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PUMP PERFORMANCE

Total Dynamic Head
TDH P P
d S
· −
P
d
= discharge pressure
P
S
= suction pressure
Hydraulic Horsepower
W hp
Q gpm TDH psi
h
( )
( ) ( )
.
·
17143
Shaft Efficiency
η ·
W
W
h
b
W
h
= theoretical required power (hp)
W
b
= actual shaft work or brake-horsepower
note
η < 1
because there are friction losses inside the pump.
Available Net Positive Suction Head
NPSHA P P
S V
· −
P
S
= suction pressure
P
V
= vapor pressure of fluid
NPSHA has to be positive. Otherwise, the fluid enters the pump with bubbles.
As pressure increases inside the pump the bubbles collapse.
This phenomena is called CAVITATION and it
-Reduces capacity
-Damages the pump
Net Required Positive Suction Head (NPHSR)
Ideal pumps will not cavitate if NPHSA is positive.
However a small pressure decrease can take place in a pump due to internal losses close to the suction.
====> if NPSHA = 0 bubbles can form and cavitation takes place.
====> NPSHA is a required value suggested by the manufacturer
SPECIFICATION CRITERIA
NPHSA > NPHSR
Head Capacity
Curves
Rotary
Reciprocating
Centrifugal
head
(P
d
-P
S
)
Positive displacement
pumps give an approximate
constant flow
Flowrate
(gpm)
Thus, centrifugal pumps are chosen because
They can operate in a wider range of flowrates which is good for control and
process flexibility.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
If you are stuck with a positive displacement pump, the following diagram shows how you can regulate
flow.
However, this arrangement will:
- use more energy
- heat up fluid
Centrifugal Pump Performance Curves
(Fixed speed, rpm)
Want to operate
somewhere here
6”
8”
6” 8”
Characteristic
Curve
60%
70%
Efficiency
NPHSR
Impeller size
Specifying A Pump
1) Need
1
2
4
3
Control valve
System head H
5
= (P
4
-P
3
)+(P
2
-P
1
)
Pump head Hp
But Hp = Hs
Hs
Static
head
friction
losses
As flow increase
friction losses
increase
Effect of a throttling valve
Hs
Valve closes
Flowrate
Since Hs = Hp , pick the Hs curve close to 80% open, at maximum flow
H
Pump curve
Flowrate
System curve
Maximum flow
in this interval
Parameters you can control when selecting the pump
- impeller diameter
- speed (not very common)
- the model
Things to look for
- Maximum efficiency
- NPHSA > NPHSR
What to do if NPHSA is too low
1
2
NPHSA = P
2
-P
V
Increase P
2
!!! (How?)
Increase Z
1
This is the reason why pumping fluids that are close to saturated conditions require that the vessel
upstream be elevated. Flash tanks are typical examples of this.
Control Valves
(see Chem. Eng., April 1978, October, 1971)
Valve characteristics
Flow
linear (butterfly, Some globe)
100
quick opening
(some butterfly)
Equal percentage
(globe, ball)
Travel (θ) 0
(Constant∆P)
∆ ∆θ F
F
f
·
⇒ ·
α
θ
θ
α
Valve flow Coefficient (C
v
)
C Q
P
V
V
·
ρ

Q = flowrate (gpm)
∆P
V
= Pressure drop (psi)
ρ = Specific gravity of fluid
How is C
v
measured ?
Measure the flowrate of water at 60
o
F where
* ∆P = 1 psi
* valve is totally open
How does the valve behave within a system ?
1
2
4
3
∆Pv
Let ∆P
1
= P
2
- P
1
∆P
2
= (P
4
-P
3
) - ∆P
V
Pump
Flowrate
∆P
V
∆P
1
+ ∆P
2
∆P
1
+ ∆P
2
+ ∆P
V
Valve Pressure Drop Ratio
P
P
P P P
P
P P
R
V
V
V
·
+ +
·


∆ ∆ ∆

1 2 2 1
Pump
Flowrate
∆P
V
P
2
-P
1
Small P
R
Pump
Flowrate
∆P
V
P
2
-P
1
Large P
R
Effect of valve travel
20 % open
Flowrate
Small P
R
80 % open
Large variation in travel do
not change flow as P
2
- P
1
is
affected very little
small flow
variation
20 % open
Flowrate
Large P
R
80 % open
large flow
variation
Installed Characteristics
Valve Specification
Need to give
- C
V
- Characteristics
HOW TO OBTAIN C
V
C
V
is obtained from flowrate, sp. gr. and ∆P
V
at maximum flowrate conditions.
C Q
sp gr
P
C C
VS
V
V VS
·
⇒ ≅
max
max
. .
.

08
Now look for a valve that has this C
v
Characteristics.
Want linear response when installed since the stem moves linearly with signal coming from controller.
*Large flowrate variation expected
====> Pick equal % valve with P
R
≅ 0 at maximum flow conditions.
Inherent curve P
R
= 1
P
R
≅0.2
*Low flowrate variations can pick equal % or linear
Inherent curve P
R
= 1
P
R
·0.5
Flow
range
Linear is preferred when pump curve is flat.
OPTIMAL PIPE DIAMETER
(P&T ch. 11)
Cost
Total cost
Piping cost
Pumping cost
Optimal
diameter
diameter
Pumping cost = Annualized cost of pump + Cost of electrcity
Piping costs = C(diameter)
n
(includes fittings)
Optimal piping + Pump arrangement
Since Isometric is fixed, then pipe length is fixed and Le (equivalent legth due to fittings and valves) is
fixed
Pumping Costs
C
E
= KW
R
= KW/η
η = pump efficiency
Recall that
W
G
P
P
·
¸
¸

_
,

ρ

∆P
p
= Discharge pressure - Suction pressure
G = Mass flowrate
But
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ P P g z V f
L
D
P
P S
e
V
· · +

¸

1
]
1
+ ρ 2
2
2
∆P
S
= System pressure drop
∆P
V
= Valve pressure drop
Assume that

V
2
2
0
¸
¸

_
,

·
( ==> ρ does not change and suction piping has same diameter as discharge
piping.)
Now

∆ ∆ ∆
P
P P P
P
V
V L L
R
+ +
·
1 2
∆ g z V f
L
D
e
+
2
2
2 ρ ρ
Will fix this parameter
Then :
( )
( )
( )
( )

∆ ∆
∆ ∆
∆ ∆
P
P P P
P
P g z V f
L
D
P
P
P g z V f
L
D P
V
L L R
R
S
e R
R
S
e
R
·
+

⇒ · +

¸

1
]
1
+

¸

1
]
1
⇒ · +

¸

1
]
1

¸

1
]
1
1 2
2
2
2
2
1
2 1
1
2
1
1
ρ
ρ
Put all together
( )
C K
W K G
P
g z V f
L
D
E
R
e
·
· ·

+

¸

1
]
1
η η ρ
1
1
2
2
2

This is slightly different from P&T, where P
R
is not considered
use
f
a a
DV
b b
· ·
¸
¸

_
,

Re
ρ
µ
but
V
G
D
V f
D
G a
D
b
b
b
·
¸
¸

_
,

⇒ ·
¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
,



ρ π
π
µ
ρ
4
4 1
2
2
2
2 5
In this way, we have C
E
as a function of D only!!!!!
Fixed Charges
C D L
C W
pipe
pump
·
·
α
α
ρ
β
µ
β
ρ
µ
Total cost
C C C C
T E pipe pump
· + +
We have to find the minimum of the above total cost funtion. Options are:
1) Calculate for different diameters and determine the lowest one.
2) Use excel solver.
3) In provision, use strategy outlined in 1) in a calculator.
CAVITATION
Cavitation takes place when pressure inside the valve drops below vapor pressure of fluid.
How can that happen ?
Pressure gradient across the valve
Criteria to determine possible cavitation
If
∆ ∆ P C P
f S
< ⇒
2
no cavitation
∆P P
P
P
P
S
C
V
· − −
¸
¸

_
,

1
1
0 96 0 28 . .
P
V
= Vapor pressure
P
C
= Critical pressure
∆P P P
S V
≅ −
1
(for P
V
< 0.5 P
1
)
C
f
= 0.98 equal % flow to open (against stem)
C
f
= 0.85 equal % flow to close
Sizing Pressure Relief Valves
(Chem. Eng, Feb 1977)
Spring settings
Overpressure for fully open valve
P
F
= 1.25 P
S
Set pressure = P
S
= 1.1 P
M
(valve starts to open)
Max. Normal operating pressure = P
M
Sizing : Need to determine the flowrate at overpressure. This is related to how fast you want pressure
to go down. Once the flowrate at overpressure is known you specify the area of the orifice
Let Q
F
= flowrate at overpressure
for liquids use bernoulli equation with density (ρ) constant
( ) ρ P P
V V
F atm
V d
− +
− ¸
¸

_
,

·
2 2
2
0
Velocity in Vessel (V
V
) ≈ 0
Q = V
d
A
⇒ ·

A
Q
P P
F
F atm
2
ρ
( )
How to determine Q?
Liquid is in the vessel and will have to release some liquid to reduce pressure.
Recall from Thermodynamics that
( ) v v T P
dv
v
T
dT
v
P
dP
P T
·
·
_
,
+
_
,

,




But β = volume expansivity
β


ρ
·
¸
¸

_
,

1
v
v
T
K = isothermal compressibility
K
V
v
P
dv
v
dT Kdp
T
· −
¸
¸

_
,

⇒ · −
1 ∂

β
In a valve
( )
( )
dT d KdP
K P P
≅ ⇒ ·
· −
0
0
1
0 1
ln
ln
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
0
V · initial mass
V · Volume of vessel
( ) ρ ρ
0
− ·
t
v W
W = mass to release
But W QdT
t
·

ρ
0
assume Q(t) = Q
F
W = ρ
t
Q
F
t
t = time in which you want pressure to go down
( )
( )
( )
( )
⇒ − ·
⇒ ·

· −
¸
¸

_
,

· −

ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
0
0 0
1
1
t t F
F
t
t t
F
K P P
V Q t
Q
V
t
V
t
Q e
V
t
F S
Gas and Vapor Services
A
W Tz
CKK P M
b F
·
M = Molecular weitht
C is a function of
k
C
C
P
V
·
C k
k
k
k
·
+
¸
¸

_
,

+

520
2
1
1
1
K = manufacturer coeficient (range about 0.95-1.0)
K
b
= backpressure sizing factor
P
b
/P
s
K
b
0.55 1
0.6 0.995
0.7 0.945
0.8 0.845
The above formula corresponds to the maximum possible velocity through an orifice : the velocity of
sound in the fluid and is borrowed from compressible gas flow theory.
LETDOWN VALVES
Gas letdown
C
W
Y xP
V
·
633
1 1
. γ
W · flow rate
P
1
·
inlet pressure (psia)
γ
1
·
density (lb/ft
3
)
x M
P
P
k
x
in T
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹

1
14
,
.
high ∆P will cause choke flow
Liquid letdown (Vaporization wil cause choke flow)
( )
C
W
F P P
V
L vc
·
− 633
1
. γ
P
vc
= pressure at vena-contracta
P P P
vc v V
≅ − 096 0 005
0 5
. .
.
high ∆P will cause choke flow
F
L
= Manufacturer constant (0.8-1.0)