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What is the purpose of doing a titration? A titration is done to determine the concentration of a solution of unknown concentration.

What is an indicator? An indicator is a substance, often a weak acid that changes color when the titrant and the substance of unknown concentration have reacted to completion (when the system is at the equivalence point). How do you decide which indicator should be used for a titration? The equivalence point for the reaction in a titration is used to decide which indicator is used. The color change of the indicator should occur approximately at the pH of the equivalence point, so the that pH is estimated and an indicator is chosen based on that estimate. What is the difference between the equivalence point and the end point? The equivalence point is when the reaction between the titrant and unknown is complete, while the end point is when the indicator changes color. The indicator chosen for a titration should have an end point as close to the equivalence point as possible, so as to allow the measurements to be as accurate as possible. Compare and sketch a titration graph for a strong acid/strong base titration and for a weak acid/strong base titration.

Compare and sketch a titration graph for a strong acid/strong base titration and the same titration after a buffer solution has been added.

Explain what a buffer is and how a buffer solution keeps the pH from changing. A buffer solution is a solution that resists change in pH when H+ or OH- ions are added. A buffer sis composed of a weak acid/base and its salt (the acid/base’s conjugate). For example, a solution with HF and NaF is buffered. Added H+ ions will be consumed in a reaction with F- ions in the solution (from the NaF) to form HF, a weak acid. The H+ that dissociates from the HF won’t significantly change the pH, so the solution resists the pH change. Added OH- ions will be

consumed in a reaction with HF to produce F- and H2O. Neither of the products significantly affect pH, so the solution resists the pH change. Consider each of the following potential sources of error. Answer: “H” if it would have caused your calculated value for Molarity of NaOH to come out too high. “L” if it would have caused it to come out too low. “N” if it would have no effect on your value. There was a little distilled water in the Erlenmeyer flask before you began the titration. N There was a little HCl in the Erlenmeyer flask before you began your titration. H You added 3 drops of phenolphthalein, instead of 2 drops. N An air bubble was present in the NaOH buret, but it stayed in while you titrated. N An air bubble was present in the NaOH buret, but it came out in the middle of your titrations. L While you were titrating, some NaOH dripped onto the table instead of into the flask. L You forgot to add the phenolphthalein indicator. The molarity of NaOH could not have been calculated. It could not have been observed when the end point is reached.