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'The Writings of a Savage?

' Literary Strategies in Paul Gauguin's "Noa Noa" Author(s): Linda Goddard Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 71 (2008), pp. 277-293 Published by: The Warburg Institute Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/03/2013 21:43
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toTahiti (1893). Oxford 1961. crypticexplanations to accompany paintingsback toEurope. T. 2. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . though it was not completed in time. 1951). Rare explorations of the book's literary themes and influences of Noa Fictions Noa'.'5 While thebarbarous and shockingnaivetyof his paintings has D see Gauguin Tahiti.4 In a I96I edition of DraftMS. in P. Gauguin. 'lacked the essential Garree. 69. ed.2 Noa Noa. Levieux. M. 2004.Paul Getty Museum. 118-22.Malibu. the he Gauguin is entirely tricks: knows thathe isbarbar spontaneous. Gauguin lived in French Polynesia from 1891 to 1893. forexample. maintaining corre spondence with important literary subscribing to periodicals. First facsimile ed.3 Combining descriptions of his paintingswith tales of adventure and referencesto Polynesian myth. Wadley. Van The Burlington Magazine.Griffin.Texts that use Noa Noa as a source for suppos to information are too numerous edly biographical list. ed. and R. Loize. Dorival.1951. N. New York ed D. Wadley. as Author: Writing Gogh Museum 1985. de Noa Noa'. R. J. Oxford include N. The Writings tr. p.LXXI. Gauguin. B. Noa Noa is rarely taken seriously as a literarytext.with no literary ous and shocking. Ancien Culte mahorie Paris 2001 (first published (1893). J. tr. and 5. JOURNAL THEWARBURG OF AND COURTAULD INSTITUTES. 4. Wayne Andersen similarly states that Gauguin oric' of a Savage. Huyghe. the first draftofNoa Noa (hereafter denoted the DraftMS) was completed following Gauguin's temporaryreturn to Paris in September I893. Paris 1954.'THE WRITINGS LITERARY STRATEGIES OF A SAVAGE?' NOA NOA IN PAUL GAUGUIN'S Linda Goddard espite his self-imposed exile in Polynesia from I89I. The Studio of theSouth Seas. pp. and E. than a carefully staged encounter between theEuropean and the 'exotic'. and from 1895 until his death in 1903.he imagined his transferal termsof itspotential impacton aWestern audience and. p. Noa Noa (1893). a partlyautobiographical fictionevokinghis paintings and experiences in Tahiti. Loize. Whether celebrating or con demning his 'primitive'adventure. and have insistedon the crudeness and simplicityof the artist'sprose. London Shackelford and C. 577. 'Post-script: The Real Noa Noa in P.was a key textin thisendeavour to manipulate his criticalreception. B. 2003. 1996. JeanLoize claimed that 'As soon as he takesup a pen. Gu?rin. The first to document i. 'La Clef xcm. ed. Although frequentlysampled for 'evidence' about Gauguin's lifeand work. and possibly intended to complement an exhibition of his Tahitian paintings at theDurand Ruel Gallery in November I893. 3. G. Sagot-le Journal. edition: P. 'The Facts Gauguin's and Tahiti. itwas less an accurate record of Gauguin's life. he continued to relyupon European publications to resurrect in digenousmyths and deities. For a recent comprehensive investigation of these periods.' From theoutset. scholars have treated itprimarily asmerely an autobiographical document or an explanatory guide to his painting. Gauguin. 'Sources Egypt and Ancient Greece'. pp. these borrowings were of the Art of Gauguin from Java. 277 in his introduction strategies of rhet to P. Gauguin. Gauguin continued to play an active role-from afar-in theParis artworld. inNoa Noa. Voyage the Illustrated Copy'. 2008 This content downloaded on Wed. and writing figures. Huyghe. xviii. Childs. postscript by J. 70-87 (74-78). Later revised in collaborationwith theSymbolistpoet Charles Morice. in once settled. Noa Noa. J. E. 'Gauguin the Studio of the Tropics'. Fr?ches-Thory.

just as theartist'soriginal drafthas been misread. 'Noa Noa: The Voyage to This content downloaded on Wed. p. Essentially. Paris. du Louvre MS 7. B. or exposing it as an imperialist fan tasy. Paris 1966. Gauguin. 'Gauguin's Guidebooks: in the Context ofNineteenth-Century Travel Writing'. I suggest. 'savage' in Noa Noa 9.Loize. 'savage' Since the initialpublication ofGauguin's Draft MS in I954-long after ex had first cerptsof the revised text appeared in I897-preoccupation with recovering the artist's 'true' voice has clouded analysis of his collaboration withMorice. Noa Noa ed. pp. Hughes in Modern French Literature. Goddard. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gauguin and C. Wadley (as in n. ed. recently. Cahn.8 However. that Gauguin positioned himself on the side of the 'primitive' inboth of these pairings. and that between Gauguin the 'primitive'artist andMorice the 'civilised' poet in the composition of the revised text. Noa Noa is a complex literary textthat both builds on and resistsan established tradition travel of writingabout Polynesia. the contrast between the 'intuitive'account of thepainter and the 'learned' commentary of thepoet was consciously designed to reflectthe confrontationbetween Europe and Polynesia that is the central theme of the text. ed.' 6. Mus?e edition: P. Orestano. Let us not grudge him his use of the word bonheur'. Literature and Aesthetics in the Nine teenth Century. assuming the mantle of for the successive J.even in its most schematic state. Berlin 1926. p. sous lemasque ou cinquante ans 'Gauguin autour de Noa Noa\ in P. Cam (WritingMarginality 'claims bridge 2001.278 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA longbeen recognized as a deliberate primitivistdevice.. enthuses thatNoa Noa in contact with this new 'reveals to us the painter country and with its spirit . written before to establish a chronology have been Huyghe (as in the discovery of the Draft MS). Belinda Thomson offers a note of caution rare the sauvage' and 'is unequivocal about his incorpor ation into Polynesian culture'. J. 70. 8. his partnershipwithMorice has been miscast as a rigidoppo sitionbetween untrained simplicityand turgidsophistication. how ever frank they may seem. however.9 Gauguin's role-play as the inexperiencedpartner in thecollaborationwithMorice was a knowing literary device that enabled him to set up a thematicallyeffective opposition. E. First facsimile Noa Noa (1893 97).B. 125. and most n. and has long been the focus of critical debate. more critically. supposedly embodied by painter and poet. Whether praising itsvivid portrayal of his encounterwith the 'exotic'. I aim to show that the opposition between intuitionand erudition. 28. 4). L. in Strange Sisters. By reconsidering their partnership. while maintaining his 'primitive'credentials.6 Gauguin's collaboration with Morice in I894-95 on a revised version of the text (hereafter denoted theLouvre MS)7 is regarded as a crucialwitness to the opposition thathe set out to explore between the 'exotic' and theEuropean. Both writers overlook the ambiguity of the relation between 'civilised' and Noa Noa. The major attempts versions and F. It is consistentlyassumed. 10. 5). P. Gauguin. Boston and 2000. 7. the dichotomy between Noa Noa isplayed out in twooppositional pairings: that 'savage' and 'civilised' in between Europe and Tahiti inGauguin's fictional narrative. Bullen 2008 (forthcoming). Loize. I have argued else where that.. Oxford editors: 'we should guard against among Gauguin's accepting the writings of the self-styled "savage". at face value'. 2. J.36) protests that Gauguin direct access to the primitive.. hiswriting has rarelybeen creditedwith the same self-conscious artifice. Loize (as in n. Gauguin London by Himself. is as unstable as the fluctuation between and 'civilised' in the text itself.commentators repeatedly insiston the coherence-authentic or staged-of Gauguin's account. Morice.In naive and transparent. I. d'erreur (1893).

I5 a AlthoughWadley's reassessment of the partnership is convincing. Washington 1897. ithad occurred tome. 12. D. n'?tant pas comme on dit du This content downloaded on Wed. he suggests. p. Paley Library. So I conceived of quite simplyas a savage) next to the style a civilised and directed collaboration along these lines. Morice stood accused of destroying Gauguin's 'savage' talewith his overwroughtprose. Brettell. p. as we shall see. 134-52. C. 16. 'Foreword'. in Shackelford Noa and Fr?ches Noa. he accepts at facevalue Gauguin's own distinction between his 'primitive' style and Morice's 'cultured' one. Ibid.I2As the extant versions ofNoa Noa came to light in reverseorder.Morice. But Gauguin's description of the partnership reveals thathis naivetywas deliberate. Back inTahiti. Tahiti'. 4). 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 'The First Tahitian Years'. The Writings of a Savage (as in n. which comprised some additional narrativeepisodes. arguing that the poet's refinedstylesuitedGauguin's desire to juxtapose the 'primitive'and the cultured and was therefore vital component of thework as Gauguin had conceived it. de 17. to create theversion now in theLouvre. as well as poems byMorice. 69. published text. pp. Thory 11. Gauguin's original text emerged like a palimpsest. critics have focused instead on isolating theDraft MS of I893 as the state' of Morice's only legitimate text. prompting commentators to denounce laterversions as corruptions of the artist's initialvision.A key motivation forengaging Morice. Gauguin added illustrationsand another.Wadley (as in n. 'J'avais eu l'id?e. not being a professional. J'avais donc imagin? et ordonn? cette collaboration dans ce sens.. Polizzotti. and was 'consistentlyattracted to youngmen intellectually more articulate thanhimself'. inGauguin. As noted byWadley (as in n. the as theysay. M. 15. collaborative and changing nature of this work. Art ofPaul Gauguin.I4 Itwas Nicholas Wadley-in his translatededition of the DraftMS-who first questioned these preconceptions regarding Morice's involvement. 14. a preface and an introduction. 101.I3An 'irrespon siblewould-be modern poet' and 'evil-doer of thewrittenword'. whileMorice continued to revisethenarrativeand add more poems toproduce the versionpublished by La Plume in I9OI-the only fullversion ofNoa Noa to appear but duringGauguin's lifetime. 97. 5). dated 1901. Gauguin and C. in Philadel University. p. Gu?rin. and also.'"7 It is clear fromthisquotation thathe was not tr. it is clear that Gauguin approved (and. p. 5). Paris (as in n.LINDA GODDARD 279 Before his return toTahiti in I895. faire ressortir leur caract?re ? c?t? du n?tre.'6 In otherwords. Morice. 4). contains minor in The 1988. Loize (as in n. stillun Diverses choses(I896-97). 8.dismissing the jointLouvre MS as a 'first I9OI edition. ed. i). probably contributed to) an extended. pp. et j'avais trouv? assez original d'?crire (moi tout simplement en sauvage) et a c?t? le style d'un civilis? qui estMorice. P. Temple variations to this published edition. xxxv. and I had thought it would be an original idea towrite (myself man . 13. phia. to get a sense of which of thetwo uswas better. which the artistnever saw.' he wrote to the artistDaniel de Monfreid. R. Each author kept a copy and made further additions independently. 210-16 (210). he none theless reiteratestheusual assumptions about the artist's lack of sophistication as awriter. is that Gauguin 'was not a writer himself'. not natural: 'On the subject of non-civilised people. Stuckey. 'to bring out the contrast between their character and ours. Morice's manuscript. parlant des non-civilis?s." Rather than accepting the amorphous. puis aussi. edited version of his first account. thenaive and brutal of savage or the rottencivilisedman. p.

? l'ex illustr?. pp. dans son occup? ? r?diger Noa Noa. and 'Qui trompe-t-on Moderniste illustr?. en lut ? celui-ci. 21 September 1889. Paris 1925. he edited satiricalnewspapers and produced memoirs. Isabelle Cahn suggests thathe 'did not want to risk writing a book on his own' and preferred to 'entrustthecomposition of the final textto a professionalwriter'. By I893. but a serious. Gauguin. mieux.and that 'Gauguinwelcomed my sugges He quickly drafted thenotes from which Iwrote the chapters tion enthusiastically.Similarities between theLouvre MS and theLa Plume edition indicate a common source.and a largecorrespon dence. Gauguin accueil lit avec enthousiasme ma proposition. letter to Mette Gauguin. but rather to show offhis deliberately syntheticand 'primitive'technique to its fulladvantage. where "the Narrator speaks"'. certains chapitres qu'il venait de terminer. and to distinguishhis narrative from the literary accounts of professionalwriters and art critics. his friend Daniel deMonfreid recalledhim reading aloud recentlycom Noa Noa in his Paris studio in I894 and apparently insisted pleted chapters from that at that time 'he had no intentionof takingon a collaborator'. Joly-S?galen. forexample. Gauguin. P. Paris 1950.280 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA usingMorice's sophistication to compensate for lack of experience. pp. See Wadley (as in n.'9 However. atelier de la rue Vercing?torix. 4). 'Je pr?pare en outre un livre sur Tahiti et qui sera tr?s utile pour faire comprendre ma peinture. 20. de Monfreid. 187. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The only edition of Gauguin's collected writings is This content downloaded on Wed.. 188 (original emphases). 1848-1903. p. but no con sensus as towhen and where the two authorsmade their respective copies has been reached. (as in n. uvres expos?es les 19. Le Moderniste position universelle un m?tier. Notes illustr?. p. 'C'est en ?tudiant ? sa femme et ? ses amis. Gauguin's sur l'art . and the precise division of labour during the elaboration of thedraft. 21.'.21 Willingness to acceptMorice's version of events-despite itsunreliability novice. Morice claimed fullresponsibility for initiating and developing theventure. 1920. October 1893. Morice. 13 (suite)'. A. M. quand Gauguin. 170-71. ongoing commitment. earliest published articles are 'Notes 23. Lettres de Paul Gauguin ? Georges-Daniel de Monfreid. Lettres de Gauguin Gauguin. p. he had alreadypublished art criticismand produced two illustrated manuscripts: Cahier pour Aline (I892-93) and Ancien Culte mahorie (I893) . Le July 1889. In her recent analy stems fromtheassumption that Gauguin was a literary sis of thepartnership.noting that the inspirationfora 'literary composition on the themes of the painter' had come to him on the occasion of Gauguin's I893 Durand-Ruel exhibition..'8 In hismonograph on thepainter. In addition toNoa Noa. J. ed. in a lettertohiswifewrittenbefore theexhibition tookplace. sur l'art . p. 90-91. le peintre. ne songeait nullement ? s'adjoindre Paul Gauguin 22. pp. 84-86. Malingue. Il r?digea tr?s vite les notes o? "le Conteur d'apr?s parle"'. Paris Gauguin. ici?'. in Gauguin. de Rotonchamp.20 Moreover. 4 July 1889. 97-98.23 savoir un peu lequel de nous deux valait le du sauvage na?f et brutal ou du civilis? pourri'. art criticism.22 In fact. j'?crivis les chapitres lesquelles C. without mentioningMorice. p. his anti-literarystylewas deliberately designed to echo the 'primitive' qualities thathe attributed to Tahiti. pp. 10). his assertions crumble under further inspection. ed. in P. 18. Attempts to understand thegenesis and significanceofNoa Noa are compli cated by uncertainty about who proposed the project in the first place. Far frombeing natural. 'Il r?sulte de souvenirs tr?s pr?cis conserv?s de Monfreid alors par Daniel que. Paris 1992.? l'exposition Le Moderniste universelle'. May letter to Daniel 1902.. Cahn collaborateur'. 94. 253. 129. sinceGauguin first announced his plan fora 'book onTahiti'. writing for Gauguin was not a second ary activity. rue Laffitte en 1893 que me vint l'id?e d'une composition litt?raire sur les th?mes du peintre..

25Such protestations of naivety should not be taken at face value. at least. Gu?rin. . ed. fromhis early pretension'. ?crits d'un sauvage.'. 10). not as a literary man. 27. guin' Oviri.26 expert Meanwhile. Gauguin phrase 'sans nulle pr?tention litt?raire' with reference to his text Racontars de rapin (1902)..-A. than theeditionpublished in 190I. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . protested he mine . Gauguin. non en homme Racontars de lettres. commencera dans son prochain 24. and their original form and structure not always respected. 'C'est plus simple. D. but the texts are abridged. Le Modern (G.. he claimed. 'Je vais essayer de parler peinture.. Paris. 26. inGauguin (as in n. he notes 'jeme suis efforc? de prouver que les peintres en aucun cas This content downloaded on Wed. this tendentious comment in (as in n. p. (as in n. 'LeModerniste la publication num?ro d'une s?rie de notes sur les . works I have brought back fromthere.both todemonstratehis superiorvisual insight. spicier. October 1902. at all costs its 'anti-literary' character.. He did not announce the collaboration officially I895. on theother hand. {L'Echo de Paris. R. Gauguin. sans nulle pr? beaux-arts ? l'exposition crayonn?s tention litt?raire. 5) (first published Oviri. m?me repr?sentent un travail de transposition o? la part des confidences et la part de l'ex?cution seraient difficiles ? d?brouiller. Gauguin. Paris 1974).'. Morice rapport?.composed 'withoutany literary which he claimed to 'talkabout against art criticism. atwhich point he explained that 'I describemy lifeinTahiti andmy thoughts on art. plus de Montfort sant. 16. but as a painter' . cited in Loize (as in n.24tohis latediatribe published articles. 97. and to contrast to the criticsand academicians whose stuffy his assertion that avert accusations of literaryambition.not only more gripping' version of events Gauguin's original text. When an excerpt from the which passed to deMonfreid after the artist'sdeath-appeared in theperiodical Les Marges in I9IO. 192 (original n'ont besoin de emphasis). ?crits d'un sauvage. Paris 1951. in a September inGauguin 1902 letter to the critic Andr? Fontainas. Gu?rin. They served to enhance his 'savage' status. ed. Morice was angered by claims that it represented.. bien plus que de est de moi 28.. 311. Racontars de rapin (I902). 138. Huyghe.'.'. p. 13May 1895) in P. en vers l' uvre que j'en ai commente 'Interview de Paul Gau Eug?ne Tardieu. limited until to theprovision of poems. cited ibid. P. The Writings of a Savage French as P. 27 June 1889. For in order to justify men' he needed. in 'paintershave no need of support or instructionfrom literary and to demonstrate his ownwriting. 1974.'2S Morice's contribution Publicly. p. 17).but a 'simpler. en peintre.. les chapitres de pure biographie 30. ed. p..These. p. Gauguin. plus savoureux. mais de rapin (1902).much more than it is Gauguin's. 10). saisis 1910).'. par Paul Gauguin. 25.27 Seeking to set the record straight. d'Escaurailles 'La critique sans phrases'.LINDA GODDARD 281 Denials of literary expertise are a constant featureof his writing. p. de l'appui et de l'instruction des hommes letter to Daniel de Monfreid. Aurier). Referring to Racontars de rapin. 'Je raconte ma vie ?Tahiti et mes impressions d'art.3? Designed to elevate his role fromthatof commentator to thatof originator. in erudition hemocked. 76. lettres. M. 20). Gauguin. p.. 'Noa Noa J'ai collabor? avec lui comme un po?te ou Gauguin. un artiste collabore avec la nature. I collabor to the editor that 'Noa Noa is ated with him as a poet or an artistcollaborates with nature. p. '. 98. Morice had his own reasons forcontrastinghis literary Louvre MS isewith Gauguin's apparent naivety. D. 97. represented a 'process of adaptation' which would make it 'difficult distinguishbetween the element of confession [Gauguin's 'notes' or to verbal communications] and theelement of interpretation'.'. 29.'. in painting. reused the iste illustr?. Eug?ne {Les Marges.'29 Morice comments inverse on the Yet Morice claimed not only that he wrote all the poems-which he obviously did-but thathe played a decisive role in thecreation of the 'biographicalchapters' too. May cited in Loize (as in n.

4..In the first version. In the second version.'. p. In fact. Loize (as in premi?re id?e de Gauguin son trop litt?raire compagnon. describes Morice's as 'd?bordante' contributions (excessive). 8.'33Such revisionsdemonstrate thateven at thisearly stage of theproject.he recorded simplyhis difficulty in persuading her to pose and his desire to capture 'the charm of aMaori smile'. 74. (as in n.since he 'never corrected himself'. 10). the increased dependence.. le premier jet du Noa Noa de Gauguin ?t? peu modifi? par lui s'il avait d? le publier seul.ce harmonie dans la rencontre des courbes. likeLoize.her featureshave acquired 'aRaphaelesque harmony in the mouth modelled by a sculptorwho spoke all the meeting of theircurves.282 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA refuses to elucidate precisely thedivision of labour. de l'amertume m?l?e souffrance. or affirming. Il ne se corrigeait gu?re. 3). has been laid solely at Morice's 31. In particular. 105..une 33. 10). 34. aurait 32. otherpointswhere a brief reference ellipsis indicates a theme to be developed are assumed to have been leftforcompletion by Morice. of passivity dwelling within domination. 72..'. de la passivit? r?sidant dans la domination. Loize (as in n. scholars Morice the uniformlyattribute to majority of revisions to theDraft MS. rapha?lique model?e par un sculpteur parlant toutes les langues du langage et du baiser de la joie et de la la bouche This content downloaded on Wed. '. in theLouvre MS. that 'Gauguin's initial idea was quickly betrayed by his overly literary like companion'. For example. that Gauguin 'approved the first phase of Morice's editing and writing'. He then rewrote theepisode at some length-pasting extra sheets into the margins -as thoughher elusive presence were as difficultto capture inwords as it was in paint.Gauguin toowas capable of the kind of 'melodramatic' and Morice. the initialdraft 'would have been scarcely altered byGauguin if had published italone'. p. p.3' Yet the only grounds forassigning authorship to thepoet are his own questionable claims. theappended revisions indicate that Gauguin worked at devel oping a more sophisticated style. there are strong indications thatGauguin's contributionwas more extensive than has been previously assumed. Wadley (as in n. 106. onMaori legends derived fromthe two-volumeethnographic study Voyages aux ilesdu grand ocean (I837) by theBelgian consul Jacques-Antoine Moerenhout. This hypothesis isbased on a falsedistinctionbetween the supposedly 'biographi cal' aspects of thenarrative and those that relyon extraneous literary material. he entirely rewrote a passage describing his effortsto paint a portrait of his striking neighbour (depicted in the i89i paintingVahineno tetiare). annotated and pasted-in sections show thathe revised he was evenmooted. Nonetheless. p. and the apparentlymore 'literary'status of the reworked material. the tongues of language and of kisses.34 'excessive' editing generally attributed to Draft While thepasted-in revisionsare reproduced inpublished editions of the or MS as autographGauguin. rather melodramatic to Gauguin's account of his 1892 painting Ma nao MS tupapau. 78. of joy and of suffering. A complete fearof theunknown.. Toute une peur de l'inconnu.'. n. '. 61) refers to an 'ex in the Louvre addition' tended. Wadley par fut vite trahie ibid.32 and elaborated his prose before Morice's involvement What is more.that melancholy made of bitterness blended with pleasure.. Contradicting Loize's assumption that. whether complaining. '. p.. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cette m?lancolie au plaisir.. Wadley. 4). Gauguin (as in n. charme d'un sourire Maori'.. p. and casts a shadow of distrust over thepracticalities of thepartnership. '.

ifthisepisode was added at Morice's instigation. pp. p. see E. describing p. 1893.referring theappended passage on the 'birth the Ancien Cultemahorie stars'.and this fromthisstudy. 24. Childs. p. 27. 43. Si le peintre s'en ?tait charg?. Gauguin his made relatively borrowings from few DraftMS. Gauguin.40 Many of the travel memoirs and colonial guidebooks thathe consulted before composing Noa Noa likewise com bined personalised adventure storieswith authenticating detail from Moeren hout. coup de travail'.Huyghe (as in n. December (as in n. See n. On to these texts. 16. Gauguin himself transcribed passages Ancien Cultemahorie. 37.. n. 36. 38. O'Reilly. Paris 1887. 29. in a letter to his wife. p. '.38 Similarly. an 'oldMaori saying' ('vieux discours maorie'). Tehamana's prayer. Yet. Gauguin and revised the section expanded et les temps modernes'. 1965. (as in n. 'un livre sur mon voyage qui me donne beau letter toMette Gauguin. 2). 'description of the paintings Matamua Autrefois and Hi?a Maruru' ('description du tableau Matamua Autrefois et de Hina Maruru'). the latter's decision to omit itfromtheLa Plume edition is puzzling. p. 3).39 However. cette intercalation l?gendaire lui para?t diffi cile. Le Charrier. 255. Gauguin referredto 'a book on my journey me a lotofwork'. xxi. passages inMonchoisy La Nouvelle included (M. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. 10).35 In comparison to theLouvre MS.. Cythere. from catholique 'L'?glise to form the 1902 manuscript Diverses choses (1896-97) et le catholicisme. 20). Several Ancien Cultemahorie in the of these arewoven seamlessly into the initial narrative. 35.4' In I893. there is evidence that operated he preliminaryjottings in this notes and creatingexpanded versions way on other occasions. fastidieuse.without whose interference'hewould have known how to stick to to of everydayreality'. exposure de la Polyn?sie. p. describing ('l?gende de Roua hatou').Wadley concurs that 'thedecision touse material from may have followed the initialconception ofNoa Noa'. the 'legend of Roua 36. p. 59. For example. corroboratinghis commitment to the rewriting which is giving ofNoa Noa. Ibid. B.for laterdevelopment in theLouvre MS. 20. 17.. 78. and H. the 'legend of T?fatou' ('l?gende de T?fatou'). the birth of the stars.'. 1-63 (3-4) refer to notes from which Gauguin longer developed articles. Loize (as are from Moerenhout 41. Il s'en remet ? l'exp?rience profession nelle de son aide . Journal de la Soci?t? des Oc?anistes. Tahiti et les colonies fran?aises Gauguin's n. since elsewhere he integratedexcerpts from Ancien Culte mahorie into the plotwithout theneed forsubsequent revision. as Rene Huyghe firstshowed.then it is reasonable to conclude thathe intended to expand all of the himselfaswell. 4).42 Ifwe accept thathe made revisions to the textbefore employing a co-writer. Mativet).36 One-describing thebirth of the stars-is added on a separate sheet.43The convention that. Gauguin Hatou' p.. L'Esprit moderne This content downloaded on Wed. Danielsson 'Gauguin journaliste ?Tahiti et ses articles des Gu?pes'. which he obtained in was Tahiti. see Goddard (as in 42.LINDA GODDARD 283 door. 75. 39. Furthermore.37 Citing one of these additional borrowings-a brief reference to the 'legend ofTefatou'-Loize concludes thatGauguin 'finds this incorporation of legends difficultand tiresome' and so 'entrusts it to the professional experience of his collaborator'. il aurait su rester dans in n. Paris 1888.. 9). and two others are indicated in note form. Wadley (as in n. 40.What ismore-in linewith the broader field of nineteenth century travel writing-Gauguin clearly intended tomix lifeand legend fromthe start. into in fact the true source of the Polynesian myths thathe claimed to have learned from Tahitianmistress. inGauguin and P. working from whereas Gauguin authored all the of earliermanuscripts.Tehamana. la r?alit? quotidienne.

No commentatorhas suggested that thispassage-in which he used two additional sheets to describe a woodcutter atwork-was not of his own invention. 46.44 But in thiscase. wiped out indeed. He tellshow he was mountain path by a youngTahitian man on an expedition guided along a difficult to findwood for carving. '. spelling 'that word. This content downloaded on Wed. pp. Gauguin takes on the role ofwoodcutter himself. Thory c?t? de lamer tableau 44. Gauguin (as in n. Well and truly me. formes'.my hands bloody. on are nothingbut spittleand dust'. develop the philosophical and thematic significance of this supposedly biographical event. Gauguin's authorship isundisputed. Dieu'. than thenightlyconversationswithTehamana that frame the myth of the 'birthof the stars'.whose pattern resembles an 'Oriental materialism. ibid.Picture of the woodcutter' are jotted on thepage of theDraft MS in the manner of other indications such as 'Legend ofTefatou'. at least.. Roua Hatou. 243-59..and its superiority to the fallen leaves.'46 On this occasion.from which his attack on the tree symbolically releases him. '. Yet although itdoes not use material from Moerenhout. 'gracieuses 'un pressentiment de crime'. p. p. a Maori.. a woman'. which are normally ascribed to Morice. thenotes 'Description [of] landscape .'. and explicitly linkshis destruction of a tree to his transformationfroma civilisedEuropean into a 'savage'. all the old residue of civilisedman in I returned at peace.Shore side .. Inspired by vocabulary'. In a related-and much discussed-episode of theDraftMS..toutes des Rois et de leurs ministres ne sont magnificences que comme du crachat et de la poussi?re. confessing that theman's 'lithe animal body' and When the artistand his 'gracefulforms' aroused inhim 'a premonition of crime'. The sightof the tree-whether or not it relates toGauguin's personal experience-is the spring Western board for a celebration of Buddhist spirituality. with an axe.vocabulaire oriental'.'he writes. '. feelingmyself from then on a different man. les plus parfaites d'Oc?anie Atua. undergoes chopped with the pleasure of satisfying brutality.of destroying I am not sure my what. ofOceanic origin:Atua. 3). d?truit en effet tout mon vieux stock de civilis?.Gauguin guide reach a plateau and begin to attack theirchosen tree a transformation:'I struck angrily. relates to the I89I painting The and no more 'biographical'. i).'.284 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA attached sheets. d'une destruction de je ne sais quoi.. the annotations were laterdeveloped byMorice alone is incon sistent. rather than attached sheets.. 'Description paysage du bucher?n. 'and.For example. 7. 7. notes in themargin. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for Rather thandocumenting daily life the island. again highlight the contrast between the apparent freedomofOceania and theconstricting morality of 'civilised' society.47 '"Catholicism as Writer and theModern Mind":The Painter inLate Career'. thisepisode (which Man with anAxe) isno less 'literary'. God'. Gauguin thinksof whom 'all the most brilliant splendours ofKings and their ministers Tathagata. 'Je frappais avec rage et lesmains ensanglant?es je coupais avec le plaisir d'une Bien brutalit? assouvie. 'corps souple d'animal'. or the fishingexpedition that introduces the legend of woodcutter attacking the thePolynesian Neptune.ce mot originaire 45. in Shackelford and Fr?ches (as in n. Comments such as 'vice unknown among the savages' and 'desire to be for a moment weak.45 these editorial revisions are designed to enhance the central thematic opposition between the 'primitive'and the 'civilised'.

p. 40. than because their theme of cultural disjunction relates them convincingly to other episodes inGauguin's fictionalnarrative. at least one additional section of theLouvre MS was evidentlybased on a manuscript inGauguin's hand..Morice (as in n. 'De longs conciliabules 'Nous '.13. My share of the fishcooked. he to notes. Far from penetrating the Tahitian psyche. his inability acclimatise is consciously foregrounded. However. chopped wood. ibid. pp. 4). pp. ibid.however.. Wadley (as in n. is leftto protect himself against the elements. no sooner has he acquired 'native' skills. Again.After a successful catch on a fishingexpedition. 48. p. proposes swimmingto the farend of thegrotto. 'D?cidemment ma vahin? maniait la hache fendait le bois allumait du me couvrais pour la feu tandis que jem'appropriais fra?cheur de la nuit. even afterthisevent. 25. his when his companions reveal thathis particular fishingtechnique is an omen of hiswife's infidelity. 'no signof admiration from Tehura'. theirattributiontoGauguin ispersuasive. the sensitive European. 'D?sir du vice chez les sauvages.. 12.. 'L'inconnu d'?tre un instant faible. In response. while I gotmyself readyand wrapped up against the coolness of thenight. his mistress adopts the role of the woodcutter. ibid. 12.Gauguin again uses Grotto of the theme of a journey-this time an outing to a cave-to convey insecurityand cultural difference. 19). such as the fishingtriporwood-cutting expedition.'48In a reversalof gender expectations. n'avons jamais peur. Gauguin l'?cart. interest.'. femme.'.'. 50. 49.'.He immediately regrets outsider status. Hers raw. he returnsto findhis companion's friends have lost depths of the while she asks ironically whether he was afraid. this episode marks Gauguin's transformation genuine or cynical-from European to 'primitive'. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. In addition to these episodes in theDraftMS. puis des nous autres Fran?ais un geste d'admiration (as in n.'. forexample.LINDA GODDARD 285 For most commentators.As he continues.'.5' Once again.49 Comparing thispassage to two similar episodes also absent from theDraft MS. 169. Accompanied byTehura (an alternativename forTehamana in theLouvreMS) and her friends.'.thanhe signalshis difference heralding by his European nationality: 'clearlytheFrenchman brought luck'. With their literaryturn of phrase and dialectical un autre Je revins tranquille me sentant d?sormais homme un Maorie. he but ismet with 'long private chats followed bymysterious laughter' and left to proceed alone.retorting: 'We French. 7). thoughnot somuch because. 47.5? In an account of a tripto the Mara.. La part de poisson sienne crue.while Gauguin. forexample. le fran?ais portait chance.he isovercome by fearand repeatedlyfailsto reach his destination. 48.pas and Morice rires qui m'intriguent.141. lita fire. asWadley suggests. he frequently undermines his 'savage' identity and ironically highlightsthe fragility of his 'conversion'. '. 139 This content downloaded on Wed. p. Indeed. 27. which seems to retreatas he approaches. pp. Ma cuite. 'theyare convincing as having a basis inGauguin's life inTahiti'. we are never afraid'. deTehura. Wadley con cludes that 'it is reasonable to assume lostmanuscripts for these also'.'. he emphasises his European identity. ? 51.. Upon his return-in a parody of the makes wood-cutting episode-he adopts a position of feminised passivitythat clear his failureas a 'savage': 'myvahine [mistress] handled the axe. re produced in the I920 edition of Morice's monograph on the artist.

theirrelationship to his text The original arrangement of text and is usually thought to be largelyfortuitous. confirmshis Draft MS is far more literarythan itat first Beyond these textual additions and revisions. Signifi cantly. Moerenhout. 144-45. For MS is accompanied illustrations. another significantalteration that Gauguin made to theDraftMS was to introduce a visual dimension. pp. in Shackelford and Fr?ches-Thory Polizzotti. 54. and there fore did not copy the illustrations directly.53 The perception that the illustrationswere an afterthoughthas doubtless A number were glued onto arisen because of theiruneven distribution.54 Ancien Cultemahorie. example. pp. InAncien Culte this illustrates the Polynesian legend of the 'birthof the stars' (Fig. obscuring the visual and verbal hybridityof thework and treating the images as a secondary. Loize au hasard' them as 'plac?s 10. 53.unillustrated version. if Gauguin had been transferringimages directly from would be hard to explainwhy he repeatedlysplit mahorie simply to fillspace. ibid. (as in n. while looking down at another figurebelow. (as in n.they also made their way. it is usually assumed thatthatthey were merely copied at random from Gauguin's earlier text. However. p.56 Instead.derived from '? voir et ? lire'. the facsimile edition by G. tr. i. p.were however. into theLouvre MS). 71 text. two twinstars flee to avoid being According to this tale. 4). blank pages originally reserved for poems by with the narrative. describes watercolours after the fact and bear no direct relation page'. p. executed directlyon the page and interwoven Amongst thisgroup are a number obviously an integral feature from the start.than on a complex interplay betweenmasculine and feminine.Gauguin's revisions-whether in the formof appended sheets. Loize Ancien Culte mahorie in Paris with Morice. to the written 'The Paintings of the First Polynesian Sojourn'. to the accompanying and 75 of the Louvre MS 55. i). 2.when there was enough room to reproduce an up illustrationsappearing identical juxtaposition on the emptypages ofNoa Noa. 80) believes that Gauguin 56. 4. 18-45 (43). In theprocess of trans were copied from ofwatercolours that were divorced fromtheepisodes that theyoriginallyaccompanied (which feral. image is preserved only in the I926 facsimile edition of theLouvre MS and has been disregarded in previous and subsequent editions. Wadley (as in n. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. 98). left (ibid. detachable feature. or unrecovered manuscripts-are based less on 'everydayreality'. and by the Louvre the 1988 edition of the Draft MS by P. 16). it is toAncien Culte mahorie that 'the sig of several watercolours Noa Noa becomes in to Huyghe ('randomly placed'). Others. Artur 2001) of the originally unillustrated Draft (Papeete 52. p. 157. by the 'Noa Noa' woodcut 1988) is accompanied The first transcript of the Louvre MS (Paris 1924) is published with de Monfreid. then it inpairs.55 Ancien Culte However. a phrase omitted from Morice's final..civilised and savage.Likewise. separately. Petit (Paris suite. significant Morice thatnever appeared. subtle changes was carefullyconsidered. that appears. notes in the margin. 79). Fr?ches-Thory similarly argues that 'the of the earlier manuscript faithfully illus trate the text. illustrations after Gauguin by Daniel clear'. argues for the relevance of the original illustrations on pp. As a result. notes that 'in one case at Wadley are exact enough to least the size and silhouette suggest tracing'. M.52 Gauguin's illustrationsare celebrated independently. This content downloaded on Wed. suggest that theprocess of transferal One such illustrationshows a pair of androgynous figuresgesturing from a hillside at the moon. According only by recourse nificance (as in n. (as in n. mahorie. thepreface to theLouvre MS described Noa Noa as a book 'to be seen as While well as read'. p. i). whereas those ofNoa Noa were added C.286 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA themes.

but the same race. 'the sea air strengthensthe lungs..'59 Such changes. theycould be taken to represent.' Even for marked keepingwith the theme of the legend inAncien Culte mahorie. thedifference between the sexes is much less than in our climates. 79.l'air de la mer fortifie les poumons.representingthe goal ofGauguin's wood-cutting mission.This alterationrelatesdirectlyto the surroundingtextin theLouvreMS. 105. in the 'copied' Noa Noa illustration. 60. 2). du ? l'arriv?e: ce que Gauguin proposait primi en a fait finalement'. in theirnew context. on 3). p.theyhave appropriatelybeen replaced by a tree.les d?part ibid. This content downloaded on Wed. confirm thedeliberate placement of the illus trations to theLouvre MS and are thereforea furtherindication ofGauguin's creativecontrol over the redrafting Noa Noa. 4) . deux seuls textes qui comptent. 'Chez ces peuplades les sexes est bien moins ?vidente que dans nos climats .. representingthe fishermanand his wife. Gauguin (as in n. where Gauguin notes that 'Amongstnude populations .. Whereas previously the two figures were clearlyof opposite sex. from start to finish: what Gauguin proposed initially andwhatMorice produced ultimately'.Whereas previously stars filled the sky. Gauguin nues. the mountain which Gauguin and his guide have to scale to reach the tree. while the 'man's' back has been turned so thathis chest and profileno longer reveal his sex. tivement. 2).57 In this new context. 10). 77. 37 ('une ?le ou une and Morice (as in n..58 the scale of mass of land and the stretchofwater in thepicture are fairlyindetermi both the nate. although subtle.. Togetherwith his textualrevisions. in the laterversion the contrast in skin colour indicatesGauguin and hisTahitian guide. thegod of the seawho massacred theentirehuman racewith a flood.6o and 57. Transferred to theLouvre MS ofNoa separated and are pursued by their Noa. la diff?rence entre 59.LINDA GODDARD 287 mother. Loize les hanches'. 7). InAncien Cultemahorie. thewatercolour image is integrated instead into the account ofGauguin's journeywith thewoodcutter (Fig. no longerprotected from the elements. Loize over-compensates by insistingthat the Draft MS and La Plume edition are 'the only two texts that count. of theychallengeLoize's dismissal of theLouvre MS asmerely an intermediary stage in the 'corruption' that led toMorice's La Plume edition. 2). the hillside setting recallsGauguin's arduous trip to theplateau. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 79.. Another example is a watercolour depicting a woman and man on a rock by a stretch water.while the markers of gender have been erased in keeping with the theme of androgyny in the episode: the 'woman's' contours have been hardened and her hair shortened. Gauguin Morice in n. p. p. 7). (as 58. 42. montagne'). this image illustrates of the legendofRoua Hatou. ce que Morice (as in n. p. les ?largit ?paules. '.. the watercolour becomes another of the illustrations As accompanying the tale of thewoodcutting expedition (Fig.. and broadens the shoulders and the hips. and the androgynous figuresevoke the 'graceful forms' that attractedGauguin to his young male guide..saving only one fisherman and hiswife.and the surrounding river inwhich the artist ispurified along theway.Gauguin (as in n. p. Transferred toNoa Noa. p.who took refuge 'an island or amountain' (Fig. Eager to correct the theLouvre MS assumption-discredited by his discovery of theDraftMS-that was theoriginal version ofNoa Noa.

4%.J4LAts l4te IS . p. (I 892-93). it UtV4N(44* V~4 &o &WsSL~aL ieAt G I .J%otJwn~ j s'GA &vwt < itS (Ji4744 fO w$ M JI tftt4 t6 4MI4A4tL tOt /ct ao -/ J N j t 3~~i c 56&ttto*f. 42 of Ancien Culte mahorie stars' (RMN. C Herve with watercolour Lewandowski) illustration of 'the birth of the This content downloaded on Wed.Paul Gauguin. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

? Herve Lewandowski) Louvre MS (I893-97). 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Paul Gauguin.77 of Noa Noa. watercolour illustration for the story of the This content downloaded on Wed.4A ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l 40 2. wood-cutting expedition(RMN. p.

pp. In a letter to de Monfreid in J. Paul Gauguin. which he never saw.61 It is this manuscript to up he referred when he publicly insisted in his monograph that his was the to the status of to the reworked worked which 'true and only first draft'. eliminating a chapter and the producing adding many more poems. in addition to the 1897 manuscript?she dated 1895. du Lettr?. which. to begin with-rewriting the Draft MS MS choses. further refining the prose. An entry in unpublished 2 July 1896 records that 'Hell journal forThursday C. inscribed by her husband: 'premier manu incomplet toDaniel incorrect'. cited 18August 61.62 After Gauguin's departure. de Monfreid. (i1892-93). text. Meanwhile role in editing who. but Morice's rough and Morice-separately--refined draft. and dismissing any changes that the artist might have made material himself approval. watercolour ?D Herv6 Lewandowski) illustration of 'the legend of Roua His belief that the Louvre MS was not Gauguin's final version. neglects the extent towhich both Gauguin and adapted the original text. The whereabouts Morice's script are unknown. as we have Gauguin. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but the unfinished before his return toTahiti and fragments that he showed Gauguin into an 'incomplete.290 PAUL GAUGUIN'S NOA NOA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~/ 3.6 but also a lengthy section arguably called Diverses as an appendix rather than a separate band's defending her hus wife notes that? authorship rights. in L'Ami 'Les deux textes de Noa Noa'. incorrect' draft in I895. Ann?e litt?raire et artistique pour 1925. sequence played inserting could following his return toTahiti substantially in 1895. and reordering the of events a significant in the narrative. Morice textwithout the artist's altered his version of the collaborative a completely new introduction.Deville. P. and further episodes-added be described to the Louvre not only the illustrations. preface. Morice's rough draft was in fact not the Louvre MS. Morice's owns another. as part of the same volume. Paris of thismanu 1925. 3 7 of A ncien Culte mahorie Hatou' (RMN. Letter from Elisabeth 1921. seen. [Elisabeth] depuis hier copie Noa Noa'. relegating Gauguin's 1893 manuscript 'notes'. scrit. Morice This content downloaded on Wed. Morice. 112-24 (117).

. p. This defines it. describes the as 'la v?ritable et that Gauguin approved r?daction primitive' and refers to the possibility This content downloaded on Wed. dans la r?daction troduit ? son gr? des changements primitive'.. Jj%t .... Louvre MS (i893-97).& At AZ- rL I'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~4 4.... 133). dp. Paris. af /4 44r 'Jcr.**-* e-t.. Paul Gauguin. Th~ IIUf X. pp.. I.. $t.. r?crivant de sa main Noa Noa.. Biblioth?que ait in that 'Gauguin. is how Rotonchamp (as in n.... IA4A .* . .. 19.4-l a' J .''. e'*ws zt4 6440*1t w /t Jr 0j ~ ~ Aot /' 'Ao t'.LINDA GODDARD 29I . Petit Journal etArchives 62. . Morice revisions unique du Louvre. 63..C. (as in n. Mus?e des Mus?es Nationaux. 187-88).-i.. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . P79 of Noa Noa.. with watercolour Gerard Blot) illustration for the story of the wood-cutting expedition (RMN.S .-n . a e?*t S0X-s~~~~~~~~~~~~. ea~~~~c&o& tA4e~&Vt I. 21.^e'''.

Paris Gauguin editions of Noa Noa 2003. and some of his inLa Revue blanche in I897. sity. p. p.'66 Whereas Gauguin not only approved. Gauguin.7? was clearlyGauguin's intention from the start to develop his schematic Draft into a and C. 10). beginning 15December and continuing in February 1899. Morice's ongoing involvement in the Gauguin gradually distanced himself from project. 106.noting 'verses are expected from Morice. p. Morice pages as merely letter to Edmond facsimile 'notes' ('des notes'). 3). Morice. Morice. acknowledging that 'these pages are all and uniquely by thehand of Paul Gauguin'.64Not satisfied made between I895 and I897. La 64.we are led to accept that Gauguin was capable of originating the idea fora literarytext.Morice persisted inhis campaign own contributions. Journal.81-103. and xiv.. This content downloaded on Wed. intermediary state isexacerbated by the absence of a complete. On Morice's attempts to find a publisher. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gauguin origine. and copied Louvre MS. in his diary 65. Paley Library. p.68 It is clear that. '. flavour. vendredi. aswell as Diverses choses.. 166-90. Gauguin. 4). le Noa Noa perd de son full text of Diverses choses (1896-97) is 70. received the first instalment pp.and his What ismore. In an I899 letterto thepoet's wife. in Philadelphia. or. 303. he was finally obliged to qualify his claim to sole authorship.69 Either we dismissMorice's guarantee of authenticity as a marketing ploy. Gauguin Revue blanche. includingall 'Morice'material. 83-85. Temple 1898 Petit (as in n. 'Noa Noa'. Paley Library.1897. sont tous et uniquement de la 69. the textas itappeared in theLouvre MS. this stage. letter toMorice. and inwhich he played a greater role thanhas previ ously been accepted.. Wadley Univer 'On attend des vers de Morice.292 PAUL NOA NOA GAUGUIN'S After publishing sections of the reworked Gauguin material.67 goes too far in suggesting befitting' ('hors Wadley therefore that 'the final formpublished in I9OI more or less corresponds toGauguin's first conception'. but reproduce omit the introduction and Morice's poems. 10 septembre 1897.'. postmarked 30 October enclosed inGauguin (as in n. I know. illustrated It edition. PP. refusing Morice's offerto send IOO copies of this 'un de saison') edition.'. moi. Feb tout ? pour ibid. Sagot. some new poems from it into the only.more persuasively. Philadelphia. long after the collaboration had soured. see ibid. Loize (as in n. 20). he acknowledges Although still describes these Gauguin's authorship. j'ai achev? Noa Noa'? to the date inscribed on themanuscript corresponding letter toMadame Morice. de Noa Noa 67. Charles Morice. 68. je le sais. Published (for example Paris 1980 and Brussels 1989 and 1994) frequently the revised version of the chapters. The available only on the CD-rom ?crivain. 84. ruary 1899. he discred ited theLa Plume version. MS as a corrupted. xiv. but if there are many in this book all the narrator's naivetywill disappear and the Noa Noa will lose itsorigins.Gauguin felt thathe had lost control over a collaboration thathad been tightly conceived andmonitored by him up until his departure fromFrance. see C. 289. his private journals reveal sustained solo campaigns on the textup until I899. inGauguin (as in n..65 In contrast. mais s'il y en a beaucoup dans ce livre toute la na?vet? du conteur dispara?t et la saveur. 'J'avoue que la publication fait hors de saison n'a aucun int?r?t aujourd'hui July 1901. with the changes thathe had to find a publisher for the volume. When an impoverishedMorice quietly sold theDraft MS-complete with pasted-in revisions-to the print-dealer Edmond Sagot in I908. Temple University?a new phase of work (distinct from the correction of proofs in 1897 and 1901) is indicated with ongoing references to the project.the but no doubt contributed to. 149. the perception of theLouvre subsequently refining own work. pp. After recording 'Aujourd'hui. P. 105. 66. he made a final effortto control the balance of thepartnership.ces pages main de Paul Gauguin'.

LINDA GODDARD 293 fullertext. and one thatdeserves to be studied in itsown right. which extend throughoutthevolume intoDiverses choses. 6 Mar 2013 21:43:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Courtauld Institute Art of This content downloaded on Wed. Togetherwith the illustrations.supplemented by Morice's poems.these changesmake theLouvre MS ofNoa Noa an entirelydifferent work fromeither theDraft MS or the I9OI La Plume edition: very much Gauguin's own.