Chapter 2


Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Multiple Choice
c. contains many small holes d. all of these 1. An igneous rock that contains vesicles ____________. a. is also extrusive b. is also fine grained 2. As the rate of cooling increases (speeds up), the size of the crystals that form ____________.


a. increases b. decreases c. is not affected 3. Which one of the following is an igneous rock? a. limestone b. rhyolite c. slate d. shale

4. Intrusive rocks ____________. a. are generally fine grained b. form at Earth's surface c. are quite often vesicular d. are also termed volcanic e. none of these 5. Granite and gabbro ____________. a. have a similar mineral composition


b. have a similar texture c. a. and b. d. are in no way similar 6. Obsidian exhibits this texture. a. aphanitic b. glassy c. porphyritic d. phaneritic e. pyroclastic

7. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit this texture. a. fine grained

b. glassy c. porphyritic


gabbro 9 . a. phaneritic e. pyroclastic 9. diorite e. porphyritic d.d. coarse grained e. granite d. Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock. basalt b. aphanitic b. andesite c. a. This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes. glassy c. pyroclastic 8.

a. which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar. select the coarse grained rock. Which of the rocks listed below is popular building stone? 10 .10. gabbro 12. basalt b. This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America. gabbro 11. andesite c. a. diorite e. granite d. From the following. basalt b. granite d. diorite e. andesite c.

The texture of an igneous rock _________. d. is the shape of the rock body c. is controlled by the composition of magma b. c. determines the color of the rock d. basalt andesite granite diorite Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth e. 11 . b. a.a. Igneous rock is formed ____________. gabbro 13. records the rock's cooling history 14. is caused by leaching e.

all of these 16. mineral composition 12 . Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of ______. at great depth within Earth d. by crystallization of molten rock 15. color b. are layered d. by the weathering of preexisting rocks b. may be economically important e.a. a. hold important clues to Earth's history c. Sedimentary rocks ____________. by changes in mineral composition c. a. may contain fossils b. type of bedding c.

conglomerate b. 30% c. none of these 18. Sedimentary rocks compose approximately ____________ of Earth's outermost 10 miles. Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)? a. a. 50% d. shale c. particle size 17. neither conglomerate nor shale 13 . both conglomerate and shale d. 75% e.d. 20% b.

Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except a ____________.19. salt flat c. calcite and clay c. halite and feldspar d. clay and quartz e. quartz and olivine b. river floodplain d. Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks? a. delta 14 . dolomite and gypsum 20. swamp b. a.

a. breccia 22. 35 d. Sedimentary rocks account for about ____ percent of rock exposures on the continents. a. 50 e. chert e. conglomerate d.21. 5 b. 75 15 . Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ____________. 20 c. shale b. sandstone c.

chert d. anthracite. bituminous d. anthracite b. bituminous e. lignite c. bituminous. anthracite. bituminous.23. sylvite 24. rock salt e. lignite. lignite. dolomite c. lignite 16 . anthracite. lignite. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ____________. anthracite. a. bituminous. limestone b. Which of the following lists presents forms of coal in the correct order from the lowest grade to the highest grade? a.

have a linear orientation of minerals c. Metamorphism may result from________.25. a. heat b. all of these e. pressure c. only heat and pressure 26. are extremely fossiliferous b. Many metamorphic rocks ____________. a. are unaltered sedimentary rocks d. chemical action d. none of these 17 . any or all of these e.

shear b. all of these e. crystals may grow larger d. foliation c. a. the rock is said to exhibit ____________. a. none of these 18 . all of these e.27. certain minerals may recrystallize b. and b. Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism? a. the rock becomes more compact c. When certain minerals recrystallize with a preferred orientation that is perpendicular to the direction of the compressional force. aureole d. 28.

quartzite Testban k 19 . a. marble b.29. gneiss e. mica schist c. phyllite b. a. hornfels 30. This metamorphic rock is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals ____________. The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ____________. mica schist c. phyllite d.

gneiss e. a. decomposition of preexisting rock d. a. marble 32. mica schist c. transformation of preexisting rock c. only Precambrian rocks 20 . mass movement of rock material e. gneiss e. formation of rock from magma b. The process of metamorphism involves ____________. quartzite d. nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone. This dense.d. phyllite b. marble 31.

gabbro d. d. c. a.33. e. a. folding b. The agents of metamorphism are _______. b. This metamorphic rock is particularly prized as a building stone. a. uplifting and folding foliation and deposition contact and regional deformation heat. pressure. The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ____________. and chemical fluids slaty and platy cleavage 35. phyllite e. mica schist 34. heat 21 . marble b. gneiss c.

slate d. a. none of these 37. Through metamorphic activity _________. stress d. gneiss Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth e. strain 36. granite can change to clay minerals 22 . marble b. sheer e.c. mica schist c. sandstone can change to marble b. What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following lowgrade metamorphism? a.

deep burial within Earth d. a. a nearby mass of magma e. limestone can change to quartzite 38. granite can change to gneiss e. frictional heating along a fault b. radioactive elements c. heat trapped by cap rock 23 .c. slate can change to shale d. Most of the heat for contact metamorphism is supplied by ____________.

we say the texture is coarse grained. 40. One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral composition. 24 . When the crystals composing an igneous rock are visible to the unaided eye. Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock. 41. Bowen's reaction series helps to explain different igneous rock textures. 42.True-False: 39.

43. 45. 47. Anthracite coal is a metamorphic rock. When a sandstone contains appreciable quantities of feldspar. 46. The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale. 44. Quartz is easily weathered to clay. The fine-grained equivalent of granite is rhyolite. the rock is called arkose. 25 .

47. Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks. Mineral composition is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks. Evaporites have a biochemical origin. 49. 51. 26 . Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among the various chemical sedimentary rocks. 50.

53. 27 . Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sandsized particles. 55. 54.52. The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized. Mineral composition is the primary basis for distinguishing among the various chemical sedimentary rocks. Most limestone has a biochemical origin.

58.Testban k 56. 28 . Gneiss rhymes with ice. During metamorphism the material undergoing deformation remains a solid. The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism. 57.

Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks. 60. Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism. 61.59. Completion: 29 . Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building.

63. Obsidian exhibits a ____________ texture. 66. Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their mineral composition and ____________. Pioneering investigations into the crystallization of magma were carried out by ____________.62. 64. 65. Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their texture and ____________. The two most common minerals in detrital sedimentary rocks are _________ and _________. 30 .

it is called ____________. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ____________. Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called ____________. 68. The type of limestone commonly seen decorating caves is known as ____________. When a sedimentary rock consists of angular. gravel-sized particles.67. 70. 69. 31 .

____________ refers to the processes by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is ____________. This material is known as ____________. 74. brown material that is not yet coal.71. Two common ways in which sediments are lithified are compaction and ____________. 32 . 72. 73. The partial decomposition of plant remains in an oxygen-poor swamp creates a layer of soft.

____________. ____________.75. Metamorphism that occurs because of close proximity to a mass of magma is called ____________ metamorphism. List three agents of metamorphism. ____________ 76. Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth 33 .

e 23. b 12. b 3. b 33. a 34 . c 13. d 2. b 11. e 21. c 32. a 22.Answers to Chapter 2 Test Questions Multiple Choice: 1. a 31.

a d b d b a d 34. 27. 37. 10. 18. 19. 16. 25. 7. 8. 36. 15. d b c d d True.4. 29. 30. 9. 35. 20. 28. e b b d c c c 14. 5. 38.False: 35 . 26. 6. d e d e a d b 24. 17.

55. 53.39. false 60. 48. 43. 56. 46. false 36 . 54. 44. 42. 50. 58. 47. 41. 40. 57. true false false true false true false true true true 59. 45. 52. true 61. 51. false true false true true false false true true false 49.

N. 65. quartz limestone breccia travertine 72. 69. 75. 66. cementation layers (beds) peat heat. 68. 76. chemical fluids contact 37 . 64. 74.L.Completion: 62. pressure. 73. 63. Bowen glassy texture mineral composition clay. 67.

Lithification 38 .70. evaporites 71.

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