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Form 2 Chapter 1 The world through our senses yschow@smkbpj(a) 1

1.1 Sensory Organs and Their Functions • A sensory organ is an organ that enables the body to respond to stimuli. • A stimulus is a change in the surroundings that can be detected by the sensory organs. • The five sensory organs are eye, ear, nos e, tongue and skin. yschow@smkbpj(a) 2

• The ability of the sensory organs to detect stimuli is called senses. Sensory organ Eye Ear Nose Tongue Skin Sense Sight Hearing Smell Taste Touch Sti muli Light Sound Chemical in air Chemical in foods Pressure, heat, cold, touch yschow@smkbpj(a) 3

Pathway from stimulus to response. Stimulus Response Receptor in sensory organ Effectors (muscle) Sensory nerves Brain yschow@smkbpj(a) Motor nerves 4

2 Sense of Touch yschow@smkbpj(a) 5 .1.

2 Sense of Touch • The skin is a sensory organ which responds to the sense of touch.1. Receptor Cold receptors Heat receptors Pain receptors Pressure receptors Touch r eceptors yschow@smkbpj(a) Stimuli (sensitive to) Cold substances Heat Pain Large pressure Small pressure ( touch ) 6 . • There are five types of receptors in the skin.

• Elbow .• The sensitivity of the skin depends on (a) the thickness of epidermis (b) the nu mber of receptors present • Fingertip and neck are more sensitive . knee a nd back side are not so sensitive to touch. which allows blind people to read yschow@smkbpj(a) 7 . Braille letters are specifically designed symbols for stimulating the fingertips .

1.3 Sense of Smell yschow@smkbpj(a) 8 .

1. • The smell rec eptors are stimulated. yschow@smkbpj(a) 9 . the chemica ls from the food enter the nasal cavity and dissolve in the mucus.3 Sense of Smell • Mucus is produced to help keep the receptors moist. • When you inhale. • The impulses from the smell receptors are sent to the bra in by the olfactory nerves for interpretation.

yschow@smkbpj(a) Cold = flu (selsema 感冒 感冒) 10 . too much mucus is produced and this makes the receptors le ss sensitive.• When we catch a cold.

1.4 Sense of Taste yschow@smkbpj(a) 11 .

The taste buds are the t aste receptors. yschow@smkbpj(a) 12 . • There are four types of taste receptors. • These receptors are sen sitive to sweet. salty. sweet salty sour and bitter tastes.4 Sense of Taste • The tongue contains many taste buds.1.

• The impulses are sent to the brain for interpretation. yschow@smkbpj(a) 13 . • The taste receptors will be stimulated and impulses are produced.How do you taste? • The taste buds are able to detect the taste of the food when the food is dissolv ed in saliva.

5 Sense of Hearing yschow@smkbpj(a) 14 .1.

• The car can be divided into three sections: i) outer ear.5 Sense of Hearing • The ear is a sensory organ for hearing and balancing. ii) middle ear and iii ) inner ear.1. yschow@smkbpj(a) 15 .

The pinna collects sound waves and directs them into the auditory canal and t o the eardrum.How do we hear ? 1. The eardrum begins to vibrate and the vibrations are transferr ed to the ossicles yschow@smkbpj(a) 16 . 2.

3. yschow@smkbpj(a) 17 . The ossicles magnify the vibrations and pass them to the oval window. 4. The oval window transmits the vibrations to the cochlea.

The cochlea converts the vibrations into impulses. yschow@smkbpj(a) 18 . 6.5. The impulses are sent b y the auditory nerves to the brain for interpretation.

1.6 Sense of Sight yschow@smkbpj(a) 19 .

• The li ght rays are refracted by cornea. yschow@smkbpj(a) 20 . the light rays from the object enter the eye. • An i mage is formed on the retina.. lens and vitreous humour. aqueous humour.How do we see ? • When you look at an object. Impulses are produced and are sent to the brain by the optic nerves.

This causes the f ormation of eclipses. Thus.1.7 Light and Sight • Light is a form of energy and light travels in straight lines. shadows are formed. • Light cannot travel through opaque objects. yschow@smkbpj(a) 21 .

you see a reflection of yourself which is the sa me size as you but back 22 to front. . yschow@smkbpj(a) When you look in a flat mirror. • Mirrors are v ery shiny surfaces designed to reflect nearly all the light that hits them. some of it bounces off or is reflected.Light can be reflected • When light hits a surface.

Light can be refracted • When light travels from one medium to another of different density. its speed ch anges. • This causes the light ray to bend. • This is known as refraction. yschow@smkbpj(a) 23 .

yschow@smkbpj(a) 24 . b) A straw i n a glass of water appears to be bent.Effect of light refraction a) The swimming pool appears to be shallower than its actual depth.

(c) Astigmatism (Rabun silau 散光) bo th far and near objects are blur.Vision defects There are three defects of vision: (a) Short-sightedness ( Rabun jauh 近 ) can see ne ar objects clearly but not distant objects. yschow@smkbpj(a) 25 . (b) Long-sightedness ( Rabun dekat ) c an see far objects clearly but not near objects.

Using diverging (concave) lens. Using cylindrical lenses. yschow@smkbpj(a) 26 . The images of nearby objects are formed at the back of retina. using converging (convex) lens. Caused by irregular surface of the cornea.Short-sightedness can see near objects clearly Long-sightedness can see far objects clearly Astigmatism both far and near objects are blur The images of distant objects are formed in front of the retina.

Testing astigmatism ( text pg 23) Normal eye Have an astigmatism Close your right eye and hold this page about one arm’s length from your left eye. yschow@smkbpj(a) 27 . Look at the figure .

Optical illusion yschow@smkbpj(a) 28 .

Optical illusion yschow@smkbpj(a) 29 .

It s amazing how our brain works.• Sometimes our brains do not accurately interpret what we see. we don t always s ee what we think we see. This should be proof enough. yschow@smkbpj(a) 30     . • This phenomenon is known as optical illusion.

the place where the optical nerves enter the eye. When images fall on the blind spot..Text book pg 24 Blind spot • • • This boy is chasing a butterfly . Then move your head closer to or furthe r from the screen until .. Close your left eye and look at the boy with your right eye. yschow@smkbpj(a) 31     .time to end this madness. they cannot be seen. the butterfly disappears ! You can t see the butterf ly because it s exactly in front of your blind spot.

yschow@smkbpj(a) 32 . • Humans and most predat ors have stereoscopic vision.Stereoscopic (binocular) vision • Stereoscopic vision is a vision involving both eyes eyes.

yschow@smkbpj(a) 33 .Advantages of stereoscopic vision (a) Able to see objects in three dimensions. (b) Able to estimate the distance a ccurately.

eye. • Monocular vision has a wider scope of vision vision. • T his enables the prey to detect the presence of predators easily yschow@smkbpj(a) 34 . • Animals of prey normal ly have monocular vision.Monocular vision • Monocular vision is a vision involving only one eye.

• magnifying glass. • ultrasound scanning device. • telescope. yschow@smkbpj(a) 35 .The various devices used to overcome the limitations of sight include • microscope . • X-ray and • periscope. • binoculars.

8 Sound and Hearing • Sound is produced when objects vibrate. yschow@smkbpj(a) 36 . sound cannot travel through vacuum vacuum. • Hence. • A medium is needed for the sound to trav el.1.

Echo can be used to: (a) estimate the depth of sea (b) identify a school of fish (c) detect the presence of subma rines yschow@smkbpj(a) 37 .Sound can be reflected • Sound can be reflected by smooth and hard surfaces and it is absorbed by soft an d rough surfaces. • Echo is the reflected sound.

For example.Hearing defects There are two major types of (a) The first type involves the outer and middle ea r. toxins are produced as a result of diphtheria or scarlet fever. the earwax can block sound waves and cause temporary loss of hea ring. These toxins damage the cochlea and cause permanent loss of hearing. yschow@smkbpj(a) 38 . (b) The second type involves damage to the inner ear. For example.

Protect our ears Don’t do this !! Use earplug or earmuffs Loud music cause hearing loss yschow@smkbpj(a) 39 .

How to overcome hearing loss ? Hearing aid Surgery Artificial cochlea yschow@smkbpj(a) 40 .

cats and dolphins. • Sou nds with frequencies 20 000 Hz and • above are ultrasonic sounds. These sounds can be detected by animals such as bats.Human hearing limit • Our ears can only detect sound of frequencies between 20 Hz and 20000 Hz Hz. yschow@smkbpj(a) 41 .

• Stereophonic hearing helps us to determine the direction of sound.Stereophonic hearing • Stereophonic hearing is hearing with both ears. yschow@smkbpj(a) 42 .

touch and gravity. yschow@smkbpj(a) 43 .9 Stimuli and Responses in Plants • Plants respond to stimuli like light. water . • Different parts of the plant respond to different stimuli.1.

• There are two types of responses: (a) Tropism Tropism is the directional growth of the part of a plant in response to an external stimulus. (b) Nastic movements The direction of the response is not dependent on the direction of the stimulus Venus fly trap Pitcher yschow@smkbpj(a) Plants Mimosa pudica 44 .

Types of tropisms (a) Phototropism : Response to light (b) Geotropism : Response to gravity (c) Hydrotropism : Response to water (d) Thigmotropism: Response to touch yschow@smkbpj(a) 45 .

it is called nega tive tropism. yschow@smkbpj(a) Shoot is negative geotropism Roots are positive geotropism . • When the part of the plant grows away from the stimulus.• When the part of the plant grows towards the stimulus. it is called positive tro pism. 46 .