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Title: Create your own original title “Additives in the Foods Consumed by the Human Population”

Name Course Section (1017, 1021, etc…) Instructor’s Name Date

INTRODUCTION PROVIDE BACKGROUND INFORMATION HERE AND PURPOSE FOR EACH EXPERIMENT Food additives are used for many reasons.2g of guar gum and the other was 2. The lab that was conducted included three separate experiments involving the use of food products and additives. as shown in Table 1. METHODS In the first experiment three different commonly used thickening agents and one emulsifier (DESCRIBE WHAT THIS IS) were used. These were shaken for 15-20 seconds too. yet the agent itself was measured out it two different weights. guar gum. Quantofix Test Kit strips were used to determine the vitamin C content of . but they were also to sit untouched or results unrecorded for 5-10 minutes longer. cornstarch. as shown in Table 2. and guar gum. These agents were modified food starch. it was added to two vials of the same measurement of vinegar and oil. A specific measurement of cornstarch was added to one vial and modified food starch was added to the other vial. such as enhancing quality. Both were vigorously shaken for 15-20 seconds and the results immediately recorded.0g. In the second experiment students were given three (blind) samples of orange juice at room temperature. The objectives were to compare the chemical and physical properties of three different food thickening/emulsifying agents (NAME THEM). nutritive value or color. test for Vitamin C content of a specific fruit juice and see how storage conditions affect this value and understand how enzymes work more efficiently under specific temperatures for quality food production. Each student was given 10 ml of vinegar to add to 2ml of vegetable oil in two vials. One was 0. With the other agent.

Moves as one piece. Substance Cornstarch Modified food Starch Observations With oil and vinegar after shaking Milky-white color. One was placed at 25degrees C (room temperature) while the other was placed into a water bath at 37 degrees C. Both were left for 15 minutes. then measure the liquid whey and record that volume (Table 4).2g + oil and vinegar Observation after shaking Milky color. the students had to carefully break up the curd with a spatula. dissolved more readily. it was stirred well and then each was set into two different temperate environments. Both Vitamin C concentration and pH levels were recorded. In the third experiment students measured 20ml of milk/buttermilk mixture (WHY WAS BUTTERMILK ADDED TO MILK?) into two separate beakers. RESULTS Table 1: Comparison of cornstarch and modified food starch as thickening agents. In each beaker 8ml of rennin was added to it.each cup of juice (leaving the strip in the juice for 30 seconds). pour the mixtures into beakers lined with cheese cloth. After retrieving each sample. The pH level was also tested for each sample by using long range pH paper and leaving it in the juice for 2 seconds. and separated at a slower rate than the cornstarch. and separated into layers within 10 minutes. Milky-white color. WHY WAS pH MEASURED? The results were compared to the color scale to determine the individual pH level of all three cups of juice. and the results were compared to the color scale to determine the concentration range of ascorbic acid. Shiny surface – looks like “Silly Putty”. Table 2: Comparison of Guar gum measures for use as a thickening agent. did not solidify. Guar Gum 0. Thick gel-like substance. did not mix well or solidify. .

on one end. on the other end. and the oils that are still in the dressing. although better than the cornstarch. Being a consumer of salad dressing products.0g + oil and vinegar Yellowish color. C Beaker Liquid fraction of whey = X ml. Table 3: Ascorbic acid concentration and PH levels of three orange juice samples. If the manufacturer produces a low-calorie line. it seems that the guar gum (using the smaller measurement) would be the best thickening agent to be added to the dressing. Sample Number A (with pulp) B (no pulp) C (from concentrate) Concentration of Ascorbic Acid (mg/L) 500 300 300 PH level 4 4 4 Table 4: Measurements of original volume of milk mixture and remaining liquid whey. C Beaker Liquid fraction of whey = X ml Original volume = 20ml . the guar gum was had most consistency to it. then the manufacturer needs to limit the guar gum levels even more. However. Sample 1 37 deg. Does not move in container.2. was still separating after a period of time. Not fully mixed (became solid before fully mixing). Became solidified. Original volume = 20 ml Calculations: Sample 1 – X / 20 X 100 = X% Sample 2 – X / 20 X 100 = X% CONCLUSION When analyzing the data that was recorded in Table 1 and Table 2. 100-X = X% usable cheese 100-X = X% usable cheese Sample 2 25 deg. if the consumer prefers a lighter texture. or use the modified food starch. therefore producing better consistent results. whereas the cornstarch was quick to separate and the modified food starch. it would be better to use the guar gum –WHY? The guar gum will attract water.

When analyzing the data that was recorded on Table 3 it is apparent that Sample A. It is uncertain why these results were obtained. This implies that the vitamin C concentration. (2) According to the RDA (STATE WHAT THE RDA IS). However. or. had the greatest level of vitamin C concentration. ACTUAL VALUES FOR EACH OJ SAMPLE SHOULD BE NOTED HERE One could conclude that the frozen concentrate keeps its vitamin C concentration level better than those that are not concentrated. the sample provided only contained ___mg of vitamin C. It would also be more cost effective for the consumer because they would only need to ingest a smaller volume of the frozen concentrate as compared to the others. the different ways that the orange juice is stored. a frozen concentrate orange juice. Apparently Sample 1 should have produced the most useable cheese even though the findings were only X% useable cheese product. which does not meet the RDA. When reading through the data on the table it is noticeable that all three samples have the same pH levels. This enables the rennin enzyme to work at its maximum capacity. as compared to Sample B that was Florida’s Natural pulp (not concentrate). but was in fact a bit warmer than that. according to the lab director. and the room temperature has no direct relation to the level of the pH found in these three orange juice samples. It would be more beneficial for the consumer to buy the frozen concentrated orange juice if they prefer to ingest the highest level of vitamin C possible with these juices. and Sample C that was pulp-free (not concentrate) juice. there was a flaw in this experiment. calculations predicting a X% useable cheese product. One idea is that the room temperature was truly not 25 degrees. When analyzing the data that was recorded on Table 4 it would seem that Sample 2 would produce the most useable cheese. The hotter temperature should have produced the greater useable cheese because this temperature represents a normal body temperature. the rennin .

Until another experiment is done. a through and accurate analysis of this finding cannot be completed.that was used was bad (outdated. or not stored properly). .