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# 1. Know the elements of developing a hypothesis. What is a Hypothesis? A hypothesis is an "educated guess".

It can be an educated guess about what nature is doing, or about why nature does what it does. "Hypotheses are single tentative guesses--good hunches--assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiment, intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible." (Eric M. Rogers, "Physics for the Inquiring Mind.“) What makes a statement a scientific hypothesis, rather than just an interesting speculation? A scientific hypothesis must meet 2 requirements: A scientific hypothesis must be testable, and; A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable. It is, in fact, a combination of many ways of analyzing information, finding relationships, and creating new ideas. Scientists try to form hypotheses that explain how nature works. If a hypothesis is contradicted by evidence from experiments or observations, it must be revised or discarded. If a hypothesis is confirmed, it must be tested further. In that very general way, the scientific method is a way of testing and refining ideas to better describe how nature works. 2. Know the difference between Astronomy and Astrology. They are pseudosciences from the Greek pseudo, meaning false. A key characteristic of science is that its claims can be tested and verified. 3. Know how to use the distance formula (d = v / t). 4. The scale of things - know some relative distances from the sun to planets and nearest star. Distance Sun – Earth = 150,000,000 km (1 AU) Proxima Centauri, at a distance of 4.2 light years Venus Closest: 107 million km (.718 AU) Furthest: 109 million km (.728 AU) Average: 108 million km (.722 AU) Closest to Venus from Earth: 40 million km Earth Closest: 147 million km (.98 AU) Furthest: 152 million km (1.1 AU) Average: 150 million km (1 AU)

Synodic and Sidereal time.2 billion km Uranus Closest: 2.35 billion km (9. Zenith = Point on the celestial sphere directly overhead Celestial equator = projection of Earth’s equator onto the celestial sphere North celestial pole = projection of Earth’s north pole onto the celestial sphere The Ecliptic = the projection of Earth’s orbit onto the celestial sphere.45 billion km (29.58 AU) Closest to Saturn from Earth: 1.95 AU) Furthest: 817 million km (5. the celestial equator.1 AU) Closest to Neptune from Earth: 4.88 billion km (19.66 AU) Average: 228 million km (1. Meridian.75 billion km (18.05 AU) Furthest: 1.Mars Closest: 205 million km (1.2 AU) Closest to Uranus from Earth: 2.43 billion km (9.3 billion km 5.4 AU) Average: 4.52 AU) Closest to Mars from Earth: 65 million km Jupiter Closest: 741 million km (4.8 AU) Furthest: 4. Definitions: Zenith.1 AU) Average: 2.46 AU) Average: 779 million km (5.20 AU) Closest to Jupiter from Earth: 588 million km Saturn Closest: 1.55 billion km (30. Ecliptic.50 billion km (30.57 billion km Neptune Closest: 4.51 billion km (10. the celestial poles the ecliptic.38 AU) Furthest: 249 million km (1.4 AU) Furthest: 3.00 billion km (20. .12 AU) Average: 1.

The sun crosses the celestial equator going northward at the point called the vernal equinox. Notice the difference between the orbital period of the moon around Earth (sidereal period) and the length of the lunar phase cycle (synodic period). to find out how much brighter a 3 star is to a 5 star. Moon rotates counter clockwise. know when they rise and set. Know how we define a day.5^2. a month. 6. Use the method I gave in class. For instance.e. Know how to find the difference in brightness between 2 magnitudes. 2. The synodic period = the temporal interval that it takes for an object to reappear at the same point in relation to two or more other objects. The synodic period is the time that elapses between two successive conjunctions with the Sun–Earth line in the same linear order. connecting points of equal longitude.A Meridian (or line of longitude) = the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole. autumnal equinox. (e. and vernal equinox. Phases of the moon. Month = revolution of the Moon around the Earth 9. when the Moon relative to the Sun as observed from Earth returns to the same illumination phase. such as the sun and moon. summer solstice. Earth revolves around Sun counter clockwise. counter clockwise). earth (i.) Sidereal time = time based on the rotation of the earth with reference to the background of stars. where x is the number of levels of magnitude between the two stars. Earth rotates counter clockwise from North pole. That difference is a good illustration of how your view from Earth is produced by the combined motions of Earth and other heavenly bodies..5^x. take 2. so a star of the 3rd magnitude is 6. It crosses the celestial equator going southward at the autumnal equinox and reaches its most southern point at the winter solstice. 7. 8. 1 New 6 am 6 pm 2 Waxing Crescent 8 am 8 pm 3 First Quarter Noon Midnight 4 Waxing Gibbous 4 pm 4 am 5 Full 6 pm 6 am 6 Waning Gibbous 8 pm 8 am 7 Third Quarter Midnight Noon 8 Waning Crescent 4 am 4 pm . Day = rotation of the earth.25 times brighter than a star of the 5th magnitude. Rotations and revolution directions of sun moon.25. revolves around Earth counter clockwise. and you get 6. winter solstice.g. The sun is at its farthest north at the point called the summer solstice.

11. including epicycles (motion of the planets) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543): Heliocentric Universe (Sun in the Center).C. surface structures of the moon. major authority of philosophy until the late middle ages: Universe can be divided in 2 parts: Imperfect. this is also what I wanted you to do in the "temple of the sun" problem). Sun spots Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601): High precision observations of the positions of stars and planets. We spent a lot of time on history of astronomy . The rest of the time the Moon is either above or below the plane of the Earth's orbit and does not pass directly through the Earth's shadow. Rings of Saturn.C. Eudoxus (409 – 356 B. Actual or apparent motion of a body in a direction opposite to that of the (direct) motions of most members of the solar system or of other astronomical systems with a preferred direction of motion. 13.(know where the sun is in the sky from an earth perspective also. unchangeable heavens . Know retrograde. Other inner planets observed from Mars may appear in retrograde motion. but follows different circles at different times of the year: most northerly at the June solstice and most southerly at the December solstice. Mars is one of the inner planets in the solar system. Evidence against Aristotelian belief of “perfect”. Eclipses and nomenclature.): Placing the Earth away from the centers of the “perfect spheres” Ptolemy (140 A. Perfect Heavens (described by spheres) Eratosthenes (~ 200 B.D. Moons of Jupiter. Earth and Venus. 12. A lunar eclipse can only occur if the moon passes a node near full moon.). At the equinoxes.C. The Moon's orbit is inclined about 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit.C.): Model of 27 nested spheres Aristotle (384 – 322 B. The sun appears to move along with the celestial sphere on any given day. Seasons . specifically Mercury. Galileo Galilei (1594 – 1642): Transition from a faith-based “science” to an observation-based science.): Calculation of the Earth’s radius Hipparchus (2nd century B. Measurement of the nightly motion of a “new star” (a supernova) showed no parallax. the sun's path follows the celestial equator. changeable Earth.10.why don't we can them every month? (Eclipses were also used in the history part). The Moon passes through the ecliptic only twice a month at a pair of points called the nodes.): Further refinements.good to organize by dates. A solar eclipse can only occur if the moon passes a node near new moon.

Hipparchus: Hipparchus. Eudoxus. Apollonius' theorem demonstrates that the two models are equivalent given the right parameters.C. but most of the writings of Aristarchus were lost. Aristotle. deferent and epicycles.): Noticed that many things in nature seem to be governed by geometrical or mathematical relations. found a way to measure Earth’s radius. SEE CHAPTER 4 SLIDES . and Ptolemy). or equivalently.17. and his theory was not well known. to explain the apparent motion of the planets and the varying speed of the Moon. Thales: first to study astronomy. the creation of the first star catalog. Aristarchus. Consequently. about two centuries after Aristotle. Pythagoras. principle of uniform circular motion. Hipparchus.C. the first to predict eclipses of the sun and to fix the solstices Pythagoras (~ 570–500 B. who lived during the second century bc. Eratosthenes. He is usually credited with the invention of trigonometry. Apollonius: The hypothesis of eccentric orbits. Eratosthenes: Working in the great library in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. later astronomers tried to describe the motions of the heavens by imagining multiple rotating spheres. Aritarchus: Proposed that Earth rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun. and the discovery of precession. is also attributed to him. Plato.): Plato argued that the most perfect geometrical form was the spherethe perfect heavens must be made up of spheres rotating at constant rates and carrying objects around in circles. Apollonius. This theory is generally correct. Know all the individual Greeks that influenced science and what their contribution was and how it was significant (like was it need as a precursor to other discoveries) (this includes everyone Thales. Plato (428–347 B.

The flow of knowledge . 16. 15.where did it start and move? Library at Alexandria. 800. The study of the astronomy of ancient peoples has been called archaeoastronomy. Archeo-astronomy. carrying knowledge that helped ignite the European Renaissance.D. Eastern scholars headed west to Europe. What did the Babylonians accomplish? Babylonian astronomers were able to predict lunar eclipses and .14. Al-Mamuns House of Wisdom in Baghdad was a great center of learning around A. With the fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453. Egypt. and it clearly shows that trying to understand the heavens is part of human nature.later . Muslim world preserved and enhanced the knowledge they received from the Greeks.solar eclipses with a fair accuracy .

18. AD 140) contained the details of his model. S. Inertia. theories. I. III. Unfortunately. The black-and-white sun symbol hangs from a rectangular sky symbol. When the book was found and translated fromArabic to Latin in the 12th century. it became known as Almagest. observations. (a) 12th-century Mayan symbol believed to represent a solar eclipse. (From the collection of Yerkes Observatory) (c) This wall carving from the ruins of a temple in Vijayanagaara in southern India symbolizes a solar eclipse as two snakes approach the disk of the sun.why did he adopt the heliocentric model? To explain the daily and annual cycles of the sky. there still are many forces in modern society that would shackle the scientific method of open enquiry in ideological chains of one kind or another. sunlight shines between two slabs of stone high on the side of 440-foot-high Fajada Butte to form a dagger of light on the cliff face. etc. . Ptolemy’s great book Mathematical Syntaxis (c. and they called it Al Magisti (The Greatest). Copernicus . (also their interaction with each other) Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630): The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus. 22. A line from a planet to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time. Galileo's challenge of the Church's authority through his assault on the Aristotelian conception of the Universe eventually got him into deep trouble with the Inquisition. (b) The Chinese representation of a solar eclipse shows a monster usually described as a dragon flying in front of the sun. New Mexico. In the ancient Native American settlement known as Chaco Canyon. church. 19. II. he proposed that Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun. observations. and Islam. and a voracious serpent approaches from below. About noon on the day of the summer solstice. The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus. A planet’s orbital period squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun cubed. laws. the dagger of light slices through the center of a spiral pecked into the sandstone. His story certainly constitutes one of the sadder examples of the conflict between the scientific method and "science" based on unquestioned authority. Islamic astronomers preserved and studied the book through the Middle Ages.laws. American. Galileo . 20. Kepler & Tycho: models. Late in his life he was forced to recant publicly his Copernican views and spent his last years essentially under house arrest. America. China. Other cultures N. Mayan: One manuscript contains sophisticated tables that allowed the Maya to predict the motion of Venus and eclipses of the moon.

It can be attractive or repulsive. Newton . Know the four forces in nature. (For example: the wavelength of light depends on the inverse of the frequency). The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. Properties of the Fundamental Forces The strong interaction is very strong. It is basically attractive. There will be no math on the test . 25. but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances.23. Furthermore.BUT you have to know the form of the equations that we used. and acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source. it is very weak. but much weaker than the strong force.this is the most important thing to understand because will use it every day for the whole class. It has a very short range and.too significant for words. but very long ranged. It acts only over ranges of order 10-13 centimeters and is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. 26. The gravitational force is weak. as its name indicates. but very short-ranged. SEE CHAPTER 6 SLIDES . The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. SEE CHAPTER 5 SLIDES 24. Light . it is always attractive. however include angular motion and earth's tides. and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical charge. It is long-ranged. And what physical quantities depend on what variables.

3 x 1017 3 x 1017 .01 0.27.10-7 10-7 . reflecting (SEE CHAPTER 6 SLIDES) Radio.10 10 .4 x 10-5 4 x 10-5 . Know where the telescopes and observatories are.4.you just have to know the sequence . 32. highest energy.3 x 1014 . 31.3 x 1014 4.0. There is a mathematical relationship between the speed or velocity (v) of a wave and the frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) of the wave.4000 4000 . Know the types of telescopes.01 . Visual window.5 x 1014 7. The electromagnetic spectrum . frequency.103 103 . That relationship is expressed by the wave equation v=f•λ 29.7 x 10-5 7 x 10-5 .10-9 < 10-9 Frequency (Hz) < 3 x 109 3 x 109 .0.105 > 105 28.7. Memorize the diameters of major telescopes. Optical: refracting.1 < 0.01 .0. . Know the 2 windows.5 x 1014 . Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation Region Radio Microwave Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-Rays Gamma Rays Wavelength (Angstroms) > 109 109 . Radio window 30.7000 7000 .1 Wavelength (centimeters) > 10 10 .3 x 1019 > 3 x 1019 Energy (eV) < 10-5 10-5 .3 x 1012 3 x 1012 .01 0. wavelength and velocity. highest frequency? But definitely know the order.106 106 .which has longest wavelength. Given 2 of the following quantities find the 3rd.2 2-3 3 . The 4-meter Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona can be used at either the prime focus or the Cassegrain focus.

The entire building rotates as the telescope moves. each 10 meters in diameter. the European Extremely Large telescope (E-ELT) will have a 42-m diameter mirror composed of 906 segments.If built. (Mike Bailey: NRAO/AUII) (b) The 300-m (1000-ft) radio telescope in Arecibo. are located atop the volcano Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Light gathering power. The two mirrors are composed of hexagonal mirror segments as shown at right. resolving power. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) carries two 8.4-m primary mirror. West Virginia. magnifying power . it stands higher than the Statue of Liberty. (a) The largest steerable radio telescope in the world is the GBT located in Green Bank. Puerto Rico. The two Keck telescopes. 33.4-m mirrors that combine their light. With a diameter of 100 m. Know the 3 properties of telescopes. The four telescopes of the VLT are housed in separate domes at Paranal Observatory in Chile. hangs from cables over a mountain valley. The Gran Telescopio Canarias contains 36 hexagonal mirror segments in its 10. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Foundation operated by Cornell University and the National Science Foundation.