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EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

3/11/13 3:24 PM

EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

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This investigation was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of hardened fly ash concrete. Briefly, the water cement ratio are kept close to 0.48 for Mix 1 and 0.5 for Mix 2 in order to study its effect on the hardened fly ash concrete. The proportion of fly ash content was kept constant with 20% replacement of cement. The properties of hardened concrete investigated included compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and drying shrinkage (change in length). The analysis of the test results lead to the conclusion that a good performance of concrete can be produced with the cement and fly ash used in this investigation. The concrete also give a good compressive strength specially at late ages. The elastic modulus values are within the expected range. The drying shrinkage of the fly ash concrete investigated is relatively low and close to normal concrete.

1. INTRODUCTION Fly ash is one of the most widely used material admixtures which results from the combustion of pulverized coal in thermal power generating plants. For many years, engineers have been interested in and concerned with the possible use of fly ash in various types of concrete instead of being a waste material. In 1989, the total fly ash production in the world was on the order of 400 million tons annually. It is considered a major solid waste, about 70 to 80% of the fly ash goes to landfills. When fly ash is mixed with lime it will slowly combine with the lime to form a material: similar to natural cement. Therefore, when the fly ash mixed with portland cement it will! slowly combine with the free lime released as the portland cement hardened. This process NORrmally produces a greater strength in the concrete after it ages approximately 100 to it) days. Extensive worldwide research [1-8] has shown that
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maximum size of aggregate) and fine aggregate (sand) with 2.8.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. However.47 specific gravity.3. this comparison can be done for concrete based on the flexibility given by ASTM C490 standards which allow using any desire cross-section having a 10 in. M1F. This is different from the normal case in which concrete mixes containing fly ash will generally require less water (1% to 10%) for a given slump than concrete containing only portland cement.html Page 2 of 8 . M2F) were made in order to cast 48 specimens of 10!20 cm cylinders. Four concrete mixes (M1C. Another two concrete mixes (MSC and MSF as defined in Table 1) were made for shrinkage test with w/c of 0. 14.2. All specimens were cured in water for 7.EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM the use of fly ash can produce concrete of better resistance to sulfate attack. is to see how this small change will effect the properties of hardened concrete without keeping the slump constant. Six prisms of 12"x2"x2" were casted from each concrete mix. reduce heat of hydration and slightly affects the drying shrinkage of fly ash concrete or mortars as compared to normal mixes.3 CaO of 2 percent in addition to some other chemical components with low percentage. M2C. 2. 28 and 90 days. Therefore by comparing the fly ash concrete specimens with the control specimens. Fe203 of 9. The mix designation is given in Table 1. The fly ash used in the study was collected from power plants. MATERIAL AND SPECIMEN PREPARATION The concrete mixtures were made of a local Type I cement with specific gravity of 3.5.48 and 0.6 for coarse aggregate (of 3/4 in. 2. reduce concrete permeability. gage length when measuring the drying shrinkage. the effect of adding fly ash admixture on the mechanical properties of fly ash concrete was evaluated. In this investigation. After six days of water curing three prisms from each group were kept in a room with 50% humidity at room temperature of 23°C http://constructionz. Twenty four of these specimens were used as a control mix and other twenty four were used from the concrete mix with 20% fly ash replacement with two different water cement ratio of 0. The prism sizes used here were considered for the purpose of comparison with control mix.48 and maximum size of aggregate of 3/8 in. The reason for selecting small difference in w/c. Its chemical composition contains Si02 of 57. AL203 of 20. Throughout the experimental investigation a 20% of cement replacement by fly ash was considered. a good indication of the difference in drying shrinkage (volume reduction) can he obtained.

http://constructionz. This trend is attributed to the pozzolanic action of fly ash. M1F. size aggregate:3/8 in. M2C and M2F which are described in Table 2. 3. The cylinder specimens were casted from the concrete mix samples designated as M1C. MSC and MSF in Table 1. It appears from both figures that the compressive strength increases with the age of curing.5) the compressive strength become closer at 90 days than at early ages. size aggregate). the compressive strength was higher than for the case of 0. TEST RESULTS A large number of specimens were tested for the determination of the mechanical properties of concrete.html Page 3 of 8 . modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage. max. For both w/c ratios (0. 1 and 2. Forty eight cylinders were tested in compression to measure the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity at different ages of moist curing (7.48 and 0.1 Compressive Strength The data on the compressive strength are given in Table 3 and illustrated in Figs. For the lower w/c ratio.48.5 ratio by about (14 to 22%) for both fly ash and control specimens at the age of 90 days. of 0.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. These includ compressive strength at various ages. max.76 (cement:sand:3/4 in. 28 and 90 days).82:1. A summary of the concrete mix design is given in Table 2. stress-strain relationship.EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM and the other three were kept in room temperature of 50°C with about 10% relative humidity. 3. casted from each mix. The increase rate in the early ages (7 to 14 days) is lower than the later ages (28 to 90 days) for both fly ash and control concretes. The mix proportions used to cast the first four samples given in Table 2 were 1:1.53:0. Also six prisms. 14. were subjected to the drying shrinkage measurements after initial storage of six days in water for periods of 7 to 98 days for both 50% humidity and 50°C temperature.

EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete http://constructionz.html Page 4 of 8 .com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete.

EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM modulus values for all control and fly ash concretes at different age of curing and different w/c ratios. 3 for control mix and fly ash (MSC and MSF) specimen under 50°C with 10% relative humidity temperature conditions http://constructionz. This indicate less difference in the case of fly ash concrete than the plain concrete for the considered change of w/c ratio from 0.48 to 0. The difference between initial and secant modulus is slightly higher at 90 days of age than those of lower age. the difference at 90 days is about 8000 MPa for the fly ash concrete and 5000 MPa for the control mix. 3. The elastic modulus values generally increase with age of concrete attaining maximum value at 90 days of age.e. For Mix 2. 7. i.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. 14 or 28 days.5.3 Drying Shrinkage The drying shrinkage test results after 6 days of initial water-curing are shown in Fig. It is of interest to note that the difference between initial and secant modulus at 90 days is about 6000 MPa for fly ash concrete and 9500 MPa for control Mix 1.html Page 5 of 8 .

The high temperature environment causes a reduction in the size of capillary pores both in the paste matrix and in the paste-aggregate interface. These observations agree with some of the results available in literature [91. thus increasing capillary pressure. Figure 4 shows the same comparison between the fly ash and control samples for 50% humidity at 23°C room temperature condition. and the amount of shrinkage to be greater.e. This will cause the rate of drying shrinkage to be larger. become slightly lower for fly ash samples than the control mix samples for the 50°C temperature condition. http://constructionz.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. It can be noticed from the figure that fly ash concrete specimen show higher shrinkage values with age than control mix samples under humid conditions. In this case. 14 to 98 days.EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM using the average value of 3 tested specimens. the compressive strength of the plain concrete is expected to be higher which correspond to a reduction in permeability.html Page 6 of 8 . It is clearly observed that fly ash samples shows almost similar range of shrinkage values to those of control mix under 50°C temperature condition. The values of shrinkage at high age i. In this case due to the relative humidity of 50% it might be expected that the water will take more time to find its way out of plain concrete specimens which could reduce the rate of drying shrinkage to be smaller than the specimens with fly ash.

CONCLUSIONS The mechanical properties of fly ash concrete with 20% of fly ash replacement with different water cent ratio are evaluated in this study. The relatively high alkali content of the fly ash could be adversary influencing the development of strength in concrete materials. Related posts: 1.Com http://constructionz. considered here the fly ash concrete shows much closer values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity to values of control mix samples at high ages than early ages. Generally. moist curing period. POLYPROPYLENE – Mechanical. All factors considered in this investigation (fly ash type.html Page 7 of 8 . Composition and microstructure of alkali activated fly ash binder: Effect of the activator 5. The values of shrinkage strain of concrete under high temperature conditions (50°C) is found to be slightly smaller for fly ash concrete than control mix specimens indicating the advantage of the fly ash to reduce the drying shrinkage of concrete. fly ash content.EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM 4. The drying shrinkage of concrete investigated are relatively low.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. The effect of Fly Ash properties on Concrete Strength 2. in which the drying shrinkage strain values were higher in fly ash concrete samples than the control mix samples. COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF MORTAR MODIFIED BY SILICA FUME AND FINELY GROUND BLAST FURNACE SLAG 6. Effect of lignosulphonate plasticizer on rheological properties of ordinary portland cement with fly ash 3. Inspite of the change in water cement ratio. the performed tests of the concrete samples with 20% fly ash replacement of cement can lead to a considerable technological and economical benefits in construction firms. FLY ASH IN PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ConstructionZ. Thermal Properties and Chemical resistance 4. and age of testing) influenced the compressive strength of concrete. The result was opposite for the case of humid conditions (50% relative humidity).

GREEN BUILDING RESOURCES FOR HOMEBUILDERS Line of Balance Scheduling: Software Enabled Use in the U. POLYPROPYLENE – Mechanical. The effect of Fly Ash properties on Concrete Strength 2. Challenges. Composition and microstructure of alkali activated fly ash binder: Effect of the activator 5.com/articles/effect-of-fly-ash-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete. Effect of lignosulphonate plasticizer on rheological properties of ordinary portland cement with fly ash 3. COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF MORTAR MODIFIED BY SILICA FUME AND FINELY GROUND BLAST FURNACE SLAG 6.S. Construction Industry: Issues.S.EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3/11/13 3:24 PM The Construction Blog Related Articles 1. and Opportunities THE ROLE OF OPINION LEADERS IN THE DIFFUSION OF A CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN A JAPANESE FIRM. Thermal Properties and Chemical resistance 4.html Page 8 of 8 . Construction Industry Privacy Policy http://constructionz. FLY ASH IN PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE Recent Posts Clay Bricks Manufacturing Process Production of Refractory Binding Material for Cement Kiln ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA USING COMPRESSED STABILIZED LATERITE BRICKS Specifying Fly Ash for Use in Concrete Effect of Erodent on Erosion Wear of Fly Ash-Illmenite Coating Evaluation of Technology in Construction Timber Highway Bridge Construction Practices in The United States SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION IN THE USA Evolving Technology for Design and Construction of Tall Concrete Structures Ultra-Wide Band technology applications in construction CERATECH HIGH PERFORMANCE GREEN CEMENT TECHNOLOGY UNVEILED FOR MASONRY AND GENERAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS Measuring and Improving the Productivity of the U.