You are on page 1of 23


In the event of an accident, the onboard e-call device transmits an emergency call to the most appropriate public service answering point along with certain vehicle related data. Actually it works either with the human intervention or even without it; there will also always be a voice connection between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link. The communication says not only that something has happened but also how serious the accident is and gives the location of vehicle involved in accident. The European Union is promoting eCall to reduce the number of roadway fatalities by minimizing the response time when an accident has occurred. eCall is a combination of an In Vehicle System (IVS), a device with a GSM cell phone and GPS location capability, and a corresponding infrastructure of Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems use Information and Communications Technologies for providing solutions for improving road safety in particular in the pre-crash phase when the accident can still be avoided or at least its severity significantly reduced.


Page 1


Road accidents are one of the most common causes of death among European Union citizens. Thanks to advances in wireless technologies, intelligent systems are arising to help develop safety and efficiency services for road transportation. A clear example is the European eCall initiative. It is widely accepted that providing rapid assistance to victims of road accidents is of utmost importance, especially in severe accidents, in which the victims are not able to call for help and also in secondary roads, in which vehicles may not be easily located by rescue personnel. Moreover, patients with multisystem trauma need surgery as soon as possible. For these reasons, an intelligent emergency call system utilizing sensors to automatically detect a crash and using a wireless network to send critical information (e.g., location of the accident, vehicle identification, and number of passengers) to emergency services in a rapid manner would save lives. According to a study by the European eSafety Forum, such a system could decrease the number of car accident-related deaths in Europe by 5%. The commercial solutions to the described emergency call systems are based on an invehicle telematics control unit with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and cellular network connectivity, mainly the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), connected to the car sensors. Fig.1 illustrates the common architecture of such systems, which are provided by a number of car makers and service providers in some countries, e.g., General Motors OnStarTM, Peugeot- Citrons (PSA) Appel dUrgence, Wireless Car or Connexis. These systems trigger an emergency call upon the detection of an accident by the car sensors or by manual interaction of the user, i.e., the so-called SOS button. This call includes speech and information about the vehicle and its geographical position, and may include data about the passengers


Page 2


eCall is seen as a priority safety system in Europe by the EU Commission mainly because of the great potential to reduce the number of road fatalities, which is a major societal problem in Europe. A Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), sometimes called "Public Safety Access Point", is a call centre responsible for answering calls to an emergency telephone number for police, fire fighting and ambulance services (112 and locally derived numbers). Imagine you had a serious accident and no one saw it or even worse: no one is there. What do you do if you are injured or trapped in the vehicle on a lightly travelled country road and need help? Then this technology will help you and save your life. In the event of an accident, these systems immediately transmit an emergency call to the local rescue service either manually or no manually (on its own). The communication says not only that something has happened but also how serious the accident is and gives the location of the vehicle involved in the accident.


Page 3


4. eCALL
eCall is a European initiative intended to bring rapid assistance to motorists involved in a collision anywhere in the European Union. The idea for such a technology was first presented in the context of the German youth science competition Jugend forscht in 2001. The eCall initiative aims to deploy a device installed in all vehicles that will automatically dial 112 in the event of a serious road accident, and wirelessly send airbag deployment and impact sensor information, as well as GPS coordinates to local emergency agencies. eCall builds on E112. The European Commission is aiming to have a fully functional eCall service to be in place throughout the EU by 2015. According to some estimates, eCall could speed emergency response times by 40 percent in urban areas and by 50 percent in rural areas. Many companies are involved with telematics technology to use in different aspects of eCall including in-vehicle systems, wireless data delivery, and public safety answering point systems. Standardization of communication protocols and human language issues are some of the obstacles. Prototypes have been successfully tested with GPRS and in-band signalling over cellular networks. At the same time proprietary eCall solutions that rely on SMS exist already today from car makers such as BMW, PSA and Volvo Cars. Once in active deployment, other telematic services such as route advisories and traffic information are expected to explode. The project is also supported by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), an interest group of European car, bus, and truck manufacturers, and ERTICO. Many of the stakeholder companies involved with telematics technology have membership in ERTICO or ACEA.

Fig 4.1: ecall process


Page 4



Over 1,00,000 die in Indian road accidents in a year. India has the worlds highest number of road accident deaths, and it is steadily climbing every year. The World Road Statistics 2011, which provides the data for the year 2011 in respect of India, indicates that the number of persons killed per lakh of population in India is 8.08 .The number of deaths due to road accident is estimated at more than a lakh (1, 01,439) during the year 2006 as compared to the figure of 94,968 deaths for the year 2005. In these accidents many occur at highway, Most of the fatalities occur soon after the accident. Statistics says that 30 percent of deaths occur within minutes of the crash. Fifty percent occur before the victim arrives at a hospital. Fully 70 deaths occur within two hours of a crash. Reducing medical response time to one minute would translate into saving approximately 30,000 lives per year. It also reduces severity of survivors' injuries, shortening their recovery time and decreasing their medical costs.


Tri-axial accelerometer: A sensor measures acceleration and deceleration forces in all three planes to determine the force of a crash. Seat weight sensors: Determine which seats are occupied. Safety belt sensors: Determine which safety belts are buckled. Air bag sensors: Determine which air bags, if any, were deployed and at what force. GPS receiver: Determines direction of travel and the vehicle's precise location. CMOS camera: Located in the dome light, it captures a single image of the vehicle interior after a crash incident. Flash memory: Records the 200 ms duration of the crash pulse, including 50 ms of pre-crash data. On-board microprocessor: Compiles data to compute an accurate portrayal of the incident. Onboard communications: Data is transmitted to the vehicle owner's cellular phone through a short range communications system that uses a radio transceiver built into tiny microchips. It allows a high transfer rate of secure data, even in noisy environments, with low power consumption.


Page 5

Cellular phone: Automatically calls emergency rescue authorities and transmits vital crash data via cellular modem. Power supply: An independent source assures that all components of the Rescue Car system can function if the vehicle's main battery is damaged in the crash.

4.3 ELEMENTS IN eCALL 4.3.1 PSAP (PUBLIC SERVICE ACCESS POINT) A public-safety answering point (PSAP), sometimes called "public-safety access point", is a call centre responsible for answering calls to an emergency telephone number for police, fire fighting, and ambulance services. Trained telephone operators are also usually responsible for dispatching these emergency services. Most PSAPs are now capable of caller location for landline calls, and many can handle mobile phone locations as well (sometimes referred to as phase II location), where the mobile phone company has a handset location system. Some can also use voice broadcasting, where outgoing voice mail can be sent to many phone numbers at once, in order to alert people to a local emergency such as a chemical spill.

Fig4.3.1: Main elements of the PSAP detail


Page 6

4.3.2 MDS (MINIMUM DATA SET) The MSD provides the following information:

GPS Position Direction of travel Number of triggers of the call Colour, make, model of the vehicle Indicates which sensors are triggered: airbag, roll-over, front crash, side crash or rear crash sensor (at least two should be activated) Time stamp of the event How severe vehicle identification number

4.3.3 EMERGENCY CALL NUMBER E112 112 is the common emergency telephone number that can be dialed free of charge from any telephone or any mobile phone in order to reach emergency services (Ambulances, Fire & Rescue Service and the Police) in the European Union (EU), its candidates for accession, members of the EEA agreement, as well as several other countries in the world. 112 is managed and financed in the European Union by each Member State (country) which also decides on the organization of the emergency call centers. The International Telecommunications Union recommends that member states that are selecting a primary or secondary emergency number choose either 911, 112 or both. 112 is one of two numbers (the other being the region's own emergency number) that can be dialed on most GSM phones even if the phone is locked.[2] The GSM mobile phone standard designates 112 as an emergency number, so it will work on GSM phones even in North America where GSM systems redirect emergency calls to 911, or Australia where emergency calls are redirected to 000.


Page 7


Actually it works either with the human intervention or even without it. By pushing a button in the car, the call to the emergency centre can also be made manually. In either case, be it made manually or automatically, there will also always be a voice connection between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link. Thus, further details on the accident can be given if anybody in the car is capable of speaking and answering questions. In the event of an accident, the on-board e-Call device transmits an emergency call to the most appropriate public service answering point (PSAP) along with certain vehicle-related data (notably the vehicle's precise location). The emergency call can be triggered either manually by the occupants of the vehicle or automatically, in the event of a serious accident. . The message sent within the emergency call contains a minimum data set (MDS): location, speed, driving direction, vehicle type, cargo type and a vehicle terminal identifier. The terminal can send a larger set of data via mobile data connection (e.g. GPRS) to a service centre, which is able to reroute the full data set (FDS) to the PSAP.

Fig5.1: principle


Page 8


When in the event of an accident a car senses a major impact, its e-Call device automatically calls the nearest emergency centre (Public Safety Answering Point PSAP). For the calls to work all over the European Union, the single European emergency number 112 is used. The car transmits a so-called minimum set of data. The exact geographic location of the crashed car is part of the set. The fact that the rescue services immediately get the accurate location data drastically cuts their response time: the ambulance, to pick an example, will be on the spot much quicker. By pushing a button in the car, the call to the emergency centre can also be made manually. In either case, be it made manually or automatically, there will also always be a voice connection between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link. Thus, further details on the accident can be given if anybody in the car is capable of speaking and answering questions. The message sent within the emergency call contains a minimum data set (MDS): location, speed, driving direction, vehicle type, cargo type and a vehicle terminal identifier. The terminal can send a larger set of data via mobile data connection (e.g. GPRS) to a service centre, which is able to reroute the full data set (FDS) to the PSAP.

Fig6.1: working process


Page 9



The eCall architecture uses the GSM cellular network to communicate between the vehicle in incident and the Public Service Answering Point (PSAP). The future eCall service will use the single pan-European emergency call number E112 to ensure that eCall has full roaming capabilities in Europe. Fig. a depicts the elements of the eCall architecture defined by the eCall Driving Group: the vehicle, the network and the PSAP, and shows the flow of voice and data calls established between the vehicle and the PSAP in case of an emergency. The standardization activities related to the technical solution for the implementation of the architecture in Fig. a cover two main issues: the transport protocol by which the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) will be sent via the cellular network to the PSAP, and the content and format of the MSD. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is in charge of developing supporting standards for eCall.

Fig7.1: Architecture of the eCall service 7.1. eCALL IVS The eCall IVS function is to: Collect data from the vehicle network and from vehicle sensors, and maintain an upto-date GPS fix of the vehicles location. DEPARTMENT OF ECE, VITT Page 10

Automatically detect a crash based on car-sensor information Call a PSAP automatically when a crash is detected, or when the driver presses a dedicated eCall button.

Each call has 2 main parts: Establish voice contact between the cars occupant and a PSAP operator to provide assistance to the driver. Transmit a Minimum Set of Data (MSD) to the PSAP, including the current GPS position and direction the car was heading.

Fig7.1.1: Architecture of an eCall IVS

Figure depicts the architecture of an eCall IVS. Its functional blocks are:

Emergency Call Function: This is the eCall application. It gathers vehicle information through the CAN bus or other sensors and geo-location information from the GPS function. In case of a crash, it sends an emergency message to the PSAP through the GSM/GPRS function.


Page 11

GPS: The GPS function is responsible for gathering information from GPS satellites and processing this information to accurately compute the vehicles geo-location. GSM/GPRS: The GSM/GPRS function is responsible for establishing and maintaining a GSM call to the PSAP so that the crash information can be sent and a voice connection established between the car occupants and an operator.

In-band Modem: Among a few technologies to send data to the PSAP (SMS, GPRS or in band modem), the most likely to be used is the in-band modem. This technology uses the voice channel; typically a special processing unit in the audio path encodes/decodes messages.


This section focuses on an eCall-compliant, portable implementation of an automatic emergency service. Fig. illustrates this implementation.

Fig7.2.1: Experimental implementation of the proposed emergency call system

7.2.1 CRASH SENSOR An accelerometer was chosen as the crash sensor because it is a low-cost solution capable of detecting frontal, lateral and roll-over crashes. At present, acceleration sensors are used to interpret the severity of front and rear impacts by assessing four-wheeled vehicle speed. Typically, such vehicles also use pressure sensors to react to side impacts by monitoring changes in air pressure in vehicle body cavities, as well as other in-car sensors. Newly DEPARTMENT OF ECE, VITT Page 12

developed sound sensors, such as the Crash Impact Sound Sensor (CISS), which detect vibrations in materials and judge the amount of deformation being experienced, were also interesting candidates but were not chosen because they need to be mounted to a vehicle's chassis. Note that in our system, the crash sensor must be located in a suitable place in the vehicle, e.g., at the front in a car, below the seat in a motorbike or in the helmet for two wheeled vehicles.

Fig7.2.2: Axes of the crash sensor and crash types under study

7.2.2 eCALL BOX

The eCall box is a communications-enabled device, where the communications technologies shall encompass at least GSM and may include Short-Range Communications (SRC) if the crash sensor is physically separated from the eCall box hosting the proposed emergency call service. This service is a piece of software that can be installed in any kind of box, that is, an aftermarket device connectable or not to the vehicles network (CAN) and/or on-board computer; a portable device (PDA, laptop); or a mobile phone and communicates with the crash sensor through a wired or wireless link. This scheme is especially useful for two-wheeled vehicles and Second-hand cars, which have no in-built emergency system and are out the scope of the future

European eCall standard. Our emergency call service consists of three processes:


Page 13

The detection of the accident, the composition of the MSD and the transmission of the MSD over a cellular (GSM) radio link.

Fig7.2.3: Implementation of the crash sensor and eCall box on a motorbike


Several considerations are presented regarding the design of an in-vehicle system. In particular:

Cost Reduction: Because the eCall IVS will be present in every new car, including economy as well as luxury models, cost reduction will have a high priority.

GSM/GPS Reception Sensitivity: The eCall IVS shall provide sensitive and reliable reception since it will be in a protected location inside the car and may need to use an embedded antenna.

Low Power Consumption: The eCall IVS shall have low power consumption, especially in standby, to avoid draining battery power when the car is immobile for a long time. Easy Software Integration: Software components from NAD module suppliers, manufacturers, Tier I suppliers and third party software companies shall be easy to integrate. DEPARTMENT OF ECE, VITT Page 14


Real-Time Capabilities: The eCall IVS gathers vehicle information through the vehicles CAN (Controller Area Network), which may require responding to interrupts with a low latency.

Over-the-air device management: Because the eCall platform will probably host new applications in the future, secure software downloads and patching shall be easily possible via air.


Page 15



8.1 DTMF MESSAGING DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) is a technology used for delivering short messages from a telephone to a receiving service or a mobile services switching centre. DTMF is used in various telephony services (Dial 1 if you wish to contact help desk, please type in your PIN code). DTMF is delivered in signalling channel from a GSM-terminal to a mobile services switching centre, thus making it extremely reliable messaging within a GSM network. DTMF is already implemented and available in all GSM networks and thus does not require new standardization or technology. It is also supported in all current fixed-line networks. This makes using DTMF for e-Call cost-efficient and quick to implement EUwide.

8.2 UUS-MESSAGING An ISDN value-added service UUS (User to user signalling) enables a two-directional limited length message (UUI) delivery from a terminal to another during call setup and voice call. UUS is standardized for both digital fixed networks and GSM. UUS service has not been implemented in all EU member states though most terminal devices and network equipment have built-in support for it. The main reasons have been the lack of commercial need and fear of fraudulent use. The current GSM standards for emergency call setup message do not include a UUI field, so implementing UUS for e-Call requires altering current GSM standards. Implementation requires telecom operators investing in telecommunications network infrastructure.

8.3 USSD-MESSAGING USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is used for delivering short messages from the mobile terminal to mobile network servers. It is only in mobile networks. Using USSD in MDS messaging would require defining a new server in the mobile network to handle the messages and route them via fixed network to the PSAP. Standardization of the


Page 16

service would be required before USSD could be used in implementing e-Call. Investments in the network would also be required. It will take several years.

Fig 8.1: Procedure of sending MDS

Table 8.1: An overview of characteristics of each technology

MDS-message should contain only the essential data required by the PSAP to locate the vehicle and efficiently manage the emergency response. Direct, real-time message (MSD)

PSAP operator receiving the 112 voice call including Time of incident ,Exact location including direction of driving Vehicle identification e-Call qualifier giving the severity of the incident (currently automatic/manual) Identification of service provider. Also this type of DEPARTMENT OF ECE, VITT Page 17

e-call also has options such as voice call, sms as alarming mediums. As both of them are used predominantly now-a-days, their respective advantages are given below

Voice call as an Alarm Medium: The advantage of an accident message via voice call is that its not necessary to have a SIM-Card installed for emergency call to the emergency number. Originating from the current technical structure of the emergency centres a system would be required, which initiates a voice call to emergency number and advises the coordinates of the accident using a voice processor. A web database with connection to a map server would enable the emergency centre clarify the identity of the owner as well as the cars position. But on the other hand, if a voice call, an accident with a significant physical damage of the car,could be guaranteed. In addition to that, a system like that will be unsuitable for other services like theft tracking, breakdown serve, etc. SMS as an Alarm Medium: For transmitting a SMS-Message its necessary to have SIMCard installed. As a consequence the provider has to be refunded by a basic fee or other ways of revenue. The advantage of SMS is that you need less GSM reception than for a voice call. Furthermore it is rather ensured, that the alarm can be sent, in consideration of damaging of the vehicle caused by an accident. In addition this way of transmitting enables the integration of external operation centers at this stage.

Fig 8.2: Reliability of voice call vs SMS/Email


Page 18

Thus the figure shows that in both the ways the efficiency of communication is almost same, so we can go for any of them regarding our requirements. The e-Call-system is designed so that additional data will be sent through the service centre in FDS-message.


Page 19



9.1 PRE-CERTIFICATION By making this mandatory for all vehicles and certifying them with specific codes it will be much easier to detect the identity of affected persons and in informing the news to their family members. It is applicable if the following terminal interface specifications are made mandatory i. Antennas, external sensors, vehicle bus ii. Vehicle installation matrix

9.2 APPLICATION TESTS The following tests are made in the real time to estimate the occurrence,intensity of the accident and details regarding it.These tests are related sensors that are attached to safety apparatus of a vehicle.They detect the impact and estimate the severity of the accident. i. Manual initialization of the e-Call function doesnt depend on any sensors but will be invoked by the persons in vehicle. ii. Automatic initialization of the e-Call function happens in relation of occurring of any of the tests mentioned below: a. Airbag detection b. Rear impact detection c. Side impact detection d. Frontal impact detection e. Rollover detection f. Temperature rise (fire) detection

9.3 ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS Also the automatic initialization of e-call will happen also in case of detection of any of the following conditions: a. High ambient temperature b. Low ambient temperature c. Loss of external power source d. Impact and vibration resistance DEPARTMENT OF ECE, VITT Page 20


eCall will make a large contribution by reducing the number of fatalities and mitigating the severity of injuries. As mentioned earlier the primary task of this system will be to save the lives of people from accidental deaths. its advantages are given below 1. Studies show that the emergency response time could be reduced by about 50% in rural areas and 40% in urban areas. 2. It is estimated that the e-Call system could save up to 2 500 lives a year in the EU and, in particular, could significantly reduce the severity of the injuries sustained in 15% of cases. 3. Studies show that the reduction of response time has pattern of 40%-in urban areas 50%- in rural areas 4. Also the gps tracker in the vehicle helps to find the location of the car when it is stolen, thus it helps to find about missing vehicles also. 5. The system will also ensure a corresponding reduction in the number of traffic jams attributable Once the system comes into use there could be many more direct or indirect advantages.


Page 21



There by we conclude that this e-call technology is highly efficient and is going to play a predominant role in future emergency service system. But in practical perception the government must take the responsibility of implementing this technology and take all the measures to make the best use of this e-call and we can handle one of the serious concern of todays leap in the number of accidental deaths. The day is not far when each and every car or vehicle is equipped with the e-call devices and the passengers and drivers can be assured of a healthy drive and a pleasant ride. Another conclusion is that if there should be a Pan-European eCall system, the vehicle manufactures or the network providers cant develop this themselves. It is very important to include the public authorities in this matter and the public body for this has to be the EU. Only here can a solution be pushed across all EU Member States. On June 19th, the European Parliaments Committees on the Internal Market (IMCO) and Transport (TRAN) adopted a resolution that all new cars sold after 2015 should be fitted with eCall devices. This resolution underlines the Parliaments priority for eCall deployment and urges the European Commission to finalize outstanding legislation so as to meet the planned 2015 launch.


Page 22


o https:// o o o o o o o o o o htm o


Page 23