element analysis (FEA) simulations and experiments. The value of the eld current is used to evaluate the temperature rise of the machine and determine the excitation power. Therefore, its prediction is extremely important in the design and operation of the FMSM. II. S TRUCTURE AND O PERATING P RINCIPLE OF THE FMSM A. Basic Structure Fig. 1 shows the basic structure of the FMSM. As shown in the gure, the stator has two sets of windings with different pole numbers: a 2 -pole three-phase armature winding and a 2 -pole dc eld winding , which are wound centrally around individual stator teeth. The rotor (i.e., reluctance rotor) consists of 2 (= + ) salient poles that have neither permanent magnets nor windings. In order that three-phase EMFs are induced in , the ratio of 2 to 2 (i.e., 2 /2 = ) is selected from the following values: 1.5, 1.2, and 1.125. B. Operating Principle As described in previous papers [5]-[7], the operation of the FMSM is based on the principle of self-cascaded machines [10], [11]. When is excited by a dc eld current , a 2 -pole stationary magnetic eld 00 (shown as the dashed lines in Fig. 2) is produced in the air gap. Simultaneously, the 00 is modulated by the 2 -pole reluctance rotor, and a 2 -pole rotating magnetic eld 01 (shown as the solid lines in Fig. 2) is produced in the air gap. The number of poles, 2 , of is given by 2 = (2 2 ) 2 . (1)

Because the concave and convex of the 2 -pole reluctance rotor correspond to the North (N) and South (S) poles, respectively, the FMSM behaves like a (2 2 )pole machine. Therefore, if the rotor is driven at a speed of

(1 + K) Nr )

Bfa01 fa01

Bff 00

Nr

r" = r t3 + r0

(1 + K) Nr U )

Bfa01 fa01

Bff 00

Fig. 2. Schematic of the ux-modulation principle. Position of the rotating magnetic eld 01 at three different instants (1 < 2 < 3 ).

by an external force, then the rotating speed of 01 can be expressed as (2 2 ) 2 = (1 + ) 2 2 = (1 + ) .

(2)

Thus, 01 rotates (1 + ) times faster than the rotor. This means that the FMSM acts as not only a synchronous machine but also a magnetic gear. As a result, three-phase EMFs of the frequency shown by the following equation are induced in : 2 ) (1 + ) . = ( (3) 120 The three-phase EMFs induced in can be easily controlled by adjusting in the same manner as for conventional wound-eld SMs. III. C ALCULATION M ETHOD OF THE O N -L OAD F IELD C URRENT A. Air-Gap Flux Density Assuming the winding functions of and to be sinusoidal, the MMFs, and , produced by these windings, can be written as = cos( ) = cos( ) (4) (5)

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where

Fa '

3 2 2 2 . = 2 In the FMSM, the torque is produced by the magnetic anisotropy of the reluctance rotor. Because of this, if the harmonic effects of the stator slot openings are neglected, then the air-gap permeance per unit area can be approximated by the following equation: = = 00 + 01 cos {2 ( )} . Consequently, the air-gap ux density becomes = ( + ) = + (7)
Open-circuit voltage (line-to-line)

+ 2

Ff

Fr'

Eaf

+ 2
Va

L s Ia

(6)
Fig. 3.

Ia
Phasor diagram of the FMSM operating as a generator.

where = 00 + 01 + 01 00 = 00 cos( ) 1 01 = 01 cos( 2 0 ) 2 1 01 = 01 cos {(2 + ) 2 2 0 } 2 3 2 00 00 = 2 2 3 2 01 01 = 2 2 = 00 + 01 + 01 00 = 00 cos( ) 1 01 = 01 cos( 2 0 ) 2 1 01 = 01 cos {( + 2 ) 2 0 } 2 00 00 = 2 01 01 = 2 = 2 . B. Terminal Voltage (Line-To-Neutral Voltage) Since the circuit of is a balanced Y-connected threephase one (as shown in Figs. 6 and 9), only phase U is considered. The ux linkage of phase U can be written as
2 2

Open-circuit characteristic (OCC) 3 Va Short-circuit characteristic (SCC)

Ia

If 1 O

If 2 Field current If

Fig. 4.

Open- and short-circuit characteristics of the FMSM.

When (9) is represented by phasors, it becomes = { + } + + = where = = = ( 2 +2 0 ) 2 = = + 2 0 . 2 It is noteworthy that, in (10), the case of motor operation is adopted as the reference direction of . Alternatively, when the reference direction is chosen as the case of generator operation (i.e., = ), (10) can be written as = + . (11)

Short-circuit armature current

(10)

= + = where
0

+
0

2 cos( ) + cos( + 2 0 )

(8)

3 = + 2 2 = 00 4 = 01 . 8 Therefore, the phase U terminal voltage (line-to-neutral voltage) is given by the following equation: = + . (9)

C. Calculation of the On-Load Field Current by the MMF Method As is clear from (10) or (11), the expression of the terminal voltage is similar to that of conventional woundeld cylindrical rotor SMs. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to calculate the eld current of the FMSM under actual loading conditions using the MMF method (JEC-2130-2000) [12]. Fig. 3 shows a phasor diagram of the FMSM operating as a generator. In the case of the generator operation, the

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36-pole dc field winding Wf


U1

24-pole three-phase armature winding Wa


W3

36-pole dc field winding Wf

24-pole three-phase K armature winding Wa

W1

V1

V3
U3

Stator
V2 W 2

U2

U2

W1

V1

U1

W3

V3

U3

V2 W 2
U2

W 2 V2

V2

U3

U3

W1

U2

V3

W3

V3

U O

W1

W3

V1

U1

V1

U1

30-pole reluctance rotor


Fig. 5. Cross-sectional view of the analyzed 300-kVA machine (2 = 24, 2 = 36, 2 = 30, and = 1.5). TABLE I S PECIFICATIONS OF THE A NALYZED 300- K VA M ACHINE

U1

W3

W1

V1

V3

U2

U3

W 2

V2

Capacity Voltage (line-to-line) Current Number of poles Frequency Rotor speed Power factor

300 kVA 410 V 422 A 60 (=24+36) 40 Hz 80 min-1 1 Main Dimension

(a) U Wa 100 turns


U3 U2 U1 V1 V2 V3 W3 W2 W1

Stator outer diameter Rotor outer diameter Air-gap length Stack length

2900 mm 2348 mm 4.5 mm 270 mm Core Material

V O (b)

Stator and rotor

50JN700
Fig. 6. Winding connections of the analyzed 300-kVA machine. (a) Layouts. (b) Circuit diagrams.

Open-circuit voltage (line-to-line) [V]

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0

1200 1000 800 SCC 600 400 200

(12)

OCC

where is the MMF of needed to overcome the MMF attributable to the armature current , and is the MMF of under no-load conditions. Moreover, the above , , and are respectively dened as follows: = 1

(13) (14) (15)

10

= 2 = .

20 30 Field current If [A]

40

0 50

The values of 1 and 2 can be determined from open- and short-circuit characteristics (OCC and SCC, respectively). As shown in Fig. 4, 1 is the eld current corresponding to a specied value of 3 on the OCC, and 2 is the eld current corresponding to a specied value of on the SCC. Consequently, if the phase angle between and is given, then (i.e., on-load eld current) in (15) can be calculated by 2 2 (16) = 1 + 2 + 2 1 2 sin .

Fig. 7. Open- and short-circuit characteristics of the 300-kVA machine ( = 80 min1 ).

IV. FEA S IMULATIONS A. Analyzed 300-kVA Machine The cross-sectional view, specications, and winding connections of an analyzed 300-kVA machine are shown in Fig. 5, Table I, and Figs. 6 (a) and (b), respectively. Since the number of rotor poles is 2 = 30, the analyzed machine operates as a 60-pole SM.

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Short-circuit armature current [A]

MMF shown in the following equation must be supplied by to produce in (11):

700 FEA simulation

W1

V1

U1

W3

V3

Rating

Wf 10188 turns

V2
U2 U3

W 2

1400

TABLE II S IMULATED AND C ALCULATED F IELD C URRENTS OF THE 300- K VA M ACHINE


U
W
V

Stator

Load 1 Po = 173.3 kW Va = 186.2/ 3 V Ia = 537.5 A FEA simulation If 1 If 2 If 7.598 A 28.43 A 30.00 A Load 2 Po = 295.4 kW Va = 405.1/ 3 V Ia = 421.0 A FEA simulation If 1 If 2 If 16.67 A 22.36 A 30.00 A cos = 1 Nr = 80 min-1 cos = 1 Nr = 80 min-1 315 mm

U
W

J
V

K
U
W

Calculated value by (16)

48-pole dc field winding Wf


V

W 29.43 A

V U

O 32-pole three-phase armature winding Wa

255 mm Calculated value by (16) 40-pole reluctance rotor

Air gap 0.5 mm Stack length 50 mm (a)

27.86 A U Wa 528 turns/phase Wf 9216 turns

Maximum output power Pomax [kW]

500 400 300 200 100 FEA simulation 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rotor speed Nr [min-1] 120 Pomax

100 90 Efficiency [%]

V O

W J (b) K

80 70 60 50 140

Fig. 9. Cross-sectional view, main dimensions, and winding connections of the prototype 4-kVA machine (2 = 32, 2 = 48, 2 = 40, and = 1.5). (a) Cross-sectional view, main dimensions, and winding layouts. (b) Circuit diagrams.

Open-circuit voltage (line-to-line) [V]

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 3 2 4 Field current If [A] 5 6 OCC SCC Experiment

20 16 12 8 4 0 Short-circuit armature current [A]

Fig. 8. Output power and efciency vs. speed characteristics of the 300kVA machine ( = 30 A and cos = 1).

B. Calculated Results of the Field Current In this study, commercial electromagnetic eld analysis software (JMAG-Studio produced by JSOL Corporation) was used for the FEA simulations. Fig. 7 shows the open- and short-circuit characteristics (OCC and SCC) of the 300-kVA machine. Using these characteristics and (16), the eld current was calculated under arbitrary resistive loads at a rotor speed of = 80 min1 . Table II shows the results. From the table, it can be seen that the results of calculated by (16) agree relatively well with the values of the FEA simulations. Fig. 8 shows the output power and efciency vs. speed characteristics of the analyzed machine when supplying a resistive load. In the gure, indicates the maximum value of the output power under given operating conditions (in other words, given , , and load resistance). Moreover, the efciency was calculated by the following equation: 100 (17) = 2 + 2 + + + 3

Fig. 10. Open- and short-circuit characteristics of the prototype 4-kVA machine ( = 240 min1 ).

where = 0.01290 , = 10.18 , was estimated using the core loss data [7] provided by the steel manufacturers, and was ignored. As is evident from Fig. 8, reaches about 300 kW at a rotor speed of = 80 min1 . In addition, is 93.0 %, which is very high. V. E XPERIMENTAL V ERIFICATION Experiments were conducted on a prototype 4-kVA machine [5]-[7] to verify the validity of the calculation method

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TABLE III E XPERIMENTAL AND C ALCULATED F IELD C URRENTS OF THE 4- K VA P ROTOTYPE M ACHINE

Load 1 Po = 547.2 W Va = 120.7/ 3 V Ia = 2.620 A Experiment If 1 If 2 If 1.14 A 0.82 A 1.50 A Load 2 Po = 1479 W Va = 198.4/ 3 V Ia = 4.300 A Experiment If 1 If 2 If 1.87 A 1.51 A 2.50 A cos = 1 Nr = 240 min-1 cos = 1 Nr = 240 min-1

Calculated value by (16)

1.40 A

Calculated value by (16)

2.40 A

and results described in Sections III and IV. A. Prototype 4-kVA Machine Fig. 9 (a) and (b) shows the cross-sectional view, main dimensions, and winding connections of the prototype 4kVA machine. Since the number of rotor poles is 2 = 40, the prototype machine operates as an 80-pole SM. In the experiments, an inverter-fed geared motor was used as a prime mover, and the rotor speed was arbitrarily adjusted by this motor. B. Experimental Results Fig. 10 shows the open- and short-circuit characteristics (OCC and SCC) of the prototype machine. Using these characteristics and (16), the eld current was calculated under arbitrary resistive loads at a rotor speed of = 240 min1 . Table III shows the results. As shown in the table, the results calculated by (16) agree relatively well with the experimental values, and their validity can be conrmed. VI. C ONCLUSION In this paper, a method for calculating eld currents in FMSMs under loaded conditions is presented and evaluated. The FEA simulation and experimental results show that the eld current of the FMSMs supplying resistive loads can be calculated with satisfactory accuracy using the MMF method (JEC-2130-2000). Further work is needed to clarify how the magnetic saturation affects the calculation accuracy of the eld current. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to H. Aoki, who is a graduate of Kanazawa Institute of Technology, for assistance with the FEA simulations and experiments. R EFERENCES
[1] M. Kawamura and S. Amemori, A general view in the selection of the large electric motors for variable-speed drives, The Papers of Technical Meeting on Rotating Machinery, IEE Japan, RM-05-136, pp. 163166, Oct. 2005 (in Japanese).

[2] H. Polinder, F. F. A. van der Pijl, G.-J. de Vilder, and P. J. Tavner, Comparison of direct-drive and geared generator concepts for wind turbines, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 725733, Sep. 2006. [3] H.-Y. Choi, S. J. Park, Y. K. Kong, and J. G. Bin, Design of multiphase permanent magnet motor for ship propulsion, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electr. Mach. Syst. (ICEMS), Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 2009, pp. 1 4. [4] T. Komatsu and A. Daikoku, Elevator traction-machine motors, Mitsubishi Electric ADVANCE, vol. 103, pp. 34, Sep. 2003. [5] T. Fukami, Y. Matsuura, K. Shima, M. Momiyama, and M. Kawamura, Development of a low-speed multi-pole synchronous machine with a eld winding on the stator side, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electr. Mach. (ICEM), Rome, Italy, Sept. 6-8, 2010, pp. 16, RF006335 [CDROM]. [6] T. Fukami, Y. Matsuura, K. Shima, M. Momiyama, and M. Kawamura, A multipole synchronous machine with nonoverlapping concentrated armature and eld windings on the stator, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 25832591, Jun. 2012. [7] T. Fukami, H. Aoki, K. Shima, M. Momiyama, and M. Kawamura, Assessment of core losses in a ux-modulating synchronous machine, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 603611, Mar./Apr. 2012. [8] Y. Tang, Characterization, numerical analysis, and design of switched reluctance motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1544 1552, Nov./Dec. 1997. [9] D. A. Torrey, Switched reluctance generators and their control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 314, Feb. 2002. [10] A. R. W. Broadway and L. Burbridge, Self-cascaded machine: a lowspeed motor or high-frequency brushless alternator, Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 12771290, Jul. 1970. [11] A. R. W. Broadway, Cageless induction machine, Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 118, no. 11, pp. 15931600, Nov. 1971. [12] Standard of the Japanese Electrotechnical Committee, Synchronous machines JEC-2130-2000, Denkishoin, 2001, pp. 87-88 (in Japanese).

B IOGRAPHIES
Tadashi Fukami received the B.Eng., M.Eng., and Dr.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Japan, in 1985, 1987, and 1990, respectively. During 1990-1992, he was with the Central Research Laboratory, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Japan. Since 1992, he has been with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, where he is currently a Professor. His research interests include the design, analysis, and application of electric machines. Dr. Fukami is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Kazuo Shima received the B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, in 1993 and 1995, respectively, and the Dr.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 2004. During 1995-2005, he was with the Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Japan. Since 2005, he has been with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Japan, where he is currently an Associate Professor. His research interests include the design and numerical analysis of electric machines. Dr. Shima is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Toshihiro Tsuda received the B.Eng., M.Eng., and Dr.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Japan, in 2003, 2005, and 2008, respectively. Since 2008, he has been with the Large Rotating Machinery Department, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Yokohama, Japan, where he is currently engaged in the development of electric machines. Dr. Tsuda is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Mitsuhiro Kawamura received the B.Eng., M.Eng., and Dr.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, in 1978, 1980, and 1993, respectively. Since 2003, he has been with the Strategic Planning & Administration Department, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Yokohama, Japan, where he is currently engaged in the development of electric machines. In 1980, he joined Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. From 1999 to 2003, he was with TMA Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Kawamura is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.

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