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Histology of thyroid gland Cell Size/Shape Follicular Cells Smaller, cuboidal cells, squamous during rest, columnar

during active Central rounded Nuclei Basophilic Cytoplasm Basal surface resting on basement membrane, apical towards Resting lumen Site Organelles Polypeptide secreting cells features: -Mitochondria -Golgi complex is supranuclear -rER -Small secretory granules are apical towards lumen -Lysosomes -Phagosomes Secrete thyroid hormones Function Parafollicular Cells Larger

Pale (clear cells) Basal surface resting on basement membrane, but apical never towards lumen Polypeptide secreting cells features: -Mitochondria -rER -Golgi complex is infranuclear -Small dense secretory granules towards capillary bed

Secrete calcitonin

Histology of Suprarenal glands Part (Beside Stroma) Cortex -Mesodermal in origin (coelomic mesoderm) -Same origin as endocrine cells of gonads Medulla -Ectodermal in origin (neural crest) -Same origin as sympathetic system -3 populations of parenchymal cells: 1) Chromaffin cells 2) Sympathetic ganglion cells 3) Lymphocyte-like cells Zona Reticularis 7% Irregular cords anastomose Large ovoid Rounded groups or short cords,

Volume Shape Arrangement
Created by QI

Zona Glomerulosa 15% Columnar/Pyramidal Closely packed, rounded or

Zona Fasciculata 65% Polyhedral Cords 1 or 2 cells, thick,

Nuclei arched clusters surrounded by BC Dense. numerous Small. large. basal Cytoplasm Lipid Droplet Organelles Acidophilic. acidophilic vacuoles (spongiocytes) Numerous (cholesterol and Few ascorbic acid) Steroid secreting cells Steroid secreting cells features features (lipofuscin pigments are characteristic in this layer) intimately related to BC Large spherical Pale basophilic Polypeptide secreting cells features: -rER -Mitochondria -Golgi complex -Secretory granules containing catecholamines NEP cells -Large granules -Eccentric electron dense core within limiting membrane of granules EP cells -Small -Less dense granules -Their contents fill the granules Secretes catecholamines Function Secrete mineralcorticoids mainly aldosterone which maintains electrolyte and water balance Secrete glucocorticoids Secretes androgens and few glucocorticoids Created by QI . vesicular Some cells near suprarenal medulla are dark cells with pyknotic nuclei. slightly vacuolated Few Steroid secreting cells features: -Smooth ER -Mitochondria with tubular cristae separated by longitudinally together enclosing arranged fenestrated BC fenestrated BC in between Pale. suggesting they are degenerating cells Acidophilic.