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1. Analyze the two dimensions of emotion and provide personal examples of each.

a. Emotions can be placed along two basic dimensions: i. Arousal (high versus low): the night before a vacation, hard to sleep and wake up early and ready to go. ii. Valence ( pleasant, positive, vs. unpleasant or negative): before public speeking.

2. Describe the physiological changes that occur during emotional arousal.
Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal a. Sympathetic division (arousing) Parasympathetic division (calming) b. Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract c. Decreases SALIVATION Increases d. Perspires SKIN Dries e. Increases RESPIRATION Decreases f. Accelerates HEART Slows g. Inhibits DIGESTION Activates h. Secrete stress hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of stress hormones

3. Synthesize the research findings on the relationship between body states and specific emotions.
a. Individuals watching fearful faces show more activity in the amygalda area compared to those with angry faces. b. The right prefrontal cortex seems to express negative emotions c. The left frontal lobe is responsible for positive moods d. The left frontal lobe has a supply of dopamine receptors. e. The nucleus accumbens is a neural pathway that increases dopamine levels. f. Experienced emotions also require cognition

4. Explain how lie detectors supposedly indicate whether a person is lying. a. lie detection
i. polygraph- lie detector ii. measures changes in: 1. breathing 2. cardiovascular activity 3. perspiration iii. 25% of guilty people are judged innocent by lie detectors iv. 35% of innocent people are judged guilty by lie detectors

5. Discuss gender and personality differences in nonverbal communication.
a. b. c. d. Men are known to express less complex emotions than women. Women are also better at decoding other’s emotional states. Women were more open to their feeling than men. Women were also more likely to be described as empathetic as men. e. Women are more likely to convey happiness while men are more likely to express anger

6. Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood? 7. Describe the effects of facial expressions of emotion.
a. The facial feedback hypothesis states that expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states, and the muscles that signal the body or respond as though we were experiencing those states. b. When we stimulate the facial expressions normally associated with happiness. c. The behavior feedback hypothesis states that if we move our body, as we would when experiencing some emotion; we are likely to feel that emotion to some degree.

c. Compare and contrast the adaption-level phenomenon and the relative deprivation principal. Happiness is relative to both our past experience and our comparison with others.8. The adaptation-level phenomenon is our tendency to assess stimuli by contrasting them with a neutral level that changes with our experience. The relative-deprivation principle is our perception that we are less well off than others with whom we compare ourselves. . b. a.