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Examples of Harvard references

ARCHIVE MATERIALS (primary sources eg diaries, manuscipts)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication of the item Title (italics) Material type Collection in which the item is held Shelf mark Archive or library in which the item is held City in which the archive or library is located Example, including punctuation TURNER, P.S., 1906. Image of an artist. [manuscript]. Holden Collection. 600. Holden Library. London.

Citation in your text: (Turner 1906) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Turner 1906 p. 24) Reference list/bibliography: TURNER, P.S., 1906. Image of an artist. [manuscript]. Holden Collection. 600. Holden Library. London.

CD-ROM
1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title (italics) Format City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY, 2007. Aberdeen city and shire. [CD-ROM]. Aberdeen: Cinecosse.

Citation in your text: (The Robert Gordon University 2007) Reference list/bibliography: THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY, 2007. Aberdeen city and shire. [CD-ROM]. Aberdeen: Cinecosse.

Videocassette or DVD
1 2 3 4 5 Element Title (italics) Year of publication Format City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation Stephen Fry: the secret life of the manic depressive, 2006. [videocassette]. or [DVD]. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Citation in your text: (Stephen Fry: the Secret Life of the Manic Depressive 2006) Reference list/bibliography: Stephen Fry: the secret life of the manic depressive, 2006. [videocassette]. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Book with one author


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Author (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation GRUSHKIN, P., 1991. The art of rock: posters from Presley to punk. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Artabras.

Citation in your text: (Grushkin 1991) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Grushkin 1991 p. 15) Reference list/bibliography: GRUSHKIN, P., 1991. The art of rock: posters from Presley to punk. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Artabras.

Book with two authors


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Authors (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation PAYNE, J.R. and PHILLIPS, C.R., 1985. Petroleum spills in the marine environment: the chemistry and formation of water-in-oil emulsions and tar balls.

Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.

Citation in your text: (Payne and Phillips 1985) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Payne and Phillips 1985 p. 18) Reference list/bibliography: PAYNE, J.R. and PHILLIPS, C.R., 1985. Petroleum spills in the marine environment: the chemistry and formation of water-in-oil emulsions and tar balls. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.

Book with three authors


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Authors (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation BREWSTER, F., FENTON, H. and MORRIS, M., 2005. Shock! Horror!: astounding artwork from the video nasty era.

Guildford: FAB.

Citation in your text: (Brewster, Fenton and Morris 2005) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Brewster, Fenton and Morris 2005 p. 21) Reference list/bibliography: BREWSTER, F., FENTON, H. and MORRIS, M., 2005. Shock! Horror!: astounding artwork from the video nasty era. Guildford: FAB.

Book with more than three authors


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Authors (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation ROEDER, K. et al., 1967. Nerve cells and insect behavior.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Citation in your text: (Roeder et al. 1967) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Roeder et al. 1967 p. 23) Reference list/bibliography: ROEDER, K. et al., 1967. Nerve cells and insect behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Book with an organisation as author


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Author (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation ROYAL PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 2006. Medicines, ethics & practice: a guide for pharmacists & pharmacy technicians. 30th ed. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Citation in your text: (Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 2006) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 2006 p. 34) Reference list/bibliography: ROYAL PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 2006. Medicines, ethics & practice: a guide for pharmacists & pharmacy technicians. 30th ed. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Book with a government department as author


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Element Country (capitals) Government department (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation GREAT BRITAIN. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2001. Health and safety in care homes.

Sudbury: Health and Safety Executive.

Citation in your text: (Great Britain. Health and Safety Executive 2001) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Great Britain. Health and Safety Executive 2001 p. 37) Reference list/bibliography: GREAT BRITAIN. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2001. Health and safety in care homes. Sudbury: Health and Safety Executive.

Book with one editor


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Editor (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation STANGOS, N., ed., 1981. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London: Thames and Hudson.

Citation in your text: (Stangos 1981) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Stangos 1981 p. 42) Reference list/bibliography: STANGOS, N., ed., 1981. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London: Thames and Hudson.

Book with two editors


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Editors (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation SKINNER, D. and DRISCOLL, P., eds., 2007. ABC of major trauma. 4th ed. London: BMJ.

Citation in your text: (Skinner and Driscoll 2007) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Skinner and Driscoll 2007 p. 44) Reference list/bibliography: SKINNER, D. and DRISCOLL, P., eds., 2007. ABC of major trauma. 4th ed. London: BMJ.

Edited book which is not the first edition (revised, expanded etc)
1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Editor(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation COATES, D., ed., 2004. Understanding cancer of the large bowel (colon and rectum). revised ed. London: Cancerbackup.

Citation in your text: (Coates 2004) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Coates 2004 p. 1) Reference list/bibliography: COATES, D., ed., 2004. Understanding cancer of the large bowel (colon and rectum). revised ed. London: Cancerbackup.

One chapter of an edited book


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Element Author of the chapter (capitals) Year of publication Title of the chapter Example, including punctuation GOLDING, J., 1981. Cubism. In: N. STANGOS, ed.

Editor(s) of the book (capitals) Title of the book (italics) Concepts of modern art. Edition (if not the first revised ed. edition) City of publication London: Publisher Thames and Hudson. Page reference of the chapter pp. 50-78.

Citation in your text: (Golding 1981) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Golding 1981 p. 53) Reference list/bibliography: GOLDING, J., 1981. Cubism. In: N. STANGOS, ed. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 50-78.

COMMITTEE REPORTS
1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Name of the committee (capitals) Year of publication of the report Title of the report (italics) Chairman of the committee City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education in the learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). London: The Stationery Office.

Citation in your text: (National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education 1997) Or, if you have quoted directly: (National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education 1997 para. 9.6) Reference list/bibliography: NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education in the learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). London: The Stationery Office.

Set of conference proceedings as a whole


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Element Editor(s) (capitals) Year of publication Theme name of the conference (italics) (italics) Name of conference (italics) Dates on which the conference was held City of publication of the conference proceedings Publisher Example, including punctuation BENNETT, R., ed., 2003. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7-8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University.

Citation in your text: (Bennett 2003) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Bennett 2003 p. 15) Reference list/bibliography: BENNETT, R., ed., 2003. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7-8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University.

One conference paper from a set of conference proceedings


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Element Author(s) of the individual paper (capitals) Year of publication of the conference proceedings Title of the individual paper Editor(s) of the conference proceedings (capitals) Theme name of the conference (italics) (italics) Name of conference (italics) Dates on which the conference was held City of publication of the conference proceedings Publisher Page reference of the individual paper Example, including punctuation DOUKAKIS, I., PROCTOR, T. and PROCTOR, S., 2003. Creativity and advertising. In: R. BENNETT, ed. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7-8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University. pp. 54-63.

Citation in your text: (Doukakis, Proctor and Proctor 2003) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Doukakis, Proctor and Proctor 2003 p. 58) Reference list/bibliography: DOUKAKIS, I., PROCTOR, T. and PROCTOR, S., 2003. Creativity and advertising. In: R. BENNETT, ed. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7-8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University. pp. 54-63.

Dictionary with author(s)


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Author(s) or editor(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of dictionary (italics) Edition (if not first edition) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation SINGLETON, P., 2008. Dictionary of DNA and genome technology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Citation in your text: (Singleton 2008) Or, if you are quoting directly: (Singleton 2008 p. 26) Reference list/bibliography: SINGLETON, P., 2008. Dictionary of DNA and genome technology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

ILLUSTRATIONS (referred to but not reproduced in your work)


You may refer in your text to a graph, table, map, photograph etc which you have seen in a book, journal article etc. In this case the sentence in your text should make clear the type of illustration you are referring to and the citation in your text should include a page reference and a figure number, table number etc if there is one. For example, if the illustration is the work of the author of the book etc you have seen it in ... Donnan's graph (2000 p. 371 fig 30.4) shows that the majority of patients ... or, if the illustration is by someone other than the author of the book etc in which you have seen it ... Fiddes's photograph (Ellington 2001 p. 94 fig. 1) is a fine example of ...

Illustration taken from a book where the author of the book is also the author of the illustration
Illustrations would include graphs, tables, non-artistic photographs etc Element 1 Name of author(s) (capitals) 2 Year of publication 3 Title of the book (italics) 4 Edition (if not the first edition) 5 City of publication 6 Publisher Citation in your text: (Lawlor 1987 p. 58, table 4.1) Reference list/bibliography: LAWLOR, D.W., 1987. Photosynthesis: metabolism, control and physiology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Example, including punctuation LAWLOR, D.W., 1987. Photosynthesis: metabolism, control and physiology.

New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Illustration taken from a journal article where the author of the article is also the author of the illustration
Illustrations would include graphs, tables, non-artistic photographs etc Element Example, including punctuation Name of author(s) (capitals) MCSHERRY, D., Year of publication 2005. Title of the article Retrieval failure and recovery in recommender systems. Title of the journal in which Artificial Intelligence Review, the article was published (italics) Volume number 24 Issue number (3-4), Page reference for the article pp. 319-338.

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Citation in your text: (McSherry 2005 p. 325 fig. 2) Reference list/bibliography: MCSHERRY, D., 2005. Retrieval failure and recovery in recommender systems. Artificial Intelligence Review, 24(3-4), pp. 319-338.

Illustration taken from a web page where the author of the page is also the author of the illustration
Illustrations would include graphs, tables, non-artistic photographs etc Element Name of author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the web page (italics) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY, 2008. The university. [online]. Aberdeen: The Robert Gordon University. Available from: http://www.rgu.ac.uk/governance/who/

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URL (address of the web page) Date you looked at the web [Accessed 15 January 2008]. page

Citation in your text: (The Robert Gordon University 2008) Reference list/bibliography: THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY, 2008. The university. [online]. Aberdeen: The Robert Gordon University. Available from: http://www.rgu.ac.uk/governance/who/ [Accessed 15 January 2008].

Illustration taken from a journal article where the author of the article is NOT the author of the illustration
Illustrations would include graphs, tables, non-artistic photographs etc Element Name(s) of author(s) of the illustration (capitals) Year of publication of the illustration Title of the illustration Example, including punctuation COX, S., 2008. Keys and locks fixed to the shutters of Dragon by the National Trust. In: J. HOWARD, 2008. Snowshill Manor: the spirit of place and visitor. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 14 (1), pp. 7-32. p. 23.

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Author(s) of the journal article (capitals) Date of publication of the journal article Title of the journal article Title of the journal in which the article was published (italics) Volume number Issue number Page reference of the article Page reference for the illustration

Citation in your text: (Cox 2008) Reference list/bibliography COX, S., 2008. Keys and locks fixed to the shutters of Dragon by the National Trust. In: J. HOWARD, 2008. Snowshill Manor: the spirit of place and visitor. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 14(1), pp. 7-32. p. 23.

Illustration taken from a web page where the author of the page is NOT the author of the illustration
Illustrations would include graphs, tables, non-artistic photographs etc Element Name(s) of author(s) of the illustration (capitals) Year of publication of the illustration Title of the illustration Example, including punctuation PIKE, T., 2008.

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'Marsquake' sensor. In: Author(s) or editor(s) of the BBC NEWS, web page (capitals) Year of publication of the 2008. web page Title of the web page Phoenix diary: mission to Mars. (italics) [online]. City of publication of the London: web page Publisher of the web page BBC News. Available from: URL (address of web page) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7408033.stm Date you looked at the web [Accessed 24 June 2008]. page

Citation in your text: (Pike 2008) Reference list/bibliography PIKE, T., 2008. 'Marsquake' sensor. In: BBC NEWS, 2008. Phoenix diary: mission to Mars. [online]. London: BBC News. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7408033.stm [Accessed 24 June 2008].

Newspaper cartoon
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Element Example, including punctuation Name of cartoonist (capitals) WILLIAMS, K., Year of publication 2008. Title of the cartoon Underlaying trend. [cartoon]. Title of the newspaper Guardian. (italics) Day and month of 2 July. publication Page reference p. 28.

Citation in your text: (Williams 2008) Reference list/bibliography WILLIAMS, K., 2008. Underlaying trend. [cartoon]. Guardian. 2 July. p. 28.

Interview which you have conducted


1 2 3 4 5 Element Name of person interviewed (capitals) Year of interview Title of the interview (italics) Example, including punctuation MATHIESON, A., 2004. The provision of information to prisoners in Scotland.

[interview]. Date on which the interview 25 June. was conducted Citation in your text: (Mathieson 2004) Reference list/bibliography: MATHIESON, A., 2004. The provision of information to prisoners in Scotland. [interview]. 25 June.

Interview which you have conducted and recorded


Element Example, including punctuation 1 Name of person interviewed TEMPLETON, E., (capitals) 2 Year of interview 2008. 3 (italics) Interview with 4 Name of interviewer and the C. Brown on 10 July. date of the interview (italics) 5 City where the interview Aberdeen. was conducted 6 [Recording in possession of author]. Citation in your text: (Templeton 2008) Reference list/bibliography: TEMPLETON, E., 2008. Interview with C. Brown on 10 July. Aberdeen. [Recording in possession of author].

Journal article with one author


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Element Author of the article (capitals) Year of publication Title of the article Title of the journal in which the article was published (italics) Volume number Issue number Page reference of the article Example, including punctuation CHRISTIANSEN, K., 2005. Going for baroque: bringing 17th-century masters to the Met. Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 62 (3), pp. 3-48.

Citation in your text: (Christiansen 2005) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Christiansen 2005 p. 22) Reference list/bibliography: CHRISTIANSEN, K., 2005. Going for baroque: bringing 17th-century masters to the Met. Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 62(3), pp. 3-48.

Journal article with no author given


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Element Title of journal Year of publication Title of the article Title of the journal in which the article was published (italics) Volume number Issue number Page reference of the article Example, including punctuation British Medical Journal. 2002. 21st-century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. British Medical Journal, 325 (7357), p. 184.

Citation in your text: (British Medical Journal 2002) Or, if you have quoted directly: (British Medical Journal 2002 p. 184) Reference list/bibliography: British Medical Journal. 2002. 21st-century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. British Medical Journal, 325(7357), p. 184.

Journal article printed in a supplement to an issue


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the article Title of the journal in which the article was published (italics) Volume number Issue and supplement numbers Page reference of the article Example, including punctuation GLAUSER, T.A., 2002. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology, 58 (12, supplement 7), pp. S6-S12.

Citation in your text: (Glauser 2002) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Glauser 2002 p. S8) Reference list/bibliography: GLAUSER, T.A., 2002. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology, 58(12, supplement 7), pp. S6-S12.

Lecture
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Element Name of lecturer (capitals) Year of lecture Title of lecture (italics) Example, including punctuation REID, P.H., 2008. Local studies. [lecture]. Title of module Reference and Inquiry Services module. Name of teaching institution The Robert Gordon University, Department of the teaching Department of Information Management, Aberdeen Business institution School, Room in which the lecture room FOM 225, was delivered Date on which the lecture 25 January. was delivered

Citation in your text: (Reid 2008) Reference list/bibliography: REID, P.H., 2008. Local studies. [lecture]. Reference and Inquiry Services module. The Robert Gordon University, Department of Information Management, Aberdeen Business School, room FOM 225, 25 January.

Lecture notes
1 2 3 4 5 Element Name of lecturer (capitals) Year of lecture Title of lecture and module code Title which appears on the lecture notes themselves (may by the same as the title of the lecture) (italics) Title of module Name of teaching institution Department of the teaching institution Room in which the lecture was delivered Date on which the lecture was delivered Example, including punctuation REID, P.H., 2008. Local studies, BSM061. [lecture notes]. Local studies.

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Reference and Inquiry Services module. The Robert Gordon University, Department of Information Management, Aberdeen Business School, room FOM 225, 25 January.

Citation in your text: (Reid 2008) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Reid 2008 p. 5) Reference list/bibliography: REID, P.H., 2008. Local studies, BSM061. [lecture notes]. Local studies. Reference and Inquiry Services module. The Robert Gordon University, Department of Information Management, Aberdeen Business School, room FOM 225, 25 January.

Newspaper article
1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the article Example, including punctuation REID, R., 2007. Dons fan threatens legal action: disappointed student claims to have spent three hours on phone trying to buy ticket. Press and Journal,

Title of the newspaper in which the article was published (italics) Date of publication 24 October, Page reference of the article p. 6.

Citation in your text: (Reid 2007) Reference list/bibliography: REID, R., 2007. Dons fan threatens legal action: disappointed student claims to have spent three hours on phone trying to buy ticket. Press and Journal, 24 October, p. 6.

Newspaper article with no author given


1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Title of newspaper Year of publication Title of the article Title of the newspaper in which the article was published (italics) Date of publication Page reference of the article Example, including punctuation Times. 2007. Flu risk to ducks. Times, 24 October, p. 4.

Citation in your text: (Times 2007) Reference list/bibliography: Times. 2007. Flu risk to ducks. Times, 24 October, p. 4.

Book available online only


Use only if the book is NOT available on paper. Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the book (italics) Edition (if not the first edition) Example, including punctuation FRAZER, J.G., 1922. The golden bough.

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[online]. City of publication New York, NY: Publisher Macmillan. Available from: URL (web page address) http://www.bartleby.com/196/168.html Date you looked at the book [Accessed 17 December 2007]. online

Citation in your text: (Frazer 1922) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Frazer 1922 p. 25) NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation. Reference list/bibliography: FRAZER, J.G., 1922. The golden bough. [online]. New York, NY: Macmillan. Available from: http://www.bartleby.com/196/168.html [Accessed 17 December 2007].

Journal article available online only


Use only if the article is NOT available on paper. Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the article Title of the journal in which the article was published (italics) Volume number Issue number Page reference Example, including punctuation GSTEU, M., 2003. The tree: a symbol of life. PSA Journal.

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[online]. 69 (1), pp. 19-25. Available from: URL (web page address) http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1306/ Date that you looked at the [Accessed 3 January 2008]. article online

Citation in your text: (Gsteu 2003) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Gsteu 2003 p. 22) NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation. Reference list/bibliography: GSTEU, M., 2003. The tree: a symbol of life. PSA Journal. [online]. 69(1), pp. 19-25. Available from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1306/is_1_69/ai_96621024 [Accessed 3 January 2008]. NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation and reference.

Web page where you can identify a personal author


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Element Author(s) (capitals) Year of publication Title of the web page (italics) Example, including punctuation MULVEY, S., 2006. Chernobyl's continuing hazards.

[online]. City of publication London: Publisher BBC News. Available from: URL (address of web page) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/ Date you looked at the web [Accessed 16 February 2006]. page

Citation in your text: (Mulvey 2006) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Mulvey 2006 p. 4) NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation. Reference list/bibliography: MULVEY, S., 2006. Chernobyl's continuing hazards. [online]. London: BBC News. Available from: http://news/bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4942828.stm [Accessed 16 February 2006].

Web page where you CANNOT identify a personal author


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Element Owner of the web site (capitals) Year of publication Title of the web page (italics) City of publication Publisher Example, including punctuation UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, 2007. Patient care.

[online]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Available from: URL (address of web page) http://www.med.ufl.edu/patients/index.shtml Date you looked at the web [Accessed 13 December 2007]. page

Citation in your text: (University of Florida. College of Medicine 2007) Or, if you have quoted directly: (University of Florida. College of Medicine 2007 p. 9) NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation. Reference list/bibliography: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, 2007. Patient care. [online]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Available from: http://www.med.ufl/edu/patients/index.shtml [Accessed 13 December 2007].

Blog
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Element Name of the owner of the blog (capitals) Year of the posting to which you are referring Title of blog entry (italics) Date the blog entry was written Example, including punctuation ROBINSON, N., 2008. One year on ... [online]. 27 June 2008.

Available from: URL (address of web page) http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ Date you looked at the blog [Accessed 1 July 2008]. entry

Citation in your text: (Robinson 2008) Reference list/bibliography: ROBINSON, N., 2008. One year on ... [online]. 27 June 2008. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ [Accessed 1 July 2008].

Discussion list
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Element Sender of discussion posting (capitals) Year of publication Title of the discussion posting (italics) Example, including punctuation MORGAN, K., 2007. Teaching referencing skills.

[online]. Date the posting was written 24 April 2007. Name of discussion list RefZone Discussion List. Available from: URL (address of web page) http://www.Staffs.ac.uk/RefZoneLISTS Date you looked at the [Accessed 1 July 2008]. discussion list

Citation in your text: (Morgan 2007) Reference list/bibliography: MORGAN, K., 2007. Teaching referencing skills. [online]. 24 April 2007. RefZone Discussion List. Available from: http://www.Staffs.ac.uk/RefZoneLISTS [Accessed 1 July 2008].

Podcast
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Element Originator of podcast (individual or organisation) (capitals) Year of distribution Title of podcast (italics) Example, including punctuation BBC WORLD SERVICE,

2008. Africa today. [online]. Day and date of the podcast 1 July 2008. Available from: URL (address of web page) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/podcasts/africa/ Date you looked at the [Accessed 2 July 2008]. podcast

Citation in your text: (BBC World Service 2008) Reference list/bibliography: BBC WORLD SERVICE, 2008. Africa today. [online]. 1 July 2008. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/podcasts/africa/ [Accessed 2 July 2008].

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS (conversations, letters, e-mails etc)


A citation for a personal communication is inserted into your text giving:

In capitals the name of the person from whom you received the communication (if this does not occur naturally in your text); In the case of letters or e-mails this can be indicated as "by letter" or "by e-mail"; The words "personal communication"; The date the communication took place.

For example: (BROWN, C., personal communication. 27 June 2008) or (BROWN, C., personal communication by letter. 27 June 2008) or, if the name occurs naturally in your text, Chris Brown (personal communication by e-mail. 27 June 2008) has decided he hates referencing. NB. Personal communications are NOT included in your reference list/bibliography at the end of your work.

Print thesis or dissertation


A thesis or dissertation available only in print is considered to be unpublished. Element Example, including punctuation Author (capitals) RENCKEN, D.W., Year of approval of the 1991. degree by the awarding institution Title of the thesis or A quantitative model for adaptive task allocation in humandissertation (italics) computer interfaces. Type of thesis or dissertation Unpublished D. Phil thesis, Name of the degree University of Oxford. awarding institution

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Citation in your text: (Rencken 1991) Or, if you are quoting directly: (Rencken 1991 p. 17) Reference list/bibliography: RENCKEN, D.W., 1991. A quantitative model for adaptive task allocation in human-computer interfaces. Unpublished D. Phil thesis, University of Oxford.

Electronic thesis or dissertation


A thesis or dissertation made available electronically is considered to be published. Element Author (capitals) Year of approval of the degree by the awarding institution Title of the thesis or dissertation (italics) Example, including punctuation SETTERSTEIN, L., 1999. Critical thinking and participation in health behaviors.

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[online]. Type of thesis or dissertation PhD thesis, Name of the degree University of Wisconsin. awarding institution Available from: URL (address of the web http://www.library/wisc.edu/databases/ page) Date that you looked at the [Accessed 26 October 2004]. thesis or dissertation online

Citation in your text: (Setterstein 1999) Or, if you have quoted directly: (Setterstein 1999 p. 33) NB Page numbers are not always given in online materials. If you cannot find a page reference leave it out of the citation. Reference list/bibliography: SETTERSTEIN, L., 1999. Critical thinking and participation in health behaviors. [online]. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin. Available from: http://www.library/wisc.edu/databases/ [Accessed 26 October 2004].

UNPUBLISHED WORKS
1 2 3 4 Element Author(s) or editor(s) (capitals) Year of production Title (italics) Example, including punctuation BROWN, C.M., 2008. Harvard referencing for the Robert Gordon University. Unpublished.

Citation in your text: (Brown 2008) Or, if you are quoting directly: (Brown 2008 p. 41) Reference list/bibliography: BROWN, C.M., 2008. Harvard referencing for the Robert Gordon University. Unpublished.