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You are on page 1of 25

**Total Dynamic Head
**

TDH P P

d S

· −

P

d

= discharge pressure

P

S

= suction pressure

Hydraulic Horsepower

W hp

Q gpm TDH psi

h

( )

( ) ( )

.

·

17143

Shaft Efficiency

η ·

W

W

h

b

W

h

= theoretical required power (hp)

W

b

= actual shaft work or brake-horsepower

note

η < 1

because there are friction losses inside the pump.

Available Net Positive Suction Head

NPSHA P P

S V

· −

P

S

= suction pressure

P

V

= vapor pressure of fluid

NPSHA has to be positive. Otherwise, the fluid enters the pump with bubbles.

As pressure increases inside the pump the bubbles collapse.

This phenomena is called CAVITATION and it

-Reduces capacity

-Damages the pump

Net Required Positive Suction Head (NPHSR)

Ideal pumps will not cavitate if NPHSA is positive.

However a small pressure decrease can take place in a pump due to internal losses close to the suction.

====> if NPSHA = 0 bubbles can form and cavitation takes place.

====> NPSHA is a required value suggested by the manufacturer

SPECIFICATION CRITERIA

NPHSA > NPHSR

Head Capacity

Curves

Rotary

Reciprocating

Centrifugal

head

(P

d

-P

S

)

Positive displacement

pumps give an approximate

constant flow

Flowrate

(gpm)

Thus, centrifugal pumps are chosen because

They can operate in a wider range of flowrates which is good for control and

process flexibility.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

If you are stuck with a positive displacement pump, the following diagram shows how you can regulate

flow.

However, this arrangement will:

- use more energy

- heat up fluid

Centrifugal Pump Performance Curves

(Fixed speed, rpm)

Want to operate

somewhere here

6”

8”

6” 8”

Characteristic

Curve

60%

70%

Efficiency

NPHSR

Impeller size

Specifying A Pump

1) Need

1

2

4

3

Control valve

System head H

5

= (P

4

-P

3

)+(P

2

-P

1

)

Pump head Hp

But Hp = Hs

Hs

Static

head

friction

losses

As flow increase

friction losses

increase

Effect of a throttling valve

Hs

Valve closes

Flowrate

Since Hs = Hp , pick the Hs curve close to 80% open, at maximum flow

H

Pump curve

Flowrate

System curve

Maximum flow

in this interval

Parameters you can control when selecting the pump

- impeller diameter

- speed (not very common)

- the model

Things to look for

- Maximum efficiency

- NPHSA > NPHSR

What to do if NPHSA is too low

1

2

NPHSA = P

2

-P

V

Increase P

2

!!! (How?)

Increase Z

1

This is the reason why pumping fluids that are close to saturated conditions require that the vessel

upstream be elevated. Flash tanks are typical examples of this.

Control Valves

(see Chem. Eng., April 1978, October, 1971)

Valve characteristics

Flow

linear (butterfly, Some globe)

100

quick opening

(some butterfly)

Equal percentage

(globe, ball)

Travel (θ) 0

(Constant∆P)

∆ ∆θ F

F

f

·

⇒ ·

α

θ

θ

α

Valve flow Coefficient (C

v

)

C Q

P

V

V

·

ρ

∆

Q = flowrate (gpm)

∆P

V

= Pressure drop (psi)

ρ = Specific gravity of fluid

How is C

v

measured ?

Measure the flowrate of water at 60

o

F where

* ∆P = 1 psi

* valve is totally open

How does the valve behave within a system ?

1

2

4

3

∆Pv

Let ∆P

1

= P

2

- P

1

∆P

2

= (P

4

-P

3

) - ∆P

V

Pump

Flowrate

∆P

V

∆P

1

+ ∆P

2

∆P

1

+ ∆P

2

+ ∆P

V

Valve Pressure Drop Ratio

P

P

P P P

P

P P

R

V

V

V

·

+ +

·

−

∆

∆ ∆ ∆

∆

1 2 2 1

Pump

Flowrate

∆P

V

P

2

-P

1

Small P

R

Pump

Flowrate

∆P

V

P

2

-P

1

Large P

R

Effect of valve travel

20 % open

Flowrate

Small P

R

80 % open

Large variation in travel do

not change flow as P

2

- P

1

is

affected very little

small flow

variation

20 % open

Flowrate

Large P

R

80 % open

large flow

variation

Installed Characteristics

Valve Specification

Need to give

- C

V

- Characteristics

HOW TO OBTAIN C

V

C

V

is obtained from flowrate, sp. gr. and ∆P

V

at maximum flowrate conditions.

C Q

sp gr

P

C C

VS

V

V VS

·

⇒ ≅

max

max

. .

.

∆

08

Now look for a valve that has this C

v

Characteristics.

Want linear response when installed since the stem moves linearly with signal coming from controller.

*Large flowrate variation expected

====> Pick equal % valve with P

R

≅ 0 at maximum flow conditions.

Inherent curve P

R

= 1

P

R

≅0.2

*Low flowrate variations can pick equal % or linear

Inherent curve P

R

= 1

P

R

·0.5

Flow

range

Linear is preferred when pump curve is flat.

OPTIMAL PIPE DIAMETER

(P&T ch. 11)

Cost

Total cost

Piping cost

Pumping cost

Optimal

diameter

diameter

Pumping cost = Annualized cost of pump + Cost of electrcity

Piping costs = C(diameter)

n

(includes fittings)

Optimal piping + Pump arrangement

Since Isometric is fixed, then pipe length is fixed and Le (equivalent legth due to fittings and valves) is

fixed

Pumping Costs

C

E

= KW

R

= KW/η

η = pump efficiency

Recall that

W

G

P

P

·

¸

¸

_

,

ρ

∆

∆P

p

= Discharge pressure - Suction pressure

G = Mass flowrate

But

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ P P g z V f

L

D

P

P S

e

V

· · +

¸

1

]

1

+ ρ 2

2

2

∆P

S

= System pressure drop

∆P

V

= Valve pressure drop

Assume that

∆

V

2

2

0

¸

¸

_

,

·

( ==> ρ does not change and suction piping has same diameter as discharge

piping.)

Now

∆

∆ ∆ ∆

P

P P P

P

V

V L L

R

+ +

·

1 2

∆ g z V f

L

D

e

+

2

2

2 ρ ρ

Will fix this parameter

Then :

( )

( )

( )

( )

∆

∆ ∆

∆ ∆

∆ ∆

P

P P P

P

P g z V f

L

D

P

P

P g z V f

L

D P

V

L L R

R

S

e R

R

S

e

R

·

+

−

⇒ · +

¸

1

]

1

+

−

¸

1

]

1

⇒ · +

¸

1

]

1

−

¸

1

]

1

1 2

2

2

2

2

1

2 1

1

2

1

1

ρ

ρ

Put all together

( )

C K

W K G

P

g z V f

L

D

E

R

e

·

· ·

−

+

¸

1

]

1

η η ρ

1

1

2

2

2

∆

This is slightly different from P&T, where P

R

is not considered

use

f

a a

DV

b b

· ·

¸

¸

_

,

Re

ρ

µ

but

V

G

D

V f

D

G a

D

b

b

b

·

¸

¸

_

,

⇒ ·

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

−

−

ρ π

π

µ

ρ

4

4 1

2

2

2

2 5

In this way, we have C

E

as a function of D only!!!!!

Fixed Charges

C D L

C W

pipe

pump

·

·

α

α

ρ

β

µ

β

ρ

µ

Total cost

C C C C

T E pipe pump

· + +

We have to find the minimum of the above total cost funtion. Options are:

1) Calculate for different diameters and determine the lowest one.

2) Use excel solver.

3) In provision, use strategy outlined in 1) in a calculator.

CAVITATION

Cavitation takes place when pressure inside the valve drops below vapor pressure of fluid.

How can that happen ?

Pressure gradient across the valve

Criteria to determine possible cavitation

If

∆ ∆ P C P

f S

< ⇒

2

no cavitation

∆P P

P

P

P

S

C

V

· − −

¸

¸

_

,

1

1

0 96 0 28 . .

P

V

= Vapor pressure

P

C

= Critical pressure

∆P P P

S V

≅ −

1

(for P

V

< 0.5 P

1

)

C

f

= 0.98 equal % flow to open (against stem)

C

f

= 0.85 equal % flow to close

Sizing Pressure Relief Valves

(Chem. Eng, Feb 1977)

Spring settings

Overpressure for fully open valve

P

F

= 1.25 P

S

Set pressure = P

S

= 1.1 P

M

(valve starts to open)

Max. Normal operating pressure = P

M

Sizing : Need to determine the flowrate at overpressure. This is related to how fast you want pressure

to go down. Once the flowrate at overpressure is known you specify the area of the orifice

Let Q

F

= flowrate at overpressure

for liquids use bernoulli equation with density (ρ) constant

( ) ρ P P

V V

F atm

V d

− +

− ¸

¸

_

,

·

2 2

2

0

Velocity in Vessel (V

V

) ≈ 0

Q = V

d

A

⇒ ·

−

A

Q

P P

F

F atm

2

ρ

( )

How to determine Q?

Liquid is in the vessel and will have to release some liquid to reduce pressure.

Recall from Thermodynamics that

( ) v v T P

dv

v

T

dT

v

P

dP

P T

·

·

_

,

+

_

,

,

∂

∂

∂

∂

But β = volume expansivity

β

∂

∂

ρ

·

¸

¸

_

,

1

v

v

T

K = isothermal compressibility

K

V

v

P

dv

v

dT Kdp

T

· −

¸

¸

_

,

⇒ · −

1 ∂

∂

β

In a valve

( )

( )

dT d KdP

K P P

≅ ⇒ ·

· −

0

0

1

0 1

ln

ln

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

0

V · initial mass

V · Volume of vessel

( ) ρ ρ

0

− ·

t

v W

W = mass to release

But W QdT

t

·

∫

ρ

0

assume Q(t) = Q

F

W = ρ

t

Q

F

t

t = time in which you want pressure to go down

( )

( )

( )

( )

⇒ − ·

⇒ ·

−

· −

¸

¸

_

,

· −

−

ρ ρ ρ

ρ ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

0

0 0

1

1

t t F

F

t

t t

F

K P P

V Q t

Q

V

t

V

t

Q e

V

t

F S

Gas and Vapor Services

A

W Tz

CKK P M

b F

·

M = Molecular weitht

C is a function of

k

C

C

P

V

·

C k

k

k

k

·

+

¸

¸

_

,

+

−

520

2

1

1

1

K = manufacturer coeficient (range about 0.95-1.0)

K

b

= backpressure sizing factor

P

b

/P

s

K

b

0.55 1

0.6 0.995

0.7 0.945

0.8 0.845

The above formula corresponds to the maximum possible velocity through an orifice : the velocity of

sound in the fluid and is borrowed from compressible gas flow theory.

LETDOWN VALVES

Gas letdown

C

W

Y xP

V

·

633

1 1

. γ

W · flow rate

P

1

·

inlet pressure (psia)

γ

1

·

density (lb/ft

3

)

x M

P

P

k

x

in T

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

∆

1

14

,

.

high ∆P will cause choke flow

Liquid letdown (Vaporization wil cause choke flow)

( )

C

W

F P P

V

L vc

·

− 633

1

. γ

P

vc

= pressure at vena-contracta

P P P

vc v V

≅ − 096 0 005

0 5

. .

.

high ∆P will cause choke flow

F

L

= Manufacturer constant (0.8-1.0)

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