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1007/s00231-010-0692-5

ORIGINAL

Ping Dai Feng Lin

Received: 3 September 2009 / Accepted: 12 September 2010 / Published online: 24 September 2010 Springer-Verlag 2010

Abstract This paper presents a comparative numerical investigation on lm cooling from a row of holes injected at 35 on a at plate with three lm cooling congurations, including cylindrical hole, 15 forward diffused shaped hole, and new crescent hole. All simulations are conducted at blowing ratio of 0.6 and 1.25, length-to-diameter ratio of four and pitch-to-diameter ratio of three. Computational solutions of the steady, Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations are obtained using a nite volume method. Previous successful application of a two-layer turbulence model to cylindrical hole is extended to predict lm cooling for the different hole geometries. It has been found that the lm cooling effectiveness of cylindrical holes obviously declined along with increasing the blowing ratio. While the forward diffused shaped hole presents a marked improvement, with a higher effectiveness at the lateral area between adjacent holes. By comparison, the crescent hole exhibits the highest lm cooling effectiveness among the three congurations both in spanwise and streamwise especially downstream of the intersection of the two holes.

Also, the crescent hole can restrain the vortex intensity, and then enhance the lm cooling effectiveness. List of symbols D Diameter of lm hole k Turbulent kinetic energy L/D Length-to-diameter ratio of lm hole M Blowing ratio; M = qcUc/q?U? P/D Pitch-to-diameter ratio of lm hole Re Reynolds number T Local uid temperature Tu Turbulence intensity p u* Friction velocity; u sw =q X Coordinate in the streamwise direction Y Coordinate normal to the test surface Z Coordinate in the lateral direction y? The normalized distance; y? = yu*/v Greek symbols g Adiabatic lm effectiveness; g = (T - T?)/ (Tc - T?) e Dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy q Density of the uid sw Wall shear stress Subscripts c Coolant w Wall ? Free stream

P. Dai (&) College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Peoples Republic of China e-mail: daiping936@yahoo.com.cn P. Dai College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin University of Engineering, Harbin 150001, Peoples Republic of China F. Lin Department of Gas Turbine, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation 7th Institute, Harbin 150036, Peoples Republic of China e-mail: linfeng66@hotmail.com

1 Introduction The development of a new generation of high performance aircraft turbine jet engine desires gas turbines to be

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operated at very high rotor inlet gas temperatures. This brings a problem on the effective cooling of turbine blades. Up to now, modied lm cooling is still an effective cooling technique. The accurate prediction of cooling effectiveness is vital to the design of turbine blades. Among the factors affecting the effectiveness of lm cooling, the shape of the hole plays a very important role. Numerous investigations have been reported on lm cooling from various hole geometries. Azzi et al. [1] presented numerical prediction of a new 3D lm cooling hole geometry, the converging slot hole or console. The cross section of the console changes from a circular shape at the inlet to slot at the exit. Comparative computations of the adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness associated with the three geometries tested (cylindrical, shaped, and console) showed that the new console lm cooling hole geometry presented a very promising improvement in thermal performance. Bunker [2] reviewed the origins of shaped hole lm cooling and outlined the current understanding of the lm cooling technique. Gritsch et al. [3] presented detailed measurements of the lm cooling effectiveness for three single scaled-up coolant hole geometries, which include a cylindrical hole and two holes with diffuser-shaped exit portion. Compared with the cylindrical hole, both expanded holes show signicantly improved thermal protection of the surface downstream of the ejection location, particularly at high blowing ratios. The physics of the lm cooling process for shaped, streamwise-injected, and inclined jets has been studied by Hyams et al. [4]. It has been found that the laterally diffused lm hole provides the best coverage and highest effectiveness, and further, the lm hole shaping can signicantly affect the distribution of the exit plane variables, which determine the downstream lm cooling performance. Baheri et al. [5] investigated the thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of simple and compound angle injection shaped holes with and without slot with different length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) ratios and compared them with lm cooling from simple cylindrical holes with and without slot. The results showed that for shaped holes within transverse slot at high blowing ratio of M = 1.25, the jet lift-off has been eliminated almost completely and the cooling air spreading in streamwise direction has been increased relative to the other cases. Moreover, counter rotating vortex pairs at the exit of jet have diminished considerably for shaped holes within transverse slot. In conclusion, the lm cooling effectiveness by trenched shaped holes is higher than all other congurations both in spanwise and streamwise specially downstream of the injection. Sargison et al. [6, 7] presented a new three-dimensional geometrical conguration which is in the middle between holes and slots. It was reported that the improvement in lm cooling effectiveness using shaped holes is due to the increase of the separation of the

kidney-vortices which delays the jet lift-off and induce a counter rotating vortex pairs [8, 9]. It was found that both the crescent and slot exits reduce the jet momentum at exit and provide signicantly higher lm effectiveness with some increases in heat transfer coefcients [10]. Gao et al. [11] reported that the fan-shaped, laid-back compound angled holes produce good coolant lm coverage on the suction side except for those regions affected by the secondary vortices. This paper presents a numerical prediction of a new 3D lm cooling hole geometry, the crescent hole. The crescent geometry is designed in order to improve the heat transfer and aerodynamic loss performance of turbine vane and rotor blade cooling systems without loosing the mechanical strength of a row of discrete holes. The cross section of the crescent changes from a cylindrical shaped at the inlet to a crescent shaped at the exit. To the best of our knowledge, few reports on crescent geometry have been found. The aim of present work is to investigate the effect of the novel crescent geometry on the lm cooling performance compared with that of classical cylindrical hole and forward diffused shaped hole for gas turbine blades, using two-layer turbulence model.

2 The numerical method The mathematical model is composed of the steady-state, three-dimensional, incompressible Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations, the energy equation, and the two-layer ke turbulence models. For the numerical investigation the commercial CFD software FLUENT is applied. Fluent is based on an unstructured solver using a nite volume approach for the solution of the RANS equations. The two-layer ke approach represents an intermediate modeling strategy between wall functions and pure low-Re number models. It consists of resolving the viscosity-affected regions close to walls by the use of a one-equation model, while the outer core ow is treated with the standard ke model. Such models have the advantage of requiring considerably fewer grid points in the viscous sublayer than any pure low-Re scheme, and therefore are more suitable for complex situations involving more than one wall. Azzi et al. [12] found that twolayer ke turbulence model can be more efcient than the standard ke model in cross-ow. Further, the two-layer version of the ke model used in the present investigation is capable of resolving the viscous sublayer and the ow behavior in the vicinity of the holes, which provide a realistic presentation of the crescent jet in such a cross-ow application. More details concerning the formulation of the two-layer ke model are presented in Azzi and Lakehal [13]. The governing equations are solved by using a three-

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dimensional nite volume method, allowing the use of arbitrary non-orthogonal multi-block grids. The pressure velocity coupling is achieved by using the well-known SIMPLEC algorithm. The present computations are performed employing the QUICK scheme for all variables applied in a scalar form by means of a deferred-correction procedure and bounded by the Van-Leer harmonic function as limiter. The resulting system of difference equations was solved using the strongly implicit procedure (SIP) algorithm. Convergence in all cases was determined by a drop in normalized mass and momentum residuals by four orders of magnitude at least.

0.97D 1D 3D 35 2D 35 15

3 Flow geometry, grids and boundary conditions Studies were conducted on a at plate with a single row of six holes with three geometrical congurations, which are cylindrical hole, forward diffused shaped hole (or shaped hole) and crescent hole, respectively. Figure 1 shows the sketch of the three geometries. Because the cylindrical and shaped holes were well studied, only the new crescent geometry was described in details here. The air enters through a cylindrical hole of diameter 1.11 cm and exits through a crescent shaped that increases area of ow by a ratio of 2.2:1 compared to the inlet. According to Lu [14], the crescent shape reduces the possibility of hot gas ingestion on the upstream side of the hole due to the front curvature, considerably increasing the efciency of the crescent hole ow compared to shaped holes (Fig. 1c). Another major advantage of the crescent geometry is the small distance between the adjacent hole exits, which results in continuous coolant lm in the spanwise direction. This prevents the lm lift-off from the blade surface especially at high blowing ratios, and thus the generation of the counter rotating vortex pairs. Therefore, the lm cooling effectiveness is remarkably enhanced. A single row of hole inclined by 35 in the streamwise direction is considered. The lateral spacing of holes is xed to 3D, where D is 1.11 cm and stands for the holes diameter. The hole L/D is four. The computational model is given in Fig. 2. All boundary conditions and computational domain were selected according to the experimental study of Schmidt et al. [15]. The origin of coordinate system is located at the trailing edge of the lm hole along the hole centerline in all cases. At a distance of 23.1D upstream of the origin, velocity uniform proles were applied. The computational domain extends from the bottom of the at plate to 10D in the vertical direction where a slip type boundary condition with zero-normal gradients was applied. An outlet convection boundary is imposed at 25D downstream of the origin. In the spanwise direction, the domain extends from a plane through the middle of the

0.5D

3D D R1.9

0.2D

R0.5

(c)

Free stream velocity inlet 10 D 23.1 D y x z Test surface Plenum Coolant velocity inlet

Fig. 2 Computational domain and boundary conditions

Outlet 25 D

hole to a plane at 1.5D in the middle between two injection holes, and symmetry conditions are imposed on these planes. In order to improve the application of the velocity prole of injected ow at the hole inlet, the plenum part is introduced in the computational domain, while the approaching boundary layer was fully developed. The coolant is supplied from a plenum through the lm hole and enters the cross-ow region. This plenum is 50.8 mm high and 101.6 mm wide according to Schmidt et al. [15]. The coolant-to-mainstream density ratio was 1.6. For all

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geometries, two values of the blowing ratio are considered, namely M = 0.6 and 1.25. For comparison two dimensionless temperatures termed as adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness and the laterally averaged adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness are used as the main comparison parameters. The plenum uniform inlet velocity is set to achieve Re = 18,700 for every case conforming to the experiment and the free stream velocity are varied to obtain the desired blowing conditions. Following the Schmidt et al. [15] cryogenic setup, the cross-ow inlet temperature is specied as 300 K, and the plenum coolant temperature is set at 187.5 K. Turbulence intensity of free stream and coolant was 0.2 and 0.1%, respectively. A highly orthogonalized, nonuniform, multi-block ne grid mesh was generated with grid nodes considerably rened in the near-wall region and in the inlet and the exit hole vicinity. The wall neighboring-cells were located so as to have always the values of y? smaller than two. The grid is used consisting of three blocks, one covering the external region, one in the injection channel and a third one inside the plenum. All parameters are maintained unchanged for the three tested geometries. A grid sensitivity test leads to the following grid sizes: 5,13,637, 4,73,179 and 5,09,218 grid points for cylindrical hole, shaped hole and crescent hole, respectively.

4 Results and discussion Figure 3 shows the adiabatic effectiveness for cylindrical geometry at blowing ratio M = 0.6 and 1.25 together with the experimental measurements of Schmidt et al. [15]. As shown in Fig. 3, the computational results using two-layer k-e turbulence models agree well with the experiment measurements at both low and high blowing ratios (Fig. 3a, b). Figure 4 shows the variation of laterally average adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness with X/D for the three geometries at both low blowing ratio (M = 0.6) and high blowing ratio (M = 1.25). The downstream distance X/D is measured from the downstream edge of the cooling hole. As seen from Fig. 4, the average adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness of different hole geometries follows the order: crescent [ shaped [ cylindrical at low and high blowing ratios. The improvement realized by the crescent holes compared to the cylindrical and shaped holes is more important at the higher blowing ratio than that at the lower one. At blowing ratio of 0.6, the average adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness for the cylindrical and shaped holes decrease gradually with X/D, and approach approximately the same value when X/D [ 10. For the case of M = 1.25, the effectiveness of cylindrical hole declined much rapidly due to a jet lift-off resulting in lower coverage. It appears that the jet is near the surface at low blowing ratio and

induces more effective cooling. With the increase of blowing ratio, the initial momentum of jet increases. The increase of vertical momentum results in the penetration of jet to boundary layer of mainstream, and thus the reducing of effectiveness. On the other hand, the counter rotating vortex pairs at the exit of jet holes may lead to the lift of coolant and the fall of the hot stream, which also contributes to the reduce of effectiveness. Similar ndings for cylindrical holes were reported by Kim et al. [16] and Gritsch et al. [17]. While the expanded exit of shaped holes due to a 15 forward-diffusing angle reduces the vertical momentum of coolant. Therefore, the penetration of jet to boundary layer of free stream weakens obviously and keeps it closer to the surface. This is in accordance with the ndings of Shuye et al. [18] who pointed that the expanded holes have signicantly improved the thermal protection of the surface downstream of the ejection location, particularly at high blowing ratios. From effectiveness distributions for the crescent holes, it is clear that the lm spreads laterally and stays closer to the surface due to reduced coolant exit velocity with increased exit area. This causes a more even, laterally spreading lm that produces signicantly higher effectiveness than for the

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(a) 1.0

0.8

Laterally averaged

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25

0.0

X/D

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(b) 1.0

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0.0 0

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Fig. 4 Laterally averaged lm cooling effectiveness

two previous cases. As shown in Fig. 4, the effectiveness decays with increasing of distance from the hole at low blowing ratio. As blowing ratio increased to M = 1.25, the crescent provides comparable lm effectiveness values but the downstream decay is not as rapid as that at M = 0.6. It seems that the coolant exits of the crescent spreads into the larger area with reduced momentum and produces a low momentum two-dimensional lm providing better effectiveness at higher blowing ratio. In addition, the counter rotating vortex pairs at the exit of jet holes are restrained, which resulting in a signicant increase of effectiveness. Lu [14] also indicated the same enhancement in the experimental work and attributed it to the interaction between vortices formed by the jets from adjacent holes. Contours of the lateral effectiveness on the plate surface for various geometries are shown in Fig. 5ac. As shown in Fig. 5a, the distribution of coolant for cylindrical hole is very low in streamwise and spanwise directions. For shaped holes (as shown in Fig. 5b), as the coolant enters the diffused section, a small separation region is developed and the coolant ow is slowed down. This leads to lower

exit plane y-momentum content and higher lateral spreading of coolant. Compared with the cylindrical and shaped holes, the crescent hole exhibits wider streamwise and spanwise distributions of coolant (as shown in Fig. 5c). It is supposed that the crescent conguration can further increase the exit section, so a much less y-momentum content resulted and the lateral spreading of coolant greatly enhanced. For acquiring reliable prediction, it is need to examine the lateral spreading of the thermal eld. Figure 6 shows the spanwise distribution of effectiveness for various geometries at X/D = 4 and 12 while the blowing ratio was xed at M = 0.6. As shown in Fig. 6, the crescent conguration exhibits a particularly different feature that the local lm cooling effectiveness slightly increases with Z/D at the intersection of the two holes rather than decrease like the cylindrical and shaped congurations. This has been attributed to the fact that the ow comes out of the crescent exit and produces more interaction mostly in the spanwise direction due to a more twodimensional nature of the jets resulting in an overall higher average enhancement in heat transfer coefcient [15]. Of course, crescent geometry where the heat transfer enhancement is the highest produces the highest effectiveness due to increased jet spreading and overall coverage. Results of the new crescent conguration present a marked advancement, with a nearly uniform prole of g slightly enhanced at the intersection of the two holes. This improvement is already indicated by the experimental work of Lu [14]. It is owing to the interaction between vortices formed by the jets from adjacent crescent holes. Figure 6 also shows that g decreased evidently with Z/D for shaped and cylindrical holes. In addition, it is evident that the extent of effectiveness

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the vortex pairs, each of which induced an upward velocity on the other [6]. Consequently, the coolant becomes closer to the surface and leads to better lm cooling protection than that of the cylindrical. For the crescent geometry (Fig. 8c), the vortex pairs are almost diminished. So the jet tends to stay near the surface which is translated into an improvement in the lm cooling protection. It seems that the presence of the coolant ow in the adjacent crescent hole tends to prevent the generation of the counter rotating vortex pairs.

5 Conclusions decreases with Z/D for shaped conguration become smaller than that for cylindrical conguration at high X/D, indicating that the spanwise effectiveness of shaped conguration is superior to cylindrical conguration. Lateral effectiveness for three cases is compared in Fig. 7. It is evident from the gure that the crescent holes tend to give the highest lateral effectiveness among all cases tested in the present investigation. These results are in line with the effectiveness contour plots reported earlier. Figure 8ac shows velocity vectors at M = 1.25 and X/D = 1 where counter rotating vortex pairs at the exit of jet holes are obvious and strong for cylindrical holes and the center of jet is far away from surface. This explains the lower lm cooling protection for cylindrical holes compared with that for other holes. Further, it supports and explains the earlier results of local and lateral averaged effectiveness presented in the previous gures. As the shaped holes (Fig. 8b), these vortexes are weakened and the jet is at the edge of running away from the surface. It is suggested that the weakening of the vortex pairs decreases the mutual induction owing to It has been conrmed that for cylindrical holes, the jet tends to lift-off and the hot stream has been pulled under the cooling air and reduced the effectiveness at the higher blowing ratio. Results of forward diffused shaped holes present a marked improvement in effectiveness at the lateral area between adjacent holes. For the crescent holes, the cooling air spreading in streamwise and spanwise direction has been increased particularly at high blowing ratio of M = 1.25. Moreover, counter rotating vortex pairs at the exit of jet have diminished considerably for crescent geometry. Comparative computations of the adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness associated with the three geometries tested in the present study (cylindrical hole, shaped hole, and crescent hole) show that the new crescent lm cooling hole geometry is denitely superior to the other geometries as shown by the uniform lateral spreading of the effectiveness with a remarkable enhancement downstream of the intersection of the two crescent holes and spanwise distribution effectiveness at two cross-ow locations with a great improvement. In conclusion, the new crescent lm

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Heat Mass Transfer (2011) 47:147154 Fig. 8 Velocity vectors at downstream the coolant hole for M = 1.25 at X/D = 1

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cooling geometry tested in the present study presents a very promising improvement in thermal performance.

Acknowledgments The work was supported by the Ph.D. foundation of Qingdao University of Science and Technology (No. 0022442).

References

1. Azzi A, Jubran BA (2007) Numerical modeling of lm cooling from converging slot-hole. Heat Mass Transf 43(4):381388 2. Bunker RS (2005) A review of shaped hole turbine lm-cooling technology. Heat Transf 127(4):441453

3. Gritsch M, Schulz A, Wittig S (1998) Heat transfer coefcient measurements of lm cooling holes with expanded slots. ASME Paper 98-GT-28 4. Hyams DG, Leylek JH (2000) A detailed analysis of lm cooling physics: part IIIstreamwise injection with shaped holes. J Turbomach 122(1):122132 5. Baheri S, Alavi Tabrizi SP, Jubran BA (2008) Film cooling effectiveness from trenched shaped and compound holes. Heat Mass Transf 44(8):989998 6. Sargison JE, Guo SM, Oldeld ML, Lock GD, Rawlinson AJ (2002) A converging slot-hole lm-cooling geometrypart 1: low-speed at-plate heat transfer and loss. J Turbomach 124(3):453460 7. Sargison JE, Guo SM, Oldeld ML, Lock GD, Rawlinson AJ (2002) A converging slot-hole lm-cooling geometrypart 2:

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154 transonic nozzle guide vane heat transfer and loss. J Turbomach 124(3):461471 Bell CM, Hamakawa H, Ligrani PM (2000) Film cooling from shaped holes. J Heat Transf 122(2):224232 Yu Y, Yen CH, Tip Shih, Chyu MK, Gogineni S (2002) Film cooling and heat transfer coefcient distributions around diffusion shaped holes. J Heat Transf 124(5):820827 Lu Y, Ellad S (2007) Understanding the effect of trenching on lm cooling. HT-2007-32598, Proceedings of the 2007 ASME JSME thermal engineering summer heat transfer conference, July 2007, Vancouver Gao Z, Narzary DP, Han J (2007) Film cooling on a gas turbine blade pressure side or suction side with compound angle shaped holes. HT-200732098, Proceedings of the 2007 ASMEJSME thermal engineering summer heat transfer conference, July, 2007. Vancouver, BC Azzi A, Jubran BA (2004) Inuence of leading-edge lateral injection angles on the lm cooling effectiveness of a gas turbine blade. Heat Mass Transf 40(6-7):501508

Heat Mass Transfer (2011) 47:147154 13. Azzi A, Lakehal D (2002) Perspectives in modeling lm-cooling of turbine blades by transcending conventional two-equation turbulence models. J Turbomach 124(3):472484 14. LU YP (2007) Effect of hole congurations on lm cooling from cylindrical inclined holes for the application to gas turbine blades. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University 15. Schmidt DL, Sen B, Bogard DG (1996) Film cooling with compound angle holes: adiabatic effectiveness. J Turbomach 118(4):807813 16. Kim YJ, Kim SM (2004) Inuence of shaped injection holes on turbine blade leading edge lm cooling. Int J Heat Mass Transf 47(2):245256 17. Gritsch M, Schulz A, Wittig S (1998) A diabatic wall effectiveness measurements of lm-cooling holes with expanded exits. J Turbomach 120(3):549556 18. Shuye T, Han JC, Poinsatte PE (2001) Effect of lm-hole shape on turbine blade lm cooling performance. J Thermophys Heat Transf 15(3):257265

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