Theme - 3

Hazards Identification and Control Measures in Chemical (industrial) Workplaces
industrial Disaster Risk Management

Machine Environment

Man

Error
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Method

Material

Disaster Management Institute Prayavaran Parisar, E-5, Arera Colony, PB No. 563, Bhopal-462 016 MP (India), Fon +91-755-2466715, 2461538, 2461348, Fax +91-755-2466653 e-mail :dmi@dmibhopal.nic.in web site :www.dmibhopal.nic.in

January 2010 5.03-0002-2010

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1.35 This module is mainly targeted to:Safety auditors Emergency responders Emergency planners and regulators Civil administrators This Module provides the information on various methods of hazards identification and control measures at chemical (industrial) workplaces.11 .18 . iii. Why hazards identification? 1.General understanding about hazards Hazards Identification and Control Measures in Chemical (industrial) Workplaces -2 -2 -2 -3 -4 -9 .6.3. hazard is a source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or illness. damage to the environment.19 .5. or a combination of these.Contents 1. when a new job. According to OHSAS 18001:1999. Conclusion 4. we can clearly determine proper controls. damage to property. There are many reasons why hazard identification has to be updated.1. ii.4. 2.33 . Check lists 1. Engineering controls 2.7. How to identify hazards 1. At the end of this module.26 .1.5.11 . the identification of workplace hazards is the first step in the risk management process. 3. Control measures 2. Personal protective equipment 2. the majority of us sometimes overlook to recognise hazards.12 .10 .2. Administrative controls 2. Broad categories of hazard 1. By recognising hazards' characteristics and properties. Review Workplace Hazards 1. understand and suggest several methods of preventing and controlling hazards in their own workplaces. Glossary 5. task or activity is introduced\initiated. Reference 1 2 .4. understand the philosophy and methods of control. Workplace Hazards 1.23 . Substitution 2. Categorising hazards 1. Elimination 2. We have identified the following top 15 reasons after doing extensive research :Top 15 Reasons I. when the existing process conditions will have to changed.2 Why hazards identification? Hazard recognition or hazard identification is vitally important in accident prevention.2. trainees will be able to: understand the philosophy of hazards recognisition.34 .14 .6. Unfortunately.3. What is a hazard ? 1.1 What is a hazard ? A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm. Other methods of control 2.

when a neighbour plant will be built near the existing chemical plant. and or system?' Another way is to ask the question 'What-if?' For example. The popular fish bone example is used to show this relationship for error or Method Material accident as shown in fig-1 1. The developing hazard cannot be recognised immediately and will develop over the time (e. a worn tyre on a mobile crane or and frayed steel cables). when we plan to modify plant facility or plant layout. when inspecting a construction site. The concealed hazard is not apparent to the senses (e. machinery. simply ask the question. x. presence of toxic vapours. are used. ix. if not controlled Error in time. when a confined space permit has expired. This method is applied before exposure to hazards. personal protective equipment. or and faulty electrical equipment). Multi-Step Planning Process is applied before hazard exposure and applied to every task. ? analysis is a structured approach to identify hazards and improves the chances of identifying all of the hazards in the workplace. unguarded machinery. instrumentation. a sticking safety valve on a boiler. so falling object is hazard to a worker and hat may protect the worker’s head.then .g.4 How to identify hazards The first step in the risk management process is the identification of workplace hazards. etc. xiii. In diversified working environment any variation in coordination or short cuts or uncomfortability of the man may lead to Machine Man happening of any type of the errors. 1. it is important to record the following all activities involved in work process and tasks who is involved in those activities details of plant or materials that are used It is important to make a list of all the hazards at the workplace. when after an incident or accident occurred. intermittent electrical or and mechanical defect). when on-site and off-site emergency plans are prepared as per the schedule 11 and 12 of MS and IHC rules 1989 of EPA 1986. tool. when safety audit.3 Categorising hazards Fig-1 iv. when new safety equipment is introduced. job and activity.g. or and high frequency noise).g. job or activity. safety patrol or self-inspection system is being done. overload of 3 4 . when plant expansion project is scheduled. environment. . This means looking for those things at the workplace that have the potential to cause harm. when replacement of chemical. ask 'What if a worker walks without hat in the industrial premises which is either under construction or renovation? Answer may be “in absence of hat it is possible that any falling object may cause harm to worker”. To apply this method simply asks a series of questions before doing the task. xv. catalyst or fuel is required. vii.when current standard operating procedures need to be altered.what will happen?' (Please refer module-11 for more information The following are the other most important hazard recognition methods: Pre-Use Analysis can be applied before any new equipment. electricity. and The transient hazard is an intermittent or a temporary hazard (e.g. 'Does this task/activity/situation/ event has the potential to harm a person. Viii. xi. Once this list of hazards is compiled then each of the hazards should be considered individually for risk management. machine. In an industry there is interface in between man and machine with various materials through standard operating procedures (SOPs). Hazards can also be identified from records of past accidents and near misses. xiv. plant facility. Persons can ask themselves: 'Is this activity safe? What if this or that occurs . . To make the job of identification of hazards in the workplace easier. Environment This error may transform in the bigger accident. To begin identifying hazards. These are proactive ways to identify hazards. when transportation of the hazardous chemicals is required. vi. device. v. property. when a new equipment or machine will be installed in the plant site. the hazards may be categorised as follows: The obvious hazard is apparent to the senses (e. xii. What-if. building defects. when a new product will be produced. safety inspection. The question should be similar to: To assist in identifying hazards.

Suggestion Method encourages to propose or suggest potential hazards (and controls) that are contained in a job. loading the truck. conducting a health and safety audit. such as electricians. office workers or drivers. Workers consider their past time experiences on the shop floor and field to give suggestions. if they are not properly managed or guided. testing. This will provide the opportunity to see whether the documented procedure for performing the task is being followed by the workers. suppliers. Look at each task the workers do. Structured approach to improve the chances of identifying all of the hazards in the workplace.a. It may also be helpful to observe workers performing their tasks and the activities involved. seeking information by Work Permit is issued before the job. Generally the checklist includes the analysis of toxic gas (such as carbon monoxide. worker complaints. etc. warehouse or wet areas. Safety patrol may be done during an equipment running. task or activity. maintenance records. or finishing. such as pain and discomfort in body parts.g. It is done by dividing the workplace into groupings such as: locations. Visual inspection and observation is the most common and simple way to begin to look for hazards by regular walk. H2S). task or activity? How will I do that job. safety protective equipment. cleaning. hearing. Equipment Inspection is implemented to any equipment before it is used or put into operation. task or activity done. experience. Some questions asked and a checklist shall be completed to assure that hazards are not overlooked. operation. e. such as offices. forming. maintenance and inspection. employer bodies and health and safety consultancies. not only by persons who are in charge of health and safety matters. flammable gas concentration. for example. using chemicals or equipments. washing. What am I going to do? What is the purpose of doing this job. functions or production processes. task or activity? How could I get hurt doing this job. saw dust used by worker in the spillage of Nitric acid releases dangerous fumes of nitrogen oxides which are recognised as brown to yellow colour fumes. Fig-2 demonstrates as discussed. Some workplace activities or arrangements may create or increase hazards. such as administration. body maps and discomfort surveys). any near misses or events that have not been reported. and skin conditions. c. This method can be used for improving current hazard identification list. grounds. and other organisations. manufacturers. plant operation. illness health)? roles. knowing the industry's experience of common potential hazards. tasks. or changes to vision. sick leave and staff turnover. guarding. emergency stop. etc. b. cleaning. audits or inspections. etc. technicians. Safety Patrol can be carried out by every worker in the plant site. Equipment inspection is planned and organised to check overall equipment conditions.through visual inspections of the workplace. such as unions.g. such as set-up. undertaking workers’ surveys (e. Mixture of Nitrogen Oxides Nitric Acid W SA ST DU Nitric Acid Fig-2 5 6 . receiving. oxygen sufficiency. by removing guards). consulting with Workplace Health and Safety Representatives (WHSRs) and workplace health and safety committees. cooking. such as working on the lathe. results of surveys. Other ways to help identify hazards include: consulting workers about problems they have encountered in doing their work. decanting a substance or data processing. it will help to take an additional structured approach. d. measuring and sampling by means of analysing records and data covering incidents and near misses. or whether workers are taking short cuts for speeding up work (e. symptom. task or activity? What will I do to prevent accident (injury. acquiring information from designers. to see if any hazards are present. plant shut down or whenever it is intended to identify potential hazards. such as handling loads.

service or repair equipment and materials. The satisfactory fulfilment of these obligations are monitored and promoted by the Regulatory Weather Conditions: Agencies through a Day-time only Clear and sunny professional review Wind speed 3m/s and audit processes. and how well they are located. organisational arrangements. consider the following: competency and level of training of workers and its adequacy. when set too high they create unrealistic performance targets. the theme 2 deals with the details about the hazards. plant. how people could be hurt directly and indirectly by the various workplace aspects. accidents involving major accident hazards (MAHs) industries in India and overseas have resulted in numerous chemical disasters. materials and personal protective equipments that are selected are the cheapest one and are not safely designed. FEMA. risk assessment reports. if they are not clearly defined.site and off . examination and reviewing of HAZOP. and opportunities for. transport and handling of hazardous materials. mock drills and reviewing the reports.g. excessive physical and mental tasks and job demands which may lead to an inability to keep the worker's mind on the job. maintenance and servicing programmes for plant to cover wear and tear training programes. Consequently.g. This is achieved by assisting the operators of such facilities to meet their safety obligations. risk and control during transportation of hazardous chemicals.g. plant. a safety report and audit. roles. chemical plants and large fuel and chemical storage facilities where large quantities of hazardous materials are stored. Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MS and IHC) Rules 1989 and subsequent amendments. which may affect their safety. people will not know what they have to do. a programme of induction. if the products. (Refer module 11) Some workplace activities may create or increase hazards. Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989 also guides to identify and control the hazards. information. Release Conditions: The hazards due to release of any chemical is assessed by knowing the impacts zones both on . when or how to do it. chemical industries and communities worldwide are determined to prevent further serious accidents and considering the hazards beyond the plant premises to assess the impacts. if they are not properly managed. which includes the provision of: a systematic risk assessment.g. clean. where risk management of property is emphasised over the risk management of people and safety. consultation with the neighbouring community. Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning.site by doing computer modelling Chlorine drum (920kg) Liquid value release Indoor release 1 ppm No impact 3 ppm Minor impact 20 ppm Significant impact Fig-3 7 8 . greater levels of supervision are appropriate in some areas.When collecting information to identify hazards.site impacts. supervision and training for all persons at the facility. may lead to fatigue and human error where workers are working for long hours. Preparedness and Response) Rules 1996 under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 have further advocated to protect people. such as shiftwork and rosters. on-site and off-site emergency plans. etc. FTA and ETA. These regulations regulates MAH industries to minimise the likelihood of accidents at these sites and to minimise adverse off . education. In recent years. This will be achieved by applying safety obligations on everyone involved with the storage. chemical fertilizers. emergency plans and procedures. It applies especially in emergency situations). governments. or are working on more than one job. responsibilities. levels of supervision and ratios of supervisors to workers (e. how people actually use. handled or processed are governed by the Manufacture. key performance indicators (e. not suitable for the job or suited to the workers using it or are of inadequate quality). process. information to. economic drive. Major Accidents Hazards (MAH) industries such as oil refineries. the life cycles of substances. property and the environment from chemical accidents. which can increase the workers' tendency to take short cuts and increase risks while trying to achieve the targets). a safety management system. how suitable the things used for the task are. how waste materials are or should be disposed off. and account abilities (e. materials and premises. safety reports and audits. These include: purchasing policies (e.

s) Inadequate guard rails or hand rails on stairs. m) Substances that may cause harm by being ingested (for example entering the body via mouth). electricity. etc. vibration. j) Substances that may be inhaled. e) fire and explosion. or being absorbed through the skin. d) Inadequate headroom. etc. and g) natural calamities. commissioning. etc. falling of drums and consequently the release of the chemicals 9 10 . r) Slippery. h) Fire and explosion. During work activities could the following hazards exist? a) Slips/falls on the floor level. noise. t) Subcontractors' activities. i) Violence to staff. material. (For detail refer module 11 -15) 1. d) substances. c) radiation. covering both on-site transport and travel by road. q) Lighting levels. uneven ground/surfaces. radiation. c) Falls of tools. It requires scientific and technical understanding about the behaviour of the chemical. preparedness and response mechanism. g) Vehicle hazards. repair and dismantling. b) Falls of persons from heights. for example: a) mechanical. of a toxic gas is shown in the fig-3 and similar are needed for explosion and fire. for example. k) Substances or agents that may damage the eye. n) Harmful energies (for example. The information gained is then used to facilitate land use planning decisions and in the emergency services to develop realistic emergency planning. operation. b) electrical.6 General understanding about hazards The following figures/photographs helps in understanding the hazards from control point of views:- Poor signage fails to convey the message about the hazards and therefore increases the possibilities of damages due to hazards Poor maintenance and repair of vessels and pipes increases the potential hazards of the release of the chemicals into the workplace surrounding environment Poor security and broken boundary walls are biggest potential hazards Poor storage or pile up of the chemical drums or tonners are the potential hazards. for example too hot. from heights. maintenance.5 Broad categories of hazard To help with the process of identifying hazards it is useful to categorise hazards in different ways for example by topic. o) Non-compliance of regulation p) Inadequate thermal environment. l) Substances that may cause harm by coming into contact with. f) toxic release. Impact modelling and assessment.). materials. 1. e) Hazards associated with manual lifting/handling of tools. f) Hazards from plant and machinery associated with assembly.and dispalying the affected area on map. modification.

many used machines that do not meet safety standards are exported to developing countries. hearing loss from noise. silicon carbide) instead of sandstone wheels Are substitute materials always safer than the original hazard? No. detergent plus water-cleaning solutions instead of organic solvents. These materials can be more expensive to purchase but they are safer for workers to handle and can be cheaper when other costs are considered. and reduce the chance of inhaling the dust. It is shown in fig -5. Engineering control is applied to control hazards Elimination by engineering modifications in the process. but cost more in terms of accidents. from human and workplace. Fig-6 is the best example for accident when machine guard is eliminated or in other words hazard of accident could be eliminated by providing the machine guard. causing workers to pay the price with Fig-6 accidents. or evaporate easily) instead of a highly volatile one. 2. flakes. Control measures To control the hazards there are four principles in general. It is not easy to find “safer” chemical substitutes (in fact. no chemical should be considered completely safe). such as the cost of ventilation to control dust.7A demonstrates the dust/fume of a hazardous chemical. dusty powders are also available in brick. The last principle Substitution advocate the administrative control by making some administrative mechanism in the Engineering controls workplace to keep away hazards . Administrative R e d u c t i o n 2. choose a solid instead of a liquid. personal protective equipment. etc. It is important to review every year or so current reports on the chemicals used in the workplace because chemicals considered to be “safer” substitutes today may not be considered safe in the future. A classic example is asbestos. if elimination is not possible then substitution should be considered. loss of production.2 Substitution If a particular dangerous chemical or work process cannot be completely eliminated. etc. Eliminate hazards at the “development stage” it is important to consider health and safety aspects when work processes are still in the planning stages. cyclohexane or ketones instead of benzene).1 Elimination controls Personal protective equipment Fig-5 H a z a r d s Fig-7A WELL. Fibreglass DUST The application of all four control measures with the use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) reduces the hazards significantly in workplace and out side of the unit. Unfortunately. pellet. many dry.7B . not cost. Other examples of substitution include using: less hazardous solvents instead of toxic ones dichloromethane or fluorochlorohydrocarbon instead of carbon tetrachloride. the original hazard. freon instead of methyl bromide chloride as a refrigerant. oil damped powders. and toluene. synthetic grinding wheels (such as aluminum oxide. There are examples where a material that was thought to be safer was found to be as bad as. leadless glasses in the ceramics industry. etc. paste. leadless pigments in paints. and other forms that create less dust when handled. Many plastics and rubber industry chemicals can also be supplied in dust-suppressed forms. Machines should conform to national safety standards — they should be designed with the correct guard on them to eliminate the danger of a worker getting caught in the machine while using it. etc. safety should be the first concern. THERE IS NO DUST The most effective control measure is to control hazards at the source by eliminating the hazard. For example. Fig . For example. When one has to look for safer substitutes. or worse than.2. when purchasing machines. this chemical has been substituted by a chemical which do not have dust/fumes as shown in Fig . Elimination of the hazard is the best option. ozone in place of chlorine in swimming pools. Fig-7B 11 12 . then try to replace it with a safer substitute. compensation. Machines that are not produced with the proper guards on them may cost less to purchase. try to choose a less volatile (volatile liquids vaporise.

If a dangerous chemical or work process cannot be eliminated. LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYER CHEMICAL MANUFACTURER LOCAL FACTORY OR LABOUR INSPECTORATE TEACHERS AT LOCAL COLLEGES OR UNIVERSITIES UNION Fig-11B LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT LOCAL LIBRARY ITSs ILO OTHER Fig-11C Fig-8 Fig-9 13 14 . Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MS and IHC) Rules 1989 and subsequent amendments. even if you are using a “safer” substitute. but that does not mean it is safe. Fig-11A shows the total enclosing of hazards while Fig-11B shows the partial enclosure. iv.3 Engineering controls There are a number of common control measures which are called “engineering controls”. Where one can get information on substitute materials? Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is the best source of getting information about the hazardous chemical. 2. MSDS is also available with other sources are as shown in fig-8. covered containers to carry materials which produce air contaminants. or using “membrane cell by mercury electrodes” to control mercury pollution is safer way in chlor alkali industry . ii. The toxic fumes should be scrubbed by water or dilute chemical solution by spraying through scrubbers as shown in Fig-9. Enclosure If a hazardous substance or work process cannot be eliminated or substituted. Other examples are: i. For example.11C is not a good practice where hazard is not enclosed. dip or brush instead of spray painting. iii. Changing the way of job is another form of substitution. vacuuming up dust instead of sweeping it.they may be better than the original hazard but can still be dangerous. Many hazards can be controlled by partially or totally enclosing the work process. Not all substitute materials are really “safer” . A substitute may be better than the original hazard. These methods reduce the amount of dust in the air. electric motors instead of diesel or petrol engines to eliminate hazardous exhaust fumes. Can dangerous work processes be substituted with safer processes? Yes. 2. Use a vacuum cleaning when cleaning up toxic dust. As per the Schedule 9 of Manufacture. then try to replace it with a safer substitute. In the example the fumes/vapours are considered for giving an example of enclosure. “dust-free” cutting or grinding equipment. isolation and ventilation. Never sweep toxic dust-sweeping puts the dangerous dust back into the air where you can breathe it. These include enclosure. Protective measures are important when working with all chemicals. The Fig. or mixing water with the material used to prevent dust from being created. it is now known that fibreglass is also a hazardous material and is not a completely safe substitute for asbestos. I). (Fig-10) Fig-10 Remember 1. Highly toxic materials that can be released into the air should be totally enclosed. usually by using a mechanical handling device or a closed glove system that can be operated from the outside.“Wet methods” mean spraying water over a dusty surface to keep dust down. even if one is using a “safer” substitute. then enclose it so workers are not Fig-11A exposed to the hazards . Protective measures are important when working with all chemicals.has been used as a substitute for asbestos. however.

This is a common method with punch/ stamping presses. dust-producing work should be isolated from other work areas to prevent other workers from being exposed. rotating parts. Here are a few examples of types of machine guards: a. This type of guard also prevents broken and flying machine parts from hitting. This type is Fig-13 very effective where the air pollutants have a high temperature. For example. Local exhaust ventilation usually uses suction. through which they are then transferred to a disposal point away from the workers (a degreasing tank is an example of this). arms. (ii) fumes are sucked into a canopy hood which hangs over a contaminant and forced out through a ventilation duct. so that no need to feed by hand. Fig -14 Demonstrate Fig-14 the partial enclosure. sharp areas. For example. yet at the same time allow access to the work process. flying chips and sparks. placement or ejecting guards: these control methods protect from dangerous points of operation. At the same time. or if a job can be changed to a shift when fewer people are exposed (such as a weekend or midnight shift). Whatever the type. presses. b. Remote control. cold. Automatic guards: actually pull or Fig-12 push the hands. a feeding mechanism may use an automatic device to feed material into the machine. Isolation is also possible by using PPEs in the hazardous areas. or body away from the danger zone as the work is being done.Machine guarding is another form of enclosure that prevents workers from coming into contact with dangerous parts of machines. Ventilation Ventilation in the workplace can be used for two reasons: (1) to prevent the work environment from being too hot. (Iii). Interlocking guards: prevent from operating the machine if the guard is not in place. workers in the dusty areas must be protected and restricted to only a short time working in those areas. or if they rise in the air for another reason (for example. Photoelectrical or mechanical-sensing devices (such as a photoelectric eye) are examples of interlocking guards. Generally there are two categories of ventilation: local exhaust ventilation and general ventilation. There are two common types of local exhaust ventilation used in industry today: (i) fumes are sucked into an open tank with side slots and into a closed system. dry or humid. Isolation Isolation can be an effective method of control if a hazardous job can be moved to a part of the workplace where fewer people will be exposed. Workers should receive training on how to use guarded machines safely. which can crush. pinch-points. the heat from furnaces or ovens causes pollutants to rise). a two-handed control requires both of hands to be on the controls (away from the danger zone) when operating the machine. The worker can also be isolated from a hazardous job. feeding. Unguarded machines are hazardous c. for example by working in an air-conditioned control booth. such as blades. based on the principle of a vacuum cleaner. (2) to prevent contaminants in the air from getting into the area where workers breathe. ventilation should be used together with other methods of control. which can cause electrical shock or burns. Isolating the work process or the worker does not eliminate the hazard. 15 16 . Enclosure guards: prevent from coming into contact with the dangerous moving parts of a machine by enclosing the parts or forming a barrier around the dangerous parts. exposed electrical components. which means workers can still be exposed. or automatically stop the machine if part of body enters a dangerous area. Some of the areas of a machine that can injure are: the point of operation (which is the area on a machine where work is actually being performed). Fig -13 demonstrate the suction at local level Partial enclosure (such as laboratory fume cupboards or screens placed around welders) combined with a local exhaust ventilation system is one of the best solutions for controlling toxic material. d. a. This type of system must operate as close as possible to the source of the hazardous agent to reduce it from spreading. (ii). to remove pollutants from the air. It is also important to limit the length of time and the amount of a substance(s) to which workers are exposed if they must work in the hazardous area.

hazardous agents in the air can accumulate (sometimes to dangerous levels). then full enclosing is the next best method of control. etc. Sprinkle some dust or hold a piece of cloth near the exhaust outlet to see if the air movement in your workplace is adequate. 1. then the ventilation system is not working properly and should be repaired. therefore elimination is always a better choice than isolation. However. Fire giving workers longer rest periods or shorter work shifts to reduce exposure time.b. difficult to work in and dangerous. General ventilation is one of the least effective methods of controlling hazards. Ventilation systems must be checked and serviced regularly. disclosure of the hazards and risk to civil administration Fig-16 to get help in real emergency. Some examples of administrative controls include: Photo-1 Photo-2 Does your workplace have some type of ventilation system in place that you assume is working properly? In many cases. Doors and windows are sometimes locked for security reasons. the workers can be isolated from a hazardous job. windows and doors may be opened to increase the general flow of air. removing toxic materials. General ventilation can be used for keeping the workplace comfortable. clear and readable signage are administrative tool for communication and control of hazards at workplaces (example Fig -15 and16). Air-bricks. 0rganisation of drills for emergency Inclusion of bonus to those who regards safety and Fire exit follow the safety instructions. how much and how quickly fresh air is coming in. 4. and the workplace may become very hot. Photo1 and 2 show the ventilation system off and on respectively changing work schedules (for example. Are fans a good source of ventilation? No. If a hazardous substance or work process cannot be eliminated or substituted.4 Administrative controls Administrative controls limits the duration of working time of the workers at a hazardous place. these openings are often blocked or shut. Unfortunately.. and how the contaminated air is being removed. However. isolation and ventilation. like: how quickly the hazardous agent is being released into the air. it simply reduces the amounts in the air to levels that are considered “safe” for breathing. assembly moving a hazardous work process to an area where point fewer people will be exposed. and local exhaust ventilation for removing air pollutants. General ventilation generally used for keeping the workplace comfortable. Isolation can be an effective method of control if a hazardous job can be moved to a part of the workplace where fewer people will be exposed. The effectiveness of a general ventilation system depends on several things. Ventilation systems must be checked and serviced regularly. the equipment and personnel can be hard to get. If there is little air movement. 17 18 . Without good general ventilation. is with special equipment and personnel trained to use it. Fans can only help to remove fumes. lack of servicing. two people may be able to work for four hours each at a job instead of one person working for eight hours at that job). Unfortunately. or if the job can be performed at a time when fewer people will be exposed. The purpose of any general ventilation system is to remove contaminated air and replace it with “fresh” air. etc. This system does not really remove hazardous agents from the air. Fig-15 changing a work process to a shift when fewer people are working. but they should not be used as a primary source of general ventilation and should never be used as a method of . The best way to test how well the ventilation system in your workplace is working. inclusion of safety in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and demonstration with community of nearby. a simple way to see how well the ventilation extract system in your workplace is working is to sprinkle some dust or hold a piece of cloth near the exhaust outlet. 2. 3. Engineering controls include enclosure. many workplaces use general ventilation as the only source of ventilation. Alternatively. air-bricks may be blocked by excess stock being stored across them. dusts. 2. etc. Isolating a work process or a worker does not eliminate the hazard. is one of the least effective methods of controlling hazards but one of the most commonly used. the ventilation system is not effective because of poor design. compliance of regulatory provisions is the best administrative control.

hats helm hats ets. or dust in the nose hairs. they only reduce exposure time. and safety shoes leaky gloves can trap hazardous chemicals against the skin. a respirator mask may not have a tight seal if your face is wet with perspiration or water. e. mask goggles. chem ical a os p clothing. for example.ld a dafor mta e sh Lookpo s l-lind ie s n r n signs of leaks. 2. boots 19 20 . one should wear PPE for a short time (even as little as ten minutes in very hot conditions) . plugs Ears Hands hands coats special gloves. Protection for: Type of gear airway respirators. workers should drink plenty of water and take frequent breaks. helm hats ets. When wearing PPE. hns ad rubberiag vs. How do you know what type of PPE to use? The type of PPE you need to use depends on the hazards and. Protection against gases and fumes. rubber finger- hands muffs. c eresistantsista tc th h ic l n aprons resistant clothing. PPE puts a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Helmets. aprons skinaprons r nical resistant clothing. 1. stone dust. Administrative controls limiting the amount of time working at a hazardous job can be used together with other methods of control to reduce exposure to hazards. can decrease work ear protectors performance and can create new health and safety respirators with filters hazards. Heat and humidity can also decrease the effectiveness of some protective equipments.An example of administrative controls being used together with engineering controls and personal protective equipment is: a four-hour limit for work in a fully enclosed. All PPE should be checked for holes or aireleakage. Make sure none of protective gear is made ha asbestosa ofd hlmts.g. elimination. ear protectors can prevent dust masks from hearing warning signals. rubber fingeragainst work shoes. rubber fingerfeet hands coats special gloves. glasses. high noise area where ear protectors are required.lo in. hats Head skin Lungs skin Eyes Skin skChemicalrresistantg inchemicalma eclothing. when using paints containing solvents. The filter should be replaced when it gets harder to breathe or when it begins to smell. The filter should be replaced frequently. Administrative controls do not eliminate exposures. For example. boots feet radiation metal-lined shields and aprons Special gloves. she bshould aprons aa st wr Careots and be gin metal-lined shields taken while purchasing the PPE and it should be as per the bodytio of the workers r d size a ia n for both men and women.hts e ee 2. but it also keeps heat and water vapour in the protective clothing. if it is impossible to reduce hazards inspite of the. polarizers Protection for: Type of gear head head head helmets. If a worker is having beard or large mustache then it is difficult to get a good seal . earplugs may cause infection. However. substitution. PPEs should be used in addition to other control hazards methods .r be finespc finger-coatsr e l loe ubr g ca ots against work shoes. chem aprons special gloves. o Protective clothing should fit well in order to give the best protection. such as dust near the nose. Protection against airborne particles. exposure. safety glasses PPE can be uncomfortable. PPE may keep the hazard out. respirators can make it gloves protective suits harder to breathe.if your mask does not have a good seal you cannot breathe in hazards feboots radiation e t against work shoes. With a combination filter containing both a dust and a gas filter. In hot or humid working conditions. These masks are examples of the simplest effective respiratory protection. boots radiation feet coats metal-lined shields and aprons against work shoes. This filter contains activated carbon. This filter contain mess to filter out dust. which can cause hot and uncomfortable conditions. e. Feet radiation ok os.5 Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the least effective method of controlling occupational hazards and should be used only when Examples of PPE include: other methods cannot control hazards sufficiently. engineering and administrative controls then PPEs should be used to save lives of workers and even community.g.

they are taking care by providing compressed air. Use of PPEs during action of emergency management during toxic gas release which is highly soluble in water is demonstrated in next five photos. the yellow cloured full body cover is the best way to work in toxic gases. The response team members should have full body protection through comprehensive body cover by all PPEs. including nerve damage and skin and eye damage. The best example is shown above where whole team is better protected for any emergency action for toxic releases. Use of the appropriate safety PPEs is essential to protect from chemical hazards. In Photo-3 the left side worker is using SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) but is devoid of helmet. Barrier creams can help to remove dirt when wash the skin. Fig-17 Wrong Fig-18 Right Photo-5 Sometimes workers use barrier creams to prevent hazards from getting through the skin on their hands and arms.PPEs should be used according to the chemical composition. one is having risk of falling object on the head and other is having the risk of getting toxic inhalation (Photo-3). hand gloves . 3 < 4 < 5 < 6 < 7 meaning to say preparedness of the response team is better in Photo-7 and poor in Photo-3. for example the pesticides can cause serious poisoning. Photo-3 Photo-7 21 22 . Barrier creams are not very effective and can even cause more exposure to hazards by trapping dusts next to the skin or causing chemicals to get through skin. If we compare Photo-3 to 7 then the PPEs have following orders of betterment i. so SCBA ( Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) should be used. The adjacent employee don't have full body cover so he is not better protected in comparison to yellow one. full body cover. helmet.e. because everyone has SCBA. Photo-6 In Photo-6 both workers are having SCBA and for victim. but they are not a substitute for hazard-specific gloves. Photo-4 In Photo-5 the PPE includes the whole body cover. while right side worker is bearing helmet but is not bearing SCBA so both are having risk. In Phot-4 both of the employees in this picture bears the SCBA to protect themselves for toxic gas inhalation.17 and 18 show the wrong and right PPEs during spray of pesticides respectively. shoes. The following fig. in addition to this the safety shoes are better here to the previous case (Photo-3).

3. workers should take frequent breaks and drink plenty of fluids. RECOMMENDATION: None. Proper storage and housekeeping can avoid such sitiuations 23 24 . Hot or humid working conditions decrease the effectiveness of PPE. SIGN: Danger High Voltage Within Keep Out COMMENT: Standard electrical safety sign with warning symbol. and can create new health and safety hazards. A few example of best and poor practices of housekeeping are shown below: SIGN: Caution Hard Hat Area COMMENT: Standardised hard hat SIGNAGE: RECOMMENDATION: None.Proper training is needed in the use. care. At the same time. 2. maintenance and to know limitations of PPE. 6. Workers in PPE should take regular breaks.6 Other methods of control General cleanliness Keeping a clean and organised workplace is an important method of controlling hazards. Good housekeeping (keeping a clean workplace) reduces the risk of fire and is cost-effective. If PPE does not fit you well it may not protect you. All PPE should be checked for leaks. maintenance and limitations of PPE. PPE is the least effective method for controlling hazards in the workplace and should be used only when hazards cannot be controlled sufficiently by other methods. 4. Points to remember about personal protective equipment 1. maintaining a pleasant working environment can produce higher productivity. decrease work performance. The type of PPE required depends on the hazard. since machines and tools that are cleaned regularly need less servicing. PPE can be uncomfortable. the way exposure affects the body and the exposure time. 2. Under these conditions. Good work practices include: proper cleaning at regular intervals (using industrial vacuum cleaner) proper waste disposal proper and immediate clean-up of any spills proper sprinkling of scrubbing agent to absorb or to dilute the toxic gases release into the environment or work place correct storage and labelling of materials. All workers using PPE should be trained in the proper use. 5. this is particularly important with respirators.

Conclusion Check-list to assess the control measures After having the review of hazards recognistion and control methods in previous pages it can be concluded that hazard control process has following six steps i. proper judgement of the right control methods Monitor Analyze iv. what type of guard could be installed? 2. for machine guards 1. Are starting and stopping controls within easy reach of the operator? 3. chains. fingers and bodies kept safely away from the danger areas when a machine is being operated? If no. gears and blades properly guarded? 4. Is the company following all local or national requirements for machine guarding and any special rules for guarding of hand and portable powered tools and machinery? Check lists To review the control measures for various types of hazards we are providing a few check lists for self assessment in annexure for following: to assess the control measures for machine guards to assess the control measures for local exhaust ventilation to assess the control measures for personal protective equipments (PPEs) to assess the control measures for general cleanliness assess the control measures for personal hygiene assess the control measures for hazards control and emergency planning 25 26 . Are guards firmly attached so they cannot easily be removed? Fig -19 Annexure Recommend 7. spockets. pulleys. Assessment ii. Appropriate control methods recommendation v. It is strongly recommended that please observe the hazards seriously and report to competent persons to control the hazards any type of casual approach can become a disaster to you or your company is an alarm device provided? 9. Are belts. Are the operators' hands. Is there an effective system for disconnecting and locking out the machine from its power sources when guards are removed during maintenance? Have workers been trained in lockout procedures and in machine maintenance procedures? 10. Are rotating parts covered or out of reach inside the equipment? 5. Analysis Assess iii. Have operators been told about the importance of using guards? Have they been trained in the operation and maintenance of guarded machines? 8. Monitoring of the whole process The above six steps have been depicted as Fig-19.3. Do machine guards restrict workers' productivity. If operators are not within sight or hearing distance of other workers. Are fans that are located near the floor guarded? 6. Does the design or construction of the machine guards create any new dangers? 12. proper implementation Act Judge vi. cause discomfort or annoyance to the operator? 11.

Is adequate space available in first-aid room ? 4. if possible. Ask the senior management to show the original design of the system. 6. washrooms or where dangerous materials are used. Are body showers and eye wash available at all points? 7. potable water. grease.Check-list to assess the control measures for local exhaust ventilation Annexure Check-list to assess the control measures for personal hygiene 1. Clean working clothes. Have extra hoods been added to cover new machines? If any were added. and inefficient? 6. towels. 11. Are any belts broken? Are fans installed correctly ? Are fan blades covered with dirt. Do you smell chemical odours or see dust building up near the hood or machines? Can you see contaminants in the air? 2. Are trained and adequate first-aid personnel present during all shifts? 3. 9. Is the hood close enough to the place where air contaminants are being released? 4. Is adequate first-aid equipment provided and checked regularly? 2. particularly when they get contaminated. was the system balanced again? Can it handle the new load? 8. Have Ambulance been equipped with necessary medical facilities? 7. 5. 4. Does the amount of clean air brought into the system equal the amount exhausted? Does monitoring of hazardous gases is efficient and concentration is within prescribed limits. Never eat in locker rooms. First-aid and fire-fighting equipment Use this check-list to assess the first-aid and fire-fighting equipment in the workplace. etc. etc. Annexure 1. 1. Are locations of first-aid posts visible and within reach ? 6. Has the employer used an instrument called a velometer to see if the airflow is strong enough? 2. Does the hood pull contaminants in the proper direction away from the worker's face rather than past it? 10. Wash the hands and the exposed parts of your body regularly and take daily baths or showers. Wear proper clothing and footwear. Are workers encouraged for taking meal at clean dinning places ? 8. twists or Ys in the duct system? These can slow down the movement of the exhaust air as well as causing increased noise levels. Are there many bends. Do not mix work and street clothes. 3. Are safety committees recommendations being discussed with workers and supervisors for improving personal hygiene health? 27 28 . 8. Check motors and fans. Are any ducts broken or leaking? 5. Is first-aid competence been evaluated during drills? 5. Drink clean. with the help of a special laundry. 7. Keep physically healthy with regular exercise. Clean your teeth and mouth daily and have periodic dental check-ups if possible.

transport areas and exits clearly marked and free of obstacles? 3. Are special areas set aside for storage of raw materials. Hazardous substances: An element. to get control of a place to work. people must keep all windows and doors closed. on the basis of identified potential accidents together with their consequences. agent. Are there special groups of people to carry out day-to-day cleaning and weekly or monthly cleaning? 11. Risk: The combination of a consequence and the probability of its occurrence. Is the layout designed to facilitate order and cleanliness? Is there adequate space between machines exists? 2. Probability: The likelihood that a considered occurrence will take place. mixture or preparation which. or when an evacuation cannot be performed. Isolation: Isolate Hazard Area and Deny Entry means to keep everybody away from the area if they are not directly involved in emergency response operations. material or the environment. In-place protection: In-place protection means to direct people to quickly go inside a building and remain inside until the danger passes. tools and accessories? 4. particularly stairs. This is the first step for any protective action that follow. by virtue of chemical. When inside. 29 30 . or if the buildings cannot be tightly closed. Is there a clear assignment of duties for maintenance and repair of work premises. Have arrangements been made to remove finished goods and wastes? 12. describe how such accidents and their consequences should be handled either on-site or off-site. Major accidents: Any unplanned. Are there screens or simple devices to prevent deposits of oil. there must be enough time for people to be warned. finished products. Are there racks for hand tools or other necessary items above work tables? 5. walkways. Are aisles. Are floor-covering materials suitable for the work and for cleaning? 8. lights and toilet/ washing facilities exists? Accident/Incidents: Any unplanned. plant. and to leave an area. Glossary Check-list to assess the control measures for general cleanliness Annexure 1. This ‘Isolation” task is done first. if it will take a long time for the gas to clear the area. In-place protection may not be the best option if the vapours are explosive. passageways. walls. In-place protection is used when evacuating the public would cause greater risk than directing them to stay where they are. Emergency plan: A formal written plan which. Generally. Evacuation: Evacuate means to move all people from a threatened area to a safer place. liquid wastes or water on the floors available? 9. if there is enough time for evacuation. When protecting people inside. material or the environment. To perform an evacuation. Hazard: An inherent property of a substance. Unprotected emergency responders should not be allowed within the isolation area. Are there underbench slots or other spaces for storage of small personal belongings? 6.4. it is likely to be the best protective action. to get ready. Are receptacles for waste and debris in convenient locations? 7. direct them to close all doors and windows and to shut off all ventilating. source of energy or situation having the potential of causing undesirable consequences. heating and cooling systems. Consequence: Result of a specific event. compound. plant. physical or (eco) toxicological properties constitutes a hazard. sudden event which causes or is liable to cause serious injury to people or damage to buildings. Are there drainage channels for waste water? 10. sudden event which causes or is liable to cause injury to people or damage to building.

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