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Kingdom of Fungi: Deuteromycota

DEUTEROMYCOTA The Division Deutermycota is called the “fungi imperfecti” or imperfect fungi referring to our “imperfect” knowledge. Of their complete life cycles this deuteromycota are characterized by production of septate mycelium and/or yeast and a sexual life cycle that is either unknown or absent. Asexual reproduction is by means of conidia or may be lacking. A conidium may be defined as an asexual spore that is not produced in a sporangium. Alternatively, biologist simply may not have found the appropriate environmental conditions to observe development of the sexual phase of their life cycle. Fungi Deuteromycota you can find it anywhere. The Deuteromycota are classified for two main reasons. First their multicellular tissue is similar to the hyphae of sac fungi and club fungi. Second they have erect hyphae with asexual spores called candiophores, which are similar to those of the sac fungi or club fungi. There are a number of different classification scheme for this group of fungi, However keep in mind that sinced we are not working with sexual stages here that the classification schemes used to classify the Deuteromycota is artificial and is not intended to show relationship between the taxa.

DEUTEROMYCOTA AND FOUR ORDERS

1. Order Moniliales Order of imperfect fungi lacking canodiophores of having canidiophores that are superficial and not enclosed in a pycnidium. These fungi are present in nearly all soils and other diverse habitat. Conidia and Conidiophore produced on mycelium.

1. Conidiophores of Ulocladium and a single conidium. Ulocladium is a genus of fungi. Species of this genus contain both plant pathogens and food spoilage agent. Ulocladium commonly found in the soil and on decaying herbaceous plants, paper, textiles, dung, emulsion point, fibers and wood. Conidia in this order are produce directly on hyhol cell or specialized cells called conidiophores. 2. Conidia of Alternata tenuis are borne in chains. Alternate is a common and consumpolitan mould species occuring on many plant and other substances including soils, food staffs and textiles. Known habitat are soil corn silage, rotten wood, composts, bird nest and various forest plants.

2. Order Sphaeropsidoles Order of imperfect fungi in which the conidia are produced in pycnidia or similar chambered cavities and which include both saprophytes and parasites. Conidia and Conidiophore produced in pycnidia. A fruiting body of variable shape and size in which conidia and conidiophore are borne.

1. Pycnidium of Chaetomela. Unlike most pycnidium, this genus does not a closed flacked-shaped pycnidium. It is a bowl-shaped structure with many setae, it is dark, thick-walled hairs. 2. Conidia of Chaetomella. An edophytic fungus chatomella raphigera was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified base on the morphology of the fungal cultured and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in Mid liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometric ally for the presence of Taxol. Chaetomella are bean-shaped. 3. Order Melanconiales The smallest of the three orders of fungi imperfect, including those with no asci nor pycnidia, but as a rule having the spores in cavities without specials walls. They cause many of the plant diseases known as anthracnose. Conidia and conidiophore produced in acervuli. A plant-like stromaon which conidia and conidiophore are borne. 1. Acervolus of Pestalotia. Fifty seven fungi which have been earlier referred to the genus Pestalotia or Pestaloptiopsis were recovered from the leaf spots of a large number of plants growing in different regions of India. The species manifested a pronounced variation in the configuration of conidia and number of setulae borne over the superior hyaline cell. The acervulus is covered by dark conidia. 2.Conidia of Pestalotia. Are very distinctive. The end cells with the single appearance are where the conidia were attached and the other end of the conidium has two to three appendages. 4. Order Mycelia Sterlia Mycelium sterile, conidia are not produced. Thus, in order to identify these fungi other characteristic must be utilized. For example Sclerutia may be produced a sclerotium. Sclerotium is usually rounded structure serves normally sterile. Such a structure serves as a “resistant” stage whichn may give rige to mycelium, fruit bodies or stromata. 1. A Sclerotium of the genus Sclerotum. A persistent vegetative resting spore of certain fungi. It consist of hard of hard dense, compact mycelium that varies in form and has a dark-colored covering. The Sclerotia of ergot are poisonous to animals including human. Taxal producing sclerotia differ in their appearance and the differences in their morphology are the basis by which their genera are diferent. 2. The genus Rhizoctina. The hypha is relatively broad and has a characteristics brunching pattern. Hyphal branches are oriented perpendicular from their point of origin and are noticeably constricted at their base. Immediately above the constriction a septum is formed.