Fuel Processing Technology, 26 (1990) 25-37

Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - - Printed in The Netherlands

25

Viscosity Data and Correlation for M i x t u r e s of B i t u m e n Fractions
ROBERT R. EASTICK and ANIL K. MEHROTRA*

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)
(Received June 30th, 1989; accepted in revised form March 30th, 1990)

A SR C BT A T A Cold Lake bitumen sample was distilled under vacuum into five fractions or "cuts". The viscosities of these bitumen fractions differ considerably by several orders of magnitude. The viscosity data over a 60-100°C temperature span are presented for several reconstituted binary blends of these fractions. The effect of temperature on the viscosity of the blends is correlated very well by use of a two-parameter correlation, with average deviations between predicted and experimental values of less than 3%. The validity of a recently proposed viscosity mixing formula, which does not involve any viscous interaction term, is investigated with the new binary blends viscosity data. Also proposed are generalized correlations in terms of the molar mass fractions, for the two parameters in the viscosity-temperature correlation.

INTRODUCTION

In many aspects of oil-sands industry, such as reservoir simulation and pipeline or surface facilities design, the viscosity of the bitumen under consideration is an extremely important property. Due to the diverse nature of bitumens from the vast reservoirs in Alberta, the bitumen viscosity can vary considerably at any given temperature (and pressure). This diversity in bitumen viscosity may be attributed to differences in the bulk composition of the bitumens. Typically, however, bitumens are very viscous at reservoir conditions. Bitumen viscosity decreases dramatically with temperature [1-6] but increases significantly with pressure due to compression effects [7,8]. The addition of gaseous and liquid diluents also has a marked effect on bitumen viscosity. Several calculation methods for the viscosity of bitumens have been presentedein literature [2,7-13]. Recently [14], a two-parameter correlation found suitable for a number of Alberta bitumens [2,7-9,11 ] was shown to cor*To whom correspondence about this paper should be addressed.

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000 0.0 30. Based on these results. In addition.1 20.995 0.0 100. was a glass-like solid at room temperature with a softening point around 100 ° C.065 0. . relate the viscosities of the five fractions (or cuts) of Cold Lake bitumen with average deviations from 0. In this paper. however.168 0. as well as of the whole bitumen.999 1.7 78.283 0.7 49.0 67.5 0.5 47. this generalized approach is evaluated for predicting the viscosity of the blends.0 0.0 Undistillable bp> 550°C 35. (14). which requires only the proportions of the bitumen fractions and their molar mass to be known.990 0.3 0.879 0.26 TABLE1 Measured data and properties of Cold Lake bitumen and its fractions Sample Mass fraction of whole bitumen M (gmo1-1 ) Density (gcm -a ) Asphaltenes (mass%) Maltenes (mass%) Distillablea bp<550°C 582 209 310 667 800 2500 0.103 0. Cut 5. Finally. a viscosity mixing formula presented previously [ 14 ] is used to predict viscosities of blends.5 whole bitumen Cut 1 Cut 2 Cut 3 Cut 4 Cut 5 1. Cuts 1 to 4 contain little or no asphaltenes while approximately 50 mass% of Cut 5 is asphaltenes. have also been correlated successfully with this correlation [ 14 ].381 aSIMDIST analyses were provided in Ref.7 0.6%. Furthermore.8 100. Cuts 1 and 2 were clear liquids whereas Cuts 3 and 4 resembled the whole bitumen.941 0.0 50. Of the five bitumen fractions that were obtained by vacuum distillation [ 14 ].072 16. generalized correlations are proposed for the two parameters in the viscosity-temperature correlation in terms of the fraction molar mass. Viscosity-temperature correlation for bitumen fractions The following two-parameter correlation was shown to represent the viscosity-temperature variation for a number of Alberta bitumens with average deviation below 10% [13].0 2. a liquid-mixture viscosity calculation procedure is developed. new viscosity data for a number of reconstituted binary blends (mixtures) of the Cold Lake bitumen fractions are reported. These binary blend viscosity data are found to be correlated well with the two-parameter viscosity correlation.2 1.9 to 6.0 0. It should be noted that this viscosity mixing formula does not involve any viscous interaction terms. The viscosity-temperature data for the five bitumen fractions. Table 1 summarizes some of the properties of these five fractions. as mentioned previously.

+b~ log (T) (1) The empirical constants bl and b2 in eqn. bitumen -. The value of parameter b2 is noted to vary considerably for the five bitumen fractions. . Clearly. Viscosity of mixtures of bitumen fractions For calculating mixture viscosity from component viscosities.27 log[log (H+0.6303 for 7 bitumens over wide ranges of viscosity and temperature was proposed [ 13 ]. In other words. Figure I compares the viscosity data and the correlated values for each bitumen fraction.e. ~ ' " 13_ 104 E >~I0 3 .3 . the one-parameter viscosity correlation may not be suitable for bitumen fractions. Based on this finding. each bitumen fraction is treated as one pseudocomponent. The parameter b2 in eqn. Hence.Eq~otlon (1) 1O0 200 300 TernperGture. Effect of temperature on the viscosity of Cold Lake bitumen and its fractions. A closer examination of the parameter values in Table 2 reveals that bl decreases as the bitumen fractions become heavier._~ "~0 102 101 100 . a single constant value of b2 = -3. ~ i !!i!. less negative) for the heavier fractions. (1) is capable of fitting the viscosity-temperature data in every case.7)] =b. Most simple (additive) liquidmixture viscosity correlations can be generalized as [ 15 ]: 106 f]} (D 105 " . The viscosity characterization parameters bl and b2 for each bitumen fraction and the whole Cold Lake bitumen are given in Table 2. from . (1) may be viewed as viscosity characterization parameters. (1) was found to vary within a narrow range of values. It should be pointed out that each of the five bitumen fractions consists of a multitude of hydrocarbon compounds. for several bitumens. In modeling the liquid-mixture viscosity. °C Fig. eqn. l. The values of b2 are higher (i. several liquidmixture viscosity correlations are available. the Cold Lake bitumen is approximated as a mixture comprising five pseudocomponents. 7 4 to -3.50.

log (#). In (#).7) = I~I (#i +0.M ~ log (#. The viscosity of each blend was measured at several temperatures. x / . The term x i ~ in eqn. etc. The temperature range and the number of viscosity data points for each binary blend are also given in Table 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Correlation of binary blend viscosities The viscosity-temperature data for the twelve reconstituted binary blends were correlated using the two-parameter correlation. (3) represents the geometric mean of mass and mole fractions of component i in an n-component mixture. Two different proportions were selected for each pair of bitumen fractions.7) x'M~/$~'-~'/~ i=1 (4) VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTFOR RECONSTITUTED BINARYBLENDS A total of twelve binary blends of the Cold Lake bitumen fractions were prepared by mixing different proportions of the individual constituents. with an average deviation of 38% [14]. the following viscosity mixing formula was proposed for the bitumen fractions [14]: log (/2+0. and xi may be either of the liquid volume. using a Model RV8 viscometer from Viscometers (UK) Ltd.28 n f(fi) = ~ Xi[(#i) i~l (2) where. 1/#. (3) compared satisfactorily with the experimental data. +0. and occasionally ternary.7)= ~ x . viscous interaction terms.. After screening several choices for [(#) and xi in eqn. eqn. Other liquid-mixture viscosity correlations are also available in the literature but a majority of those involve some form of binary. and l~ is the average mixture molar mass. Mi is the molar mass of Cut i. eqn. The composition data indicate that most of the blends had substantially high mole fractions of the two lighter bitumen fractions. f(#) may be #. (2). Obviously.7) i=1 (3) where. These blends were composed of either Cut 1 or Cut 2 mixed with either Cut 3. 4 or 5. (2) assumes no viscous interaction between the various constituents of a liquid-mixture. Table 2 provides the details of the blend constituents and the molar composition. The results of . xi is the mole fraction of Cut i. Equation (3) in the anti-logarithmic form is: (/2+0. over a 60-100 °C temperature span. mass or mole fraction [ 15]. #_+1/3. The bitumen viscosity predictions from eqn. (1).

9914 -3.841 0.94°C 30.6244 11.1 1.9679 10.95°C 80-130°C 23. the two-parameter viscosity correlation can be used to describe the effect of temperature on the viscosity of whole bitumens.8943 8.95°C 23. The fit for each blend using eqn. (1).1573 -3.90°C 21. The broken curves for the two blends represent the viscosity predictions by use of generalized parameters which will be discussed later. such as Cut 1 or 2.4209 -4.9007 9.3 1. bitumen fractions and the blends of the bitumen fractions.4281 -4.4 2. such as Cut 3.3078 10.95°C 30.9338 -3.5 2.2120 10.6535 10.2690 -3. N bAAD= (1/N)~ [ [~exp-.2 2. Liquid-mixture viscosity predictions for binary blends When a lighter fraction of bitumen.7535 -4.585 0.9575 -3.4 1.3338 -3.95°C 30.3. is added incrementally to a heavier fraction.3 3. (1) is remarkable.95°C 22. (1) Sample No.3065 9.8 1.8770 4.792 0.1 6.7 2.900 0.2127 -3.8 2.4535 10.683 0.1451 11.6 1.974 9. Hence.Pcorrl/]lexp].29 TABLE 2 Viscosity-temperature data for Cold Lake bitumen fractions and blends and their correlation with eqn.381 0.6 1.9617 -4.3.1941 8. 4 or 5.9 Whole Bitumen Cut Cut Cut Cut Cut 1 2 3 4 5 Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend Blend ax: Mole fraction of lighter fraction.90°C 26= 100 ° C 30-106°C 120-210°C 30.9592 10.8916 8. a gradual reduction in the viscosity of the heavier fraction will take place. The solid curves in Fig.90°C 21.95°C 30.65°C 60. b2 AAD b (% ) 0.3647 10.0932 -4.0422 .6 1.9 1.5 1.8061 -3.3 0. 2 represent the viscosities correlated by using eqn.9527 -3.4476 9.603 0.0358 -3.0623 10.678 0. The viscosity change during .8220 -3. with average deviation consistently under 3%.902 0.4068 . these regression calculations are given in Table 2.90°C xa b.937 0.8638 10.95°C 38.669 0. of points 20 29 23 22 20 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut 1/Cut 1/Cut 1/Cut 1/Cut 1/Cut 1/Cut 2/Cut 2/Cut 2/Cut 2/Cut 2/Cut 2/Cut 3) 3) 4) 4) 5) 5) 3) 3) 4) 4) 5) 5) 23 21 21 11 14 23 21 24 26 24 14 23 Temperature range 24-121°C 22. Figure 2 shows the viscosity data for Cuts 1 and 4 and their two blends (Blends 3 and 4 in Table 2).

The logarithm of mixture viscosity decreases rapidly once the mole fraction of Cut 1 is greater than about 0. Parameters bl and b2 for binary mixtures Any binary mixture of bitumen fractions would have a unique set of the viscosity characterization parameters bl and b2 for describing the effect of temperature on its viscosity. °C Fig. (3).Equation (1) ~ t i o n s ' ( 5 ) and (6) ' ' E 103 ~ 10 2 101 100 ~ 20 -. Viscosities of Cuts I and 4. 1O0 40 60 80 120 T e m p e r e t u r e . (3). especially Cut 5. Cut 1 was mixed with each of the four heavier bitumen fractions. At 25 ° C. 3. the bl and b2 values for a liquid-mixture cannot be determined explicitly from eqn. the viscosity of Cut 4 will decrease from 937.000 m P a s to approach 4.6 mPa s. However. several sets of viscosity calculations were made at an arbitrarily selected temperature of 100 ° C. for example.000 mPa s and 4. the viscosities of Cuts 4 and 1 are 937. eqn. (3).30 106 10 5 10 4 n 0 Cu'st ' [] Blends ~_ -. a ratio of approximately 200. In these calculations. for several binary mixtures followed by regressing the parameters b~ and b2 for each mixture from eqn. To study such simulated "dilution" experiments by using eqn. This was accomplished by calculating viscosity values from eqn. and the results are shown in Fig.6 mPa s ultimately.000. and their two reconstituted binary blends. This is more pronounced for the results with the heavier bitumen fractions. .7. over a range of temperatures. (1). (3).5-0. 2. such "dilution" experiments with bitumen fractions may span several orders of magnitude. When Cut 4 is diluted with Cut 1 in a "dilution" experiment at 25 ° C. respectively. The liquid-mixture viscosity results presented below were obtained from a large number of calculations involving the viscosity mixing formula.

Note that these curves do deviate considerably from the straight lines that would connect the filled circles denoting the bitumen fractions. The effect of mixture composition on the values of bl and b2 is shown in Fig. The filled circles in Fig.4 0. with viscosities calculated from eqn. The predicted loci for the parameters of binary mixtures of bitumen fractions are shown by the curves connecting the filled circles. This implies that the viscosity characterization parameters for binary mixtures cannot be obtained by a simple interpolation procedure. 5 give a "phase space" representation of the viscosity characterization parameters bl and b2. The average deviations are generally . 5. the bt curves pass through a minimum before increasing sharply to the bl value for Cut 1. and these appear to fall on a straight line. an increasing influence of the lighter fraction (Cut 1 ) at its higher concentrations is more clearly evident.8 . The parameters for the twelve binary blends. 4 for binary mixtures of Cut 1 and each of the other four bitumen fractions. are summarized in Table 3.0 I I _ _ I I 0. Blend viscosity predictions using empirical parameters The results for the twelve binary blends. (3). Here.2 0.31 107 106 i i i i mixtures 03 E) 105 o_ E 104 4_a 103 > (O b3 Oil 1/Cut4mixtures ~e s 102 101 .Cut 1/Cut 2 mixtures 100 0. Table 2.6 0. 5 correspond to the parameter values for the five bitumen fractions. The results in Fig. As the mole fraction of Cut 1 is increased. These experimental data for the reconstituted blends lie below and to the left of the points for the individual fractions. Influenceof Cut 1 on the predictedviscosityof binary mixturesat 100°C. 3. are shown as hollow symbols in Fig. The trends for bl of the heavier bitumen fractions are very interesting.0 Mole Fraction of Cut 1 Fig.

Data and "phase space" representation for the parameters b~ and b2 of binary blends. Cut 1/Cut 5 J I I 8 -3.. b2 -.0 Mole F r a c t i o n o f C u t 1 Fig. 0. blends ® Cut 2/Cut 5 blends --Predicted.o -4.6 0. Effect of Cut 1 on the parameters b~ and b2 for binary mixtures.5 Cut 1/Cut 3 Cut 1/Cut 2 i i i i -5.2 0. Equation (3) --5 I I 8 9 10 11 12 bl Fig.. b2_4 • c.32 12 Cut 1/Cut 2 Cut 1/Cut 3 bl lo 9 Cut 1 / C u t .ts [] Cut 1/Cut 3 blends -~~3 \\\'% "~.8 1.0 -3. Cut 1 "%- z~ Cut 1/Cut 5 blends v Cut 2/Cut 3 blends o Cut 2 / C u t . 4..t c°. o co~ l~/Cut ~ ~i~n~s \\'~ Cut Z ~. .0 0.. -3 \X. 5.0 0.5 I I Cut 1/Cut 5 Cut 1 / C u t .

9783 Blend 1 Blend 2 Blend 3 Blend 4 Blend 5 Blend 6 Blend 7 Blend 8 Blend 9 Blend 10 Blend 11 Blend 12 (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut (Cut 1/Cut 3) 1/Cut3) 1/Cut 4) 1/Cut 4) 1/Cut5) 1/Cut 5) 2/Cut 3) 2/Cut 3) 2/Cut 4) 2/Cut 4) 2/Cut 5) 2/Cut 5) N 1. 4.3118 -3.4581 -4.9624 -3. 6.e.3968 10.Most blend viscositypredictions.4239 -4./~.98 10.1054 -4.nevertheless.6426 11.8048 8.4452 10.0293 10.33 TABLE3 Predictionof viscosity-temperature forblendsof Cold Lake bitumen fractions data usingeqn.22 0.62 - 9.98 0.5230 10.76 0.94 0. almost all of the twelve blends had contained relativelylarge mole fraction of the lighterfractions (i.8447 0.22 1.2124 -4. (/~o.55 1.1592 -3. In Fig. there is a strong evidence of .2720 -3.0075 -4.0858 -4.generalized parameters Sample parameters Empiricallydetermined (Table2) Parameters from eqns.2014 8. given in Table 1.4450 10.p).65 1. The match between the viscosity data and predictions.53 0.83 1.72 0.44 0.33 0.Empirically determinedparametersvs.2194 10.8636 9.48 0. Generalization of viscosity characterization parameters The bitumen fraction molar mass.85 0. (3) -.39 0.6972 -4.52 0.4476 -3. are within an order of magnitude of the viscosity data.1258 A VR 1.96 0.64 1.3471 10. Table 3.Cuts i and 2). Obviously.0309 -4.3. (5) and (6) bl AVR" Whole Bitumen Cut 1 Cut 2 Cut 3 Cut 4 Cut 5 b2 .54 1.20 0.7839 10. As mentioned previously.42 0.1911 -3. is generally better for the blends containing lower concentration of the lighterfractions.9381 -4. and the two parameters. the predicted parameters in this region of high mole fraction of the lighter cuts would be quite sensitive to the composition.42 0. listed in Table 2.61 0.0215 -4.59 1. are plotted in Fig.10 1. A small experimental error in preparing the reconstituted blends would correspond to a large change in the predicted parameters.5992 10.8473 -3.91 0. the parameter values were shown to undergo significant changes in the region where the concentration of the lighterfraction is high.20 18.31 0.8619 9.2307 11. large. In other words.86 aAVR= ( I / N ) ~.6683 8.

Blend viscositypredictions using generalized parameters The predicted values of the parameters for the twelve binary blends along with the AVR values are also provided in Table 3. (5) and (6) for calculating the viscosity of bitumen fractions did not produce very satisfactory results. bl lo 9 8 - Cut ~. a variation in even the fourth significant figure of the parameter values can cause an appreciable change in the calculated viscosities.34 12 11 .8 . 2. . g / m o l 1 ~4 -5 Fig. . . . Although the statistical correlation between the parameters and the fraction molar mass is quite good with r 2 > 0. The results in Table 3 show that the average viscosity ratio (AVR) for bitumen fractions ranges between 0. i ./~ / > -5 Cut 5 ~ ' ~ u t 4 -4 b 2 i i i i i i i l l i i i i i i ii 102 103 Molar Moss. . . bl =17.472 log (M) b2 = . For Blends 3 and 4. . The average viscosity ratios are no worse than those obtained with the empirically determined parameters in Table 2. . 0 8 0 + 1. . 6. . 6.53 (over one order of magnitude deviation). similar data on more bitumen fractions are needed to provide further confidence in the generalized correlations. the viscosity predictions using the generalized parameters are plotted as broken curves in Fig.20 (predictions within one order of magnitude) and a phenomenal 18. Relationship between molar mass and parameters b] and b2 for bitumen fractions.99. a correlation between molar mass and the two parameters.458 log (M) (5) (6) Equations 5 and 6 are plotted as the solid lines in Fig. . . Apparently. Hence. . the use of eqns. .378-2. A first order regression gave the following generalized correlations. .

The average deviation in the viscosityvalues for the bitumen fractions. Comparison of the whole bitumen viscosity data with predictions. " .. 3 ) in conjunction with the mole fraction data (Table 1 ) and the two-parameter viscosity correlation (eqn. listed in Table 2. from eqns.. The average deviation between model and experimental values for the viscosity of whole Cold Lake bitumen was calculated as 17% (AVR= 1. ( 5 ) and (6). The calculation procedure involved evaluation of the parameters bl and b2 for each bitumen fraction.10). 1 ). Figure 7 compares the whole bitumen viscosity data with the predictions using the empirical and generalized values of bl and b2. °C Fig. o O_ • Experimental data .which span severalorders of magnitude from 1 mPa s to 106 mPa s. was typically less than 5%. This compares favourably with an average absolute deviation (AAD) of 38% (A VR = 0..35 105 e..Equations (5)/(6) & (3) 104 ~ E ~ o 0 c ~. based on the molar mass data in Table 1. 103 ffJ 5~ "b'"b. Whole bitumen viscosity predictions using generalized parameters Calculations were undertaken for the viscosity of whole Cold Lake bitumen for comparing the predictions with the data shown in Fig. 1..62 ) that was obtained using the empirical parameters. 7..Equations (I) & (3) '. The validity of a proposed viscosity mixing formula was demonstrated with the new viscosity- ." 02 E O3 101 I i I i i 0 50 100 150 Temperature.. The bitumen viscosities were calculated from the viscosity mixing formula (eqn. CONCLUSIONS The two-parameter viscositycorrelationhas been shown to be generallyapplicablefor the viscosityof Cold lake bitumen. itsfractionsand the reconstituted binary blends of the bitumen fractions... for bitumen fractions.

NOTATION AAD AVR bx.36 temperature data for twelve reconstituted binary blends of the bitumen fractions. The bitumen fractions were supplied by Esso Resources Canada Ltd. Financial support was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA). Rod Rundle for his assistance in data collection. The predicted blend viscosities were well within an order of magnitude of the viscosity data. g toolnumber of bitumen fractions in blend number of viscosity data points correlation coefficient temperature. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Mr.#¢o~1//~p ) N average viscosity ratio ( = (1/N) ~ ([~co~/[~exp) ) parameters in viscosity-temperature correlation molar mass. g mol.b2 M n N r 2 average absolute deviation ( = ( l / N ) ~ I / ~ p . The whole bitumen viscosity predictions using the generalized parameters and the viscosity mixing formula were within 17% of the data. Generalized correlations were proposed for the two parameters (bl and b2) in the viscosity-temperature correlation in terms of the fraction molar mass. Calgary. mPa s T x /1 Subscripts corr exp i correlated/calculated value experimental value fraction (cut) of bitumen . mPa s liquid-mixture viscosity. K mole fraction dynamic viscosity.1 mean molar mass of blend.

A. and Svrcek. One parameter correlation for bitumen viscosity. Mehrotra. R. Res. Chem... A. A. J. Chem.. and Svrcek.. J. and Svrcek. 1987..E. density and gas solubility data for oil sand bitumens. Stanislav. 1: 263. 1: 51. Pet.37 REFERENCES 1 Jacobs. AOSTRA J. W.. Viscosity of Cold Lake bitumen and its fractions.K. Can. 10 Johnson.Y. CO. 21(6): 95. . Viscosity. A.. J. 1980.Y.Y.. A. and Svrcek. Pet. Chem... Res. and Sherwood. J. Pet.. 3 Mehrotra. 19(4): 46. W. W. Prausnitz. 5 Mehrotra. W. Correlations for properties of bitumen saturated with C02. Can. Chem. Eng. and Svrcek.K. 13 Svrcek.. A.. density and gas solubility data for oil sand bitumens. W. 15 Reid.M. W. A.K. Donnelly.Y. 12 Mehrotra. 1985. Eng. A...Y.. 23 (3): 47. Viscosity prediction of Athabasca bitumen using the extended principle of corresponding states. CH4 and N2. F. 1984. W. and Svrcek..K. W. 1988.. 1987. 1977. T. CH4... J. W.A. Ind. Can. Eng. and Svrcek. Viscosity.Y.Y.B.. 2 Mehrotra. 1984.K. and Mehrotra. Viscosity of compressed Athabasca bitumen. J. Can. C02 and C2Hs. Eng. 7 Mehrotra. 66: 323. and Svrcek. Pet..K. Svrcek. Res. Can.K.Y. CO. 1987. 1985.K. and Svrcek. Can. A. 65: 672. Technol. 14 Mehrotra. 1985. Res. W. Measurement and correlation of viscosity. W. M. 1: 269.. AOSTRA J.A. and Svrcek. Eng. NY. 67" 1004.Y. Eastick.Y. W.K. 1988..Y. density and gas solubility data for oil sand bitumens. The properties of gases and liquids.R. Corresponding states method for calculating bitumen viscosity. 26: 2290. Part I: Athabasca bitumen saturated with CO and C2Hs. and Svrcek. Part II: Peace River bitumen saturated with N2. C02 and C2Hs..K. J. 26(5): 60. McGraw-Hill. Viscosity of compressed Cold Lake bitumen... 66: 656. Res. Viscosity of gas-saturated bitumen. and experiments with combustion gas mixture. Res. Chem. 457.K. W. 64: 844..K.. 2: 83. AOSTRA J. Technol.K. R.Y. J.. 3rd edn.K. Viscosity. CH4. 11 Khan. Viscosity models for gas-free Athabasca bitumen. Can. S. 9 Mehrotra.K. A. A. Can. 1989. 6 Mehrotra. A. Eng. 1982. W.Y. Part III: Wabasca bitumen saturated with N2. AOSTRA J.. J.C.. Properties of Cold Lake bitumen saturated with pure gases and gas mixtures.. and Svrcek.. New York. Technol.. A. density and gas solubility for Marguerite Lake bitumen saturated with carbon dioxide. 1986. Des. J.Y. 4 Mehrotra. J. 8 Mehrotra. and Mehrotra. Chem. Technol.. p.

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