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Cardiovascular medicine

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions HMG-CoA: · Side effects: Hepatotoxicity Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis] · Contraindications: Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children · Interactions: Coumarin/ Cyclosporine

Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS: Bretylium Ibutilide Amiodarone Sotalol Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE: Asthma Block (heart block) COPD Diabetes mellitus Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

Clopidogrel: use CLOPIdogrel is a drug that prevents CLots, an Oral Platelet Inhibitor (OPI).

Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P's: Prolongs action potential duration Photosensitivity Pigmentation of skin

Peripheral neuropathy Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidism

Beta blockers: members "The NEPAL Prime Minister": Timolol Nadolol Esmolol Pindolol Atenolol Labetalol Propranolol Metoprolol

Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH: Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF Angina Migranes Atrial flutter, fibrillation Supraventricular tachycardia Hypertension · Alternatively: "CHASM": Cererbral vasospasm / CHF Hypertension Angina Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia Migranes

Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers "Tim Pinches His Nasal Problem" (because he has a runny nose...): Timolol Pindolol Hismolol Naldolol Propranolol

Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV MBA College· In order of class I to IV: Membrane stabilizers (class I) Beta blockers Action potential widening agents Calcium channel blockers Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action, monitoring EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa. Monitor Xa concentration, rather than APTT

Pharmacology Mnemonics
anti hyprtensive safe for pregnancy are--My N.H.L --M-methyl dopa.. N-nifedipine... H-hydralazine.. L-labetalol. methyldopa M = mental retardation E = electrolyte imbalance T = tolerance H = headache/ hepatotoxicity, rebound HTN Y = psYchological upset D = dry mouth, drowsiness O = oedema, orthostatic hypotension P = Parkinsonism A = Anemia [+ve coomb's test] sodium nitroprusside clinical uses: MR. CHIEF SURGERY IN EMERGENCY Mr. = Acute MI chief = Acute CHF Surgery = maintain hemostasis during surgeries emergency = hypertensive emergencies antihypertensives used in emergencies............. Saurav Ganguly HELP

S-sodium nitroprusside G-GTN H-hydralazine E-esmolol L-labetalol P-phentolamine

Pharmacological classification of drugs
5 HT antagonists Cyproheptadine methysergide kentaserin clozapine risperidone ondansetron granisetron tropisetron 5 HT agonists sumaptriptan, almotriptan naratriptan zolmitriptan rizatriptan ergot alkaloids A. Natural ergot alkaloids - may be considered as derivatives of lysergic acid. (a) amine alkaloid - ergometrine (ergonovine) : oxytocic (b) amino acid alkaloids - ergotamine, ergotoxine (mixture of ergocristine + ergocornine + ergocryptine) : vasoconstrictor and alpha adrenergic blocker B. Other semisynthetic derivatives (a) dihydroergotamine (DHE), dihydroergotoxine (codergocrine) : antiadrenergic, cerebroactive (b) 2 -bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (bromocriptine) : dopaminergic (c) methysergide :anti 5 HT

terbutaline. Bronchodilators adr. mephentermine. Cns stimulants amphetamine. sibutramine dexfenfluramine. Uterine relaxants & vasodilators ritodrine. Therapeutic classification 1. Indirect. phenylephrine. xylometazoline. methoxamine. Direct sympathomimeticsadr. formoterol 4. 7.phenoxybenzamine . amphetamine. dopamine. Mixed. dobutamine isoprenaline ADI 3. ephedrine. salmeterol. salbutamol isoxsuprine. 6. isoprenaline. Nonequiliarium type beta haloalkylamines. methoxamine. phenylephrine. phenyl propanolamine 5. mephentermine DEM2NP 2. Anorectics fenfluramine. na. salbutamol(albuterol) iso. Pressor agents na.1. salbutamol. methamphetamine dexamphetamine. Alpha Adrenergic Blockers 1. Cardiac stimulants adr. naphazoline xylometazoline. Nasal decong phenylephrine.etc 2.tyramine 3. pseudoephedrine oxymetazoline.ephedrine. terbutaline.

Alpha-1 selective prazosin. c.yohimbine Androgens Natural Testes .dehydroepiandrosterone. oxymetholone. Equilibrium type (competitive) | nonselective a. ketanserin.testosterone. Anabolic steroids nandrolone. methandienone. phentolamine d. terazosin. Hydrogenated ergot alkaloids. ergotoxine b. dihydroergotoxine.ergotamine.tolazoline. Alpha-2 selective. Synthetic androgens 17-alkyl substituted derivatives of testosterone methyltestosterone. ||. Imidazolines.androsterone.chlorpromazine. doxazosin. Impeded androgens/antiandrogens danazol cyproterone acetate flutamide bicalutamide 5 alpha reductase inhibitor finasteride .2. stanozolol. dihydrotestosterone adrenal cortex . tamsulosin |||. fluoxymesterone other . Ergot alkaloids. Miscellaneous.used in male pattern baldness . mesterolone. androstenedione (weak androgens) testosterone metabolite .dihydroergotamine.testosterone undecanoate.

nitrendipine.tetracyclines. (b) for extraintestinal amoebiasis only chloroquine 2. atenolol and others. Alkaloids . satranidazole.isosorbide dinitrate (short acting by sublingual route). trimetazidine. pinacidil. cromakalim.Antiamoebics 1. Others dipyridamole.diloxanide furoate (b) 8 hydroxyquinolines . minoxidil. Antianginal Drugs 1. Tissue amoebicides (a) for both intestinal & extraintestinal amoebiasis nitroimidazoles . Luminal amoebicides (a) amide .diltiazem (c)dihydropyridines. clioquinol). isosorbide mononitrate.emetine. 4. tinidazole. Nitrates (a)short acting. ornidazole. isd sublingualy 2.metronidazole. diiodohydroxyquin (iodoquinol) (c) antibiotics . lacidipine. erythrityl tetranitrate.quiniodochlor (iodochlorohydroxyquin. Potassium channel opener nicorandil. To abort or terminate attack GTN. dehydroemetine. secnidazole.glceryl trinitrate (b)long acting. oxyphedrine clinical classi 1. penta erythritol tetranitrate.verapamil (b)benzothiazepine.nifedipine.other drugs . 2. amlodipine. diazoxide 5. nimodipine. felodipine. Chronic prophylaxis. 3. metoprolol. Beta blockers propanolol. Calcium channel blockers (a)phenyl alkylamine.

Synthetic compounds (a) mydriatics-cyclopentolate. Purine antagonist 6-mercaptopurine 6-thioguanine azthioprine 3. hyoscine butyl bromide. cycrimine. hyoscine (scopolamine) 2.trihexyphenidyl. Natural alkaloids-atropine. Semisynthetic derivativeshomatropine. ethopropazine. oxyphenonium. atropine methonitrate. tiatropium bromide. pipenzolate methyl bromide. telenzepine (c) antiparkinsonian. Pyrimidine antagonist 5-fluorouracil cytarabine Anti Cholinergics 1. ipratropium bromide. procyclidine. tropicamide. pirenzepine. AntiCoagulants In vitro 1. Heparin 150 U for 350 ml blood 2. Folate antagonist methotrexate 2. clidinium. glycopyrolate. 3. flevoxate. Calcium complexing agents . isopropamide.Anticancer Antimetabolites 1. benztropine. biperiden. oxybutynin. (b) antisecretory-spasmodics(1)quaternary compounds-propantheline. (2)tertiary-dicyclomine.

65 g for 350ml sodium edetate 2mg for 1ml sodium oxalate 10mg for 1ml in vivo 1. amineptine. Anticholinergics hyoscine. mirtazapine. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine.sodium citrate 1. lepirudin. trimipramine. dothiepin. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) A. sertraline. doxepin. H 1 antihistaminics promethazine. Atypical antidpressants trazodone. low molecular weight heparin heparinoids . mianserin. clomipramine. fluvoxamine. acenocoumarol (nicoumalone). citalopram. ethylbiscoumacetate (b) indandione derivative phenindione Antidepressents 1. Heparin. amitriptyline. Oral anticoagulant (a)coumarin derivatives bishydroxycoumarin (dicumarol) warfarin sodium. bupropion. amoxapine. tianeptine. nortriptyline. meclozine. cinnarizine 3. dicyclomine 2. NA + 5-HT reuptake inhibitors imipramine. ancrod. clorgyline 2. dimenhydrinate. Neuroleptics . diphenhydramine. cyclizine. Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs) moclobemide.heparan sulfate. 4. danaparoid 2. 3. venlafaxine. B. paroxetine. Antiemetics 1. Predominantly NA reuptake inhibitors desipramine.

benzodiazepines.chlorpromazine. haloperidol. Antibiotics (a) polyenes . 8.vigabatrin. hamycin. tiagabine. (systemic) . clobazam. Other topical agents .amphotericin B (AMB). Iminostilbene . Adjuvant antiemetics dexamethasone.ketoconazole B. domperidone.lamotrigine 9.phenytoin 4. Antifungal 1.carbamazepine 5. natamycin (pimaricin) (b) heterocyclic benzofuran . mosapride 5.flucytosine (5-FC) 3. Prokinetic drugs metoclopramide. Antimetabolite . levetiracetam.phenobarbitone 2. Deoxybarbiturate. Phenyltriazine . nystatin. cisapride. miconazole. Hydantoin . Azoles A. Benzodiazepines clonazepam. 4.valproic acid (sodium valproate) 7. Triazoles (systemic) . Imidazoles (topical) . Barbiturate . granisetron 6.terbinafine 5. Succinimide . Allylamine . econazole.primidone 3.fluconazole. Cyclic GABA analogue . Aliphatic carboxylic acid . topiramate.ethosuximide 6. cannabinoids Antiepileptics 1.clotrimazole. Newer drugs . diazepam. prochlorperazine. etc 4. 5HT antagonists ondansetron. itraconazole.griseofulvin 2.gabapentin 10.

pyrantel pamoate. quininiodochlor. brugia malayi diethyl carbamazine. albendazole. pyrantel 2. albendazole. tetramisole. Trichinella spiralis albendazole 7. sod. albendazole. Tape worms taenia saginata praziquantel. albendazole. ivermectin.Mebendazole. levamisole. Thread worm enterobius (oxyuris) vermicularis Mebendazole. diethyl carbamazine citrate. niclosamide .tolnaftate. Filaria wuchereria bancrofti. albendazole. Guinea worm dracunculus medinesis metronidazole 9. ivermectin 8. Strongyloides stercoralis ivermectin 5. pyrantel 3. Hook worm ancylostomat duodenale Mebendazole. Whip worm trichuris trichiura mebendazole 6. ciclopirox olamine. niclosamide. undecylenic acid. praziquantel. Round worm ascaris lumbricoides .Mebendazole. 1. benzoic acid. pyrantel 4. thiosulfate Antihelminthics Mebendazole. pyrantel necator americanus .

multilocularis albendazole Antihistaminics Clinical classification 1. Second generation antihistaminics terfenadine fexofenadine loratadine astemizole desloratadine cetirizine . e.taenia solium praziquantel hymenolepis nana praziquantel neurocysticercosis albendazole 10. Highly sedative diphenhydramine dimenhydrinate promethazine hydroxyzine 2. Hydatid disease echinococcus granulosus. Mild sedative chlorpheniramine mepyramine cyclizine clemastine triprolidine 4. Moderately sedative pheniramine cyproheptadine meclizine buclizine cinnarizine 3.

furosemide. 6. felodipine. . Central sympatholytics clonidine. Calcium channel blockers verapamil. atenolol. 4. phenoxybezamine. lisinopril. irbesartan 3. Alpha adrenergic blockers prazosin.hydrochlorothiazide. doxazosin.hydralazine. lacidipine. etc. amiloride 5. amlodipine. metoprolol. triampterene. K+ sparing.spironolactone. ramipril 2.na nitroprusside. candesartan. nitrendipine. Arteriolar + venous. carvedilol 7. methyldopa 9. Vasodilators arteriolar. indapamide high ceiling. 8. nifedipine. ACE inhibitors captopril. Angiotensin (AT1) antagonists losartan. Beta + alpha blockers labetalol. perindopril. Beta adrenergic blockers propranolol. diltiazem. etc.azelastine mizolastine ebastine Antihypertensives 1. terazosin. minoxidil. Diuretics thiazides. chlorthalidone. diazoxide. enalapril. phentolamine.

quinacrine) 4. (b) antihistaminics . 9.clofazimine 3. minocycline. 11.carbidopa. Biguanides .bromocriptine. Napthoquinone . Sesquiterpine lactones . Phenazine derivative .rifampin.Antileprotics 1. Sulfonamides and sulfone . bulaquine 8. promethazine . ropinirole. arteether.pyrimethamime 7. artemether. doxycycline 10.dapsone (DDS) 2. biperiden. 8-aminoquinoline . Drugs affecting brain cholinergic system (a) central anticholinergics trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol).quinine 5.selegiline (e) COMT inhibitor . clarithromycin.halofantrine 12. Quinoline methanol . Tetracyclines .primaquine. ethionamide 4.mepacrine (atabrine. amodiaquine 2. procyclidine.tetracycline. pergolide. Drugs affecting brain dopaminergic system (a) dopamine precursor .ofloxacin. 2. Cinchchona alkaloid . Antitubercular drugs .artesunate. dapsone. Diaminopyrimidines .proguanil (chloroguanide) 6. 4-aminoquinolines . Other antibiotics .entacapone.atovaquone. Antileprotics 1. Antiparkingsonian 1. (d) MAO-B inhibitor .sulfadoxine. (c) dopaminergic agonists .mefloquine 3. sulfamethopyrazine.amantadine.orphenadrine.levodopa (b) peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors . piribedil. Sulfone . Acridine . tolcapone (f) dopamine facilitator . Phenanthrene methanol .chloroquine. pramipexole. benserazide.

salmeterol. theophylline ethanolate or piperazine. salbutamol. acebutolol. With additional alpha blocking poperty. celiprolol. Selective beta2 butoxamine. bisoprolol. carvedilol cardioselective metoprolol. ipratropium bromide. tiatropium bromide. choline theophyllinate. esmolol. sotalol.adrenaline. formoterol. aminophylline. atenolol. II] leukotriene antagonists .Antiplatelets Or antithrombotics Aspirin and other nsaids dipyridamole ticlopidine clopidogrel GP IIb/IIIa antagonist abciximab tirofiban B-Blockers Nonselective a. isoprenaline. (B) methylxanthinestheophylline(anhydrous). terbutaline. ICI 118551 Drugs For Bronchial Asthama |] brochodilators (A) sympathomimetics. (C) anticholinergicsatropine methonitrate. bambuterol. With intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. hydroxyethyl theophylline.propranolol.labetalol. timolol b.pindolol c. Without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. betaxolol.

NOS (not otherwise specified) 2 Infiltrating (invasive) lobular carcinoma 3. Colloid (mucinou) carcinoma 5. Inflammatory carcinoma 10. Medullary carcinoma 4.hydrocortisone. Infiltrating (invasive) duct carcinoma. Tubular carcinoma 7. Secretory (juvenile) carcinoma 9. prednisolone & others (b) inhalational. Invasive carcinoma 1. flunisolide. Intratductal carcinoma 2. Paget's disease of the nipple Cephalosporins First generation .montelukast. budesonide. Lobular carcinoma in situ B. zafirlukast III] mast cell stabilizers sodium chromoglycate. Drugs for Carcinoma of breast A. nedocromil. Adenoid cystic (invasive cribriform) carcinoma 8. Papillary carcinoma 6. fluticasone propionate. Carcinoma with metaplasia C. ketotifen iv] corticosteroids (a) systemic.beclomethasone dipropionate. Non invasive (in situ) carcinoma 1.

parenteral oral cephalothin cephalexin cefazolin cephradine cefadroxil second generation parenteral oral cefuroxime cefaclor cefoxitin cefuroxime axetil third generation parenteral oral cefotaxime cefixime ceftizoxime cefpodoxime proxetil ceftriaxone cefdinir ceftazidime ceftibuten cefoperazone fourth generation parenteral cefepime cefpirome Chelating Agents Dimercaprol (BAL) dimercaptosuccinic acid calcium disodium edetate calcium disodium DPTA disodium edetate desferrioxamine deferiprone d penicillamine Corticosteroids .

. indapamide. bumetanide (b) phenoxyacetic acid derivative. High efficacy diuretics (inhibitors of na+ k+ 2cl. Aldosterone antagonist spironolactone ¡¡. Weak or adjunctive diuretics (a) carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Long acting ( >36 hrs) paramethasone dexamethasone betamethasone mineralocorticoids desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) fludrocortisone aldosterone Diuretics 1.symport) (a) benzothiadiazines (thiazides)chlorothiazide. Intermediate acting (12 .furosemide. Directly acting (inhibitors of renal epithelial na+ channels) triamterene. 3.Glucocorticoids 1. clopamide (b) thiazide likechlorthalidone.cotransport) (a) sulphamoyl derivatives. hydroflumethiazide. metolazone. Medium efficacy diuretics (inhibitors of na+ cl. (b) potassium sparing diuretics¡.mersalyl 2.acetazolamide. xipamide. benzthiazide. Short acting (biological t 1/2 <12 hrs) hydrocortisone (cortisol) cortisone 2. amiloride.ethacrynic acid (c) organomercurials.36 hrs) prednisolone methylprednisolone triamcinolone 3. hydrochlorothiazide.

isosorbide.sulfate. (d) xanthines.phenolphthalein. agar agar 2. bisacodyl (b) anthraquinones (emodins) senna. Osmotic purgatives Mg salts . methylcellulose. Bulk forming dietary fibre: bran.theophylline.(c) osmotic diuretics mannitol. Stimulant purgatives (a) diphenylmethanes .tartarate lactulose 5.pot. psyllium (plantago) ispaghula. Newer prokinetics 5 HT3 antagonist alosterone 5 HT4 antagonist tegesterone Fibrinolytics (thrombolytics) Streptokinase urokinase alteplase . liquid paraffin 3. cascara sagrada (c) fixed oil castor oil 4. hydroxide na salts . Drugs for Constipation Laxatives (aperients. Stool softner (emolients) docusates (DOSS).sulfate. cathartics) 1. glycerol. purgatives. phosphate sod.

probucol plasma expanders human albumin dextran degraded gelatin polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydroxyethyl starch (hetastarch) IMMUNOSUPRESENTS 1. pravastatin. Activate lipoprotein lipase (fibric acid derivatives) clofibrate. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors lovastatin. pravastatin. gemfibrozil 4. simvastatin. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors lovastatin. Bile acid sequestrants (resins) colestipol cholestyramine 3. Bile acid sequestrants (resins) colestipol . bezafibrate. fenofibrate. simvastatin.Hypolipidemics 1. atorvastatin 2. Others gugulipid. Inhibit triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis nicotinic acid 5. atorvastatin 2.

Activate lipoprotein lipase (fibric acid derivatives) clofibrate. gemfibrozil 4.cholestyramine 3. Ferric glycerophosphate parenteral 1. Inhibit triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis nicotinic acid 5. iron calcium complex 9. Others gugulipid. bezafibrate. fenofibrate. probucol plasma expanders human albumin dextran degraded gelatin polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydroxyethyl starch (hetastarch) Iron Preparations Oral 1. Ferrous sulfate 20% 2. Iron sorbitol citric acid complex 50mg/dl . Ferrous succinate 6. Colloidal ferric hydroxide 50% 5. Iron dextran 50mg/dl 2. Ferrous aminoate 7. Ferrous gluconate 12 3. Ferrous fumarate 33% 200mg 4. Iron choline citrate 8.

chloroprocaine 2. short duration procaine. High potency. Intermediate potency and duration lignocaine (lidocaine) prilocaine 3. Intermediate potency and duration lignocaine (lidocaine) prilocaine 3. long duration tetracaine (amethocaine) bupivacaine ropivacaine dibucaine (cinchocaine) surface anaesthetic soluble insoluble cocaine benzocaine lignocaine butylaminobenzoate tetracaine (butamben) benoxinate oxethazaine Local Anaesthetics Injectable 1. Low potency. chloroprocaine 2. short duration procaine. High potency. Low potency.Local Anaesthetics Injectable 1. long duration tetracaine (amethocaine) bupivacaine ropivacaine dibucaine (cinchocaine) surface anaesthetic soluble insoluble .

lymphangioma.intermediate cell carcinoma c . leiomyoma. Dysplasia and carcinoma in situ C. lipoma. pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) 2. Solid carcinoma with mucus formatiom 4. granular cell myoblastoma . Adenocarcinoma a. Soft tissue tumours fibroma.oat cell carcinoma b .cocaine benzocaine lignocaine butylaminobenzoate tetracaine (butamben) benoxinate oxethazaine Lung tumors I. chondroma. Adenoma B. Large cell carcinoma 5. Benign 1. Adenosquamous carcinoma other carcinomas 1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma II. Bronchiolo . leiomyosarcoma. Small cell carcinoma a . Malignant bronchogenic carcinoma 1.alveolar carcinoma d. Bronchial gland tumours a. fibrosarcoma. Squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma 2. hemangioma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma b. Epithelial tumours A.combined oat cell carcinoma 3. Acinar adenocarcinoma b. Papillary adenocarcinoma c. Papilloma 2.

Indole derivatives . Inflammatory pseudotumours NSAIDS A. Pulmonary blastoma 3. Secondary tumours VI. Nonselective COX inhibitors (conventional NSAIDS) 1. Preferential COX 2 inhibitors nimesulide. Benign mesothelioma b. Salicylates . Anthranilic acid derivative. Oxicam derivatives . Malignant carcinoma IV.piroxicam.mephenamic acid 6. Pleural tumours a. Aryl acetic acid derivatives . 4. meloxicam. diflunisal 2. Hamartomas 2. Pyrayolone derivatives phenylbutazone.diclofenac 7. Selective COX 2 inhibitors celecoxib.III. tenoxicam. B. Tumour like lesions 1. ketoprofen.pyrrole derivative . C. Pyrrolo. valdecoxib. naproxen. . oxyphenbutazone 3. Malignant melanoma 4.indomethacin. Miscellaneous tumours 1. sulindac. flurbiprofen. 5. rofecoxib.aspirin. Carcinosarcoma 2. Malignant lymphoma V. nabumetone. Eosinophilic granulomas 3. 8. Propionic acid derivatives ibuprofen.ketorolac.

nonanalgesic benzoisoquinoline derivatives papaverine noscapine(narcotine) both nonanalgesic opioid analgesics 1. tramadol. methadone. Paraaminophenol derivative. Analgesic. pholcodeine. dextropropoxyphene.paracetamol (acetaminophen) 2. Complex action & opiod antagonists 1. Semisynthetic opiatesdiacetylmorphine (heroin). codeine 2. Agonists .D. ethoheptazine. .metamizol (dipyrone). Synthetic opiods pethidine (meperidine).antagonists (a) not used as analgesic nalorphine (b) used as analgesic (kappa acting) .antipyretics with poor antiinflammatory action 1.morphine. propiphenazone.pentazocine.nefopam Opioids opiums Phenanthrene derivatives morphine codeine thebaine. 3. Benzoxazocine derivative . nalbuphine. Natural opium alkaloids . Pyrazolone derivatives . butorphanol. 3. fentanyl.

choline esters 2.2. naltrexone. Partial/weak mew agonist buprenorphine 3.Alkaloids acetylcholine muscarine methacholine pilocarpine carbachol arecholine bethanechol . Pure antagonists naloxone. nalmefene Oral Hypoglycemics SULFONYLUREAS fist gen second gen tolbutamide glibenclamide chlorpropamide (glyburide) glipizide gliclazide glimepiride BIGAUNIDES phenformin metformin MEGLITINIDE analogues repaglinide nateglinide THIAZOLIDINEDIONES rosiglitazone pioglitazone AIPHA GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS acarbose miglitol holinergic agonists1.

ANTICHOLINESTERASES (1) Reversible carbamates acridine physostigmine tacrine neostigmine pyridostigmine edrophonium rivastigmine donepezil (2) irreversible organophosphates carbamates dyflos carbaryl ecothiophate propoxur insect-parapthion malathion diazinon nerve gas-tabun sarin soman Quinolones Nalidixic acid first generation fluoroquinolones norfloxacin ofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Pefloxacin .

carbenicillin phenyl (carfecillin). oxacillin. Penicillinase resistant penicillins methicillin. cloxacillin 3.carbenicillin.ampicillin. ticarcillin (c) ureidopenicillins . amoxicillin (b) carboxzpenicillins . bacampicillin. Extended spectrum penicillins (a) aminopenicillins . mezlocillin (d) mecillinam (amdinocillin) .Second gen lomefloxacin Sparfloxacin levofloxacin Gatifloxacin Moxifloxacin Drugs for Scabies Permethrin lindan (BHC gamma benzene hexachloride) benzyl benzoate crotamiton sulfur dicophane (DDT) ivermectin Semisynthetic Penicillins 1. carbenicillin indanyl. Acid resistant alternative to penicillin G phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V) 2.piperacillin.

pipecuronium. Mephenesin group mephenesin.baclofen 4. chlorzoxazone. Directly acting agents quinine. . 2. cisatracurium (c) short acting . neuromuscular blocking agents A. atracurium. GABA derivative . dantrolene sodium. Benzodiazepines diazepam and others 3. methocarbamol.vecuronium. carisoprodol. chlormezanone. rocuronium. (b) intermediate acting .beta lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid sulbactam tazobactam Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Peripherally acting 1. decamethonium 2. doxacurium. Depolarising agents succinylcholine (suxamethonium) (c-10). Non depolarizing (competitive) blockers (a) long acting. pancuronium.mivacurium B. Centrally acting 1.d-tubocurarine. Central alpha 2 agonist tizanidine. rapacuronium.

iodides of na & k. sulfasalazine. Special purpose sulfacetamide sod. silver sulfadiazine. Long sulfamethopyrazine 4. Inhibit hormone release iodine.Sulphonemides 1. sulfamoxole 3. carbimazole. perchlorates (-CLO4). 125 i. mafenide. Intermediate sulfamethoxazole. oranic iodide. Inhibit iodide trapping ( ionic inhibitors) thiocyanates (-SCN). . 123 i) 1 & 2 are called goitrogens Uterine Drugs Uterine stimulants (oxytocics. methylergometrine . Posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin 2. 4. Ergot alkaloids ergometrine (ergonovine). Destroy thyroid tissue radioactive iodine ( 131 i. Thyroid Inhibitors 1. 2. methimazole. abortifacients) 1. nitrates (-NO3). ecbolics. Inhibit hormone synthesis (antithyroid drugs) propylthiouracil. 3. Short acting sulfadiazine 2.

Antimuscarinics: members. ibuprofen. terbutaline. Adrenergic agonists ritodrine. 15-methyl PGF 2alpha. action "Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat": Ipratropium Pirenzepine Atropine Scopolamine . Ccb specially nifedipine 4. PGF 2alpha. quinine uterine relaxants/tocolytics 1. Progesterone 7. diazoxide. Ethyl alcohol 6. Miscellaneous nitrates. salbutamol isoxsuprine. Magnesium sulfate 3. indomethacin 5. atropine.3. Prostaglandins PGE 2. misoprostol 4. 2. • A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson's-type effect. phhenothiazines Pharmac Mneumonic (Random) PHARM PNEUMONICS Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs "Go BAN Me!” Gold Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine Nitrofurantoin Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide MPTP: mechanism. Miscellaneous ethacridine. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor aspirin. effect MPTP: Mitochondrial Parkinson's-Type Poison.

Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM: Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating Lacrimation Urination Gastrointestinal upset Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia Miosis Sulfonamide: major side effects • Sulfonamide side effects: Steven-Johnson syndrome Skin rash Solubility low (causes crystalluria) . avascular necrosis of the femoral head Glycosuria Osteoporosis. obesity Immunosuppression Diabetes Beta blockers with CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism "I Met Tim Carver. thinning. the metabolic polymorph": • The following beta blockers require dose adjustment due to CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism: Metoprolol Timolol Carvedilol (in patients with lower or higher than normal CYP2D6 activity) Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart that rolls on pinwheels. Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics TAP CAP: Thalidomide Androgens Progestins Corticosteroids Aspirin & indomethacin Phenytoin Steroid side effects CUSHINGOID: Cataracts Ulcers Skin: striae. Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively.• Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic. bruising Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia Infections Necrosis. making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.

) Hypertension: treatment ABCD: ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also) Beta blockers Calcium antagonists Diuretics Narcotics: side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug dealer": Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs Constipation Respiratory depression Addiction Miosis Sex hormone drugs: male "Feminine Males Need Testosterone": Fluoxymesterone Methyltestosterone Nandrolone Testosterone Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH: Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF Angina Migranes . O through Z: B1. Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin: RSV Influenza B Arenaviruses (Lassa. Propanalol. Bolivian. drugs of choice: "Military General Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing 'Veni Vedi Veci' After Crushing Enemies": • Epilepsy types: Myoclonic Grand mal Atonic West syndrome Focal Petit mal (absence) • Respective drugs: Valproate Valproate Valproate ACTH Carbamazepine Ethosuximide Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism "Topple the Queen": Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II. Timolol. B2 non-selective: Pindolol.Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albuminbinders like warfarin) Epilepsy types. etc. B1-B2 non-selective A through N: B1 selective: Acebutalol. Metoprolol. Esmolol. Atenolol. Beta blockers: B1 selective vs.

5-1. ciprofloxacin) Cardiac drugs (digoxin. Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS: Antibiotics (biaxin. .5) Toxicity = 2. naproxin) Muscle relaxants Seizure medicines Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE: Myosis Out of it (sedation) Respiratory depression Pneumonia (aspiration) Hypotension Infrequency (constipation. Tetan). Lithium (. lidocaine) Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics) Theophylline Ethanol Corticosteroids H2 blockers Antiparkinsonian drugs Narcotics (esp. urinary retention) Nausea Emesis Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored medications "The magic 2s": Digitalis (. mepridine) Geriatric psychiatric drugs ENT drugs Insomnia drugs NSAIDs (eg indomethacin.6-1.Atrial flutter. Mandole. fibrillation Supraventricular tachycardia Hypertension • Alternatively: "CHASM": Cererbral vasospasm / CHF Hypertension Angina Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia Migranes Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs "PM PMT" as in Pre Medical Test in the PM: Procarbazine Metronidazole Cefo (Perazone. penicillin.2) Toxicity = 2.

Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV MBA College • In order of class I to IV: Membrane stabilizers (class I) Beta blockers Action potential widening agents Calcium channel blockers Opiods: mu receptor effects "MD CARES": Miosis Dependency Constipation Analgesics Respiratory depression Euphoria Sedation Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF: Alkylating agents Bleomycin Cisplastin .Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20. APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200. Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20. Beta = Dilate. Diuretics: thiazides: indications "CHIC to use thiazides": CHF Hypertension Insipidous Calcium calculi Migraine: prophylaxis drugs "Very Volatile Pharmacotherapeutic Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis": Verpamil Valproic acid Pizotifen Amitriptyline Flunarizine Methysergide Propranolol Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD: Alpha = Constrict.

neostigmine LMNOP: Lipid soluble Miotic Natural Orally absorbed well Physostigmine • Neostigmine. on the contrary. the CIA is after me": Clomipramine Imipramine Amitrptyline • If want the next 3 worth knowing. leuprolide) Busulfan: features ABCDEF: Alkylating agent Bone marrow suppression s/e CML indication Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing "I have to hide.Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin Etoposide Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen. Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment "Come In and Close the door": INdomethacin is used to Close PDA. Scotty": Beta 1 blockers: . Physostigmine vs. the DNDis also after me: Desipramine Norrtriptyline Doxepin Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE: Amiodarone Procainamide Arsenium Cisapride Haloperidol Eritromycin Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM: Hyperthermia Autonomic instability (delirium) Rigidity Myoclonus Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a TEratogen that causes staining of TEeth in the newborn. is: Water soluble Used in myesthenia gravis Synthetic Poor oral absorption Beta 1 selective blockers "BEAM ONE up.

• Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc. AUR. NSAIDs Barbiturates Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine Diuretic (thiazide) K+ increasing agents K-BANK: K-sparing diuretic Beta blocker ACEI NSAID K supplement . aurothioglucose: category and indication Aurum is latin for "gold" (gold's chemical symbol is Au). bulemia] Imagined illnesses [hypochondria] Social phobias • Listed in decreasing order of importance. Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS: Bretylium Ibutilide Amiodarone Sotalol MAOIs: indications MAOI'S: Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression] Anxiety Obesity disorders [anorexia. Generic Aur.Acts Upon Rheumatoid.Esmolol Atenolol Metropolol Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members CHAMP: Cyclophosphamide Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine Auranofin and other gold compounds Methotrexate Penicillamine Auranofin.drugs (Auranofin. • If didn't learn yet that gold's indication is rheumatoid arthritis. SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD: Analgesics: opioids. Aurothioglucose) are gold compounds.

and drug is used for intubation. then Sucks ions in through open pore.. dupuytrens / vit D def. leucocytosis Anti-epileptic side Effects ABCDEFGH Ataxia.Reserpine action: Reserpine depletes the Reserves of catecholamines [and serotonin]. hepatitis / hairy . blood dyscrasia.!! ACEI. taste. Renal impairment. use Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor. palpitations.. anaphylaxis. exfoliation of skin & Stevens Johnson’s. Succinylcholine: action. You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube. cleft lip. impotence. Potassium (↑K+).!! Mnemonics For Side Effects. Beta-blockers: side effects "BBC Loses Viewers In Rochedale": Bradycardia Bronchoconstriction Claudication Lipids Vivid dreams & nightmares -ve Inotropic action Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia Mnemonics Related to Side Effects. Side Effects CAPTOPRIL Cough. GI upset / gum hypertrophy.. Fits. orthostatic ↓BP.

hallucinations Cardiac – ANY arrhythmia K . Urination. hypertension TCAD side Effects . emesis.Hyper K+. ulcers Eyes – blurring. salivation / sweating Cyclosporin Side Effects 4HRT 4H . Hyperthermia.Barbiturate side Effects ABCD Ataxia. delirium. halo. hairy R – Renal toxicity T .Tremor Digoxin S/E GECCKO GIT – n&v. bronchorrea Bradycardia. xanthopsia CNS – depression. Miosis / muscle weakness. depression / drowsy / diplopia Cholinergic OD side Effects DUMB BELS Diarrhoea. hypertension. confusion. gum hypertrophy. lacrimation.low MAOI side Effects 3Hs Hepatocellular jaundice. abdo pain. behavioural disturbance. ↓concentration / coma.

Myopathy (prox) / muscle wasting (prox) Cushingoid / Cataract. Hypertension / hairy. Heartburn Cataract. Gastric Ulcer (bleeding). Acne / Altered Glucose. Overdose. Infection. Striae. Thin skin Increased appetite.CAN WOO Cvs. Osteoporosis. Muscle weakness. Immunosuppression. Glycosuria. Myopathy. poor wound healing. Anticholinergic. Obesity / Osteoporosis / Oedema. Withdrawal. Neuro. Others Steroids Side Effects HIGH COMPACT IMPS Hypertension. stress response reduced Or AM CUSHINGOID Acne. Cushingoid. skin thin (bruising). Ulcers. Depression . Path # / Psychosis. Immunosuppression / Insomnia.