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Chapter 12

1. Synthesize ways in which people respond to social ostracism.  Although humans are social beings, some level of rejection is an inevitable part of life. Nevertheless, rejection can become a problem when it is prolonged or consistent, when the relationship is important, or when the individual is highly sensitive to rejection. Rejection by an entire group of people can have especially negative effects, particularly when it results in social isolation. The experience of rmake money. Thus ejection can lead to a number of adverse psychological consequences such as loneliness, low self-esteem, aggression, and depression. It can also lead to feelings of insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to future rejection.

2. What is the difference between a job, a career, and a calling?  Essentially they are all the same things; however it all depends on the motivation of the person. A job has the lowest level of motivation, its only motivation is to make money, and thus minimum performance is used at the specific task. A career has a higher level of motivation, where there is some interest in the production, thus productivity has increased. A calling has the highest level of motivation because this is a profession that is considered to be regular or a hobby. 3. Evaluate Csikszentmihlay’s concept of flow. Give a personal example of flow in your life.  According to Csikszentmihalyi, flow is completely focused motivation. It is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate experience in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow, the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. To be caught in the ennui of depression or the agitation of anxiety is to be barred from flow. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task 4. Briefly outline industrial-organizational psychology and its subfield,  Industrial-organizational applies psychological concepts and methods to optimize human potential in the workplace. Personnel psychology, a subfield of I-O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. I-O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology, examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction, and productivity 5. What does research suggest about corporate productivity and employee satisfaction, interviews & performance appraisals?

Assumes that workers are basically lazy. and does not have conflicting goals. sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge. and focuses attention on goals. organizes work.   Theory X i.goal-oriented leadership that sets standards. 7. mediates conflict. and extrinsically motivated by money should be directed from above Theory Y i. etc. 9. Why are specific challenging goals important?  Studies have shown that specific and ambitious goals lead to a higher level of performance than easy or general goals. salary. Studies involve looking at differences in how people set and meet personal goals and go about acquiring new knowledge or skills. What is the difference between task leadership and social leadership and what type of lead ship do you thrive under? What type of leader do you believed you are or you would most likely be?  Social Leadership. Theory Y – managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive. such as enjoyment or satisfaction 6. Theory X – managers believe that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment ii. Intrinsic motivators are rewards we get internally. error-prone. there is a positive linear relationship between goal difficulty and task performance.group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork. As long as the individual accepts the goal. do you support one or the other. Assumes that. What is achievement motivation and what is it important?  Achievement Motivation – Humans seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills. given challenge and freedom. 8. What is Employee engagement and why is it important?  studies of management styles show two basic attitudes that affect how managers do their jobs: i.  Task Leadership. has the ability to attain it. Contrast Theory X or theory-Y. and offers support. Grades. 10.  Extrinsic motivators are rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves Ex. workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativit .