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1. eventually find their depository such as the ocean. The atmosphere. its causes. is a dynamic system that continuously absorbs a wide range of solids. liquids and gases from both natural and man made sources. effects. Most of these constituents. and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. disperse and react with one another and with other substances both physically and chemically. In this presentation Pollution. or to a receptor such as man. Control measures which are to be followed to reduce the intensity of air pollution by several methods are presented.. 2. disease . are discussed in brief. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation. That portion of these substances which interacts with the environment to cause toxicity . has been labeled by man as a pollutant. These substances travel through air. Various amounts of contaminants continuously enter the atmosphere through both natural and man made processes present on the earth. human health. ABSTRACT : : This paper presents a detailed view of AIR pollution. ozone etc. which makes up the largest fraction of the biosphere. The natural constituents of air which make it complete are shown with percentages. physiological effects or environmental decay. consequences and reduction techniques. warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect). the major threat to the ecosystem. . types of pollution present in our day to day life are listed. the sources causing air pollution. Air pollution. One of the most important factor drawing international attention which is a dangerous threat to the ecosystem is AIR pollution. effects of air pollution such as. INTRODUCTION : : The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. aesthetic distress.

disorder . heat or light.3. POLLUTION : : Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability. which causes the damaging of the environment . TYPES OF POLLUTION : :  AIR POLLUTION  WATER POLLUTION  NOISE POLLUTION  SOIL CONTAMINATION  LIGHT POLLUTION  RADIO ACTIVE CONTAMINATION  THERMAL POLLUTION  VISUAL POLLUTION . the elements of pollution. harm or discomfort to the ecosystem. other living organisms and the quality of life. humans. Pollutants. It is the addition of any harmful substances to the atmosphere. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy. or naturally occurring. 4. they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. can be foreign substances or energies. such as noise.

AIR POLLUTION : : 5.93% 370 ppm PROPORTION BY . which is evidence of the spatial and temporal constancy of its properties that we take for granted.000 breaths. Fresh air is vital for life. birth defects. 5. lung cancer.1 AIR : : Air is the ocean we breathe.2 NATURAL CONSTITUENTS OF AIR : : People tend to refer to air as though it consists of ‘air’ molecules. Air consists of number of gases that have fairly constant average proportions.5. it can cause many types of health problems including brain and nerve damages. Each day we inhale around 14. burning of eyes. heart diseases.9% 0. Healthy people normally take in 12 to 20 breaths a minute. both at different horizontal and vertical positions and at different times. MOLECULE VOLUME Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide 78.000 liters (14 m3) of air through about 26.1% 20. If the air we breathe is polluted. Consider first the molecular components that make up unpolluted air. respiratory diseases and lot other injuries.

31 ppm  Sulphur dioxide may be released directly into the atmosphere by the volcanoes. or formed as the oxidation product of the dimethyl sulphide released by oceanic plankton.biogenic particles are generated by volcanoes or entrainment from the soil. via both diffusion down from the stratosphere and local natural photochemistry. Ozone is formed in the stratosphere.7 ppm 0. Hydrogen sulphide is produced by anaerobic decay.53 ppm 0.Neon Helium Methane Hydrogen Nitrous Oxide Ppm – parts per million. by the action of UV radiation on oxygen.         Oxides of nitrogen are created when anything burns. Ammonia is released from animal waste products. Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) are emitted from many different species of vegetation. 18 ppm 5 ppm 1. Nitrous oxide is emitted from the soil surface by bacterial denitrification. Non. . Ozone is also found in the troposphere. especially coniferous and eucalyptus forests.

Acid rains. high concentrations of gases and particles from coal combustion and more recently. On a regional scale. Air pollution can be found both outdoors and indoors.3 AIR POLLUTION : : Air pollution has been with us since the first fire was lit. 5. Air pollution includes all contaminants found in the atmosphere. Finally. the fact is air pollution can also exist inside homes and other buildings. In fact every year the health of many people is affected by chemical substances present in the air within buildings. In urban areas. tropospheric ozone formation and acid deposition have been the major threats. CFC’s and other forms of Outdoor pollution but. although different aspects have been important at different times. Biogenic particles include pollen spores and sea salt. . causing indoor pollution that lasts for a long time. motor vehicles have produced severe loss of air quality and significant health effects. These dangerous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles. emissions of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases together with stratospheric ozone depletion. represent planet -scale assaults on the quality of our atmospheric environment. Pollutants can be trapped inside buildings. Usually when we think about air pollution we get an idea regarding Smog.

Air pollution has been a problem throughout history.  Forest fires. humans have been producing increasing amounts of pollution as time has progressed. As one might expect. and they now account for the majority of pollutants released into the air. Even in Ancient Rome people complained about smoke put into the atmosphere.5. humans contribute substantially more to the air pollution problem. .4 SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION : : The sources of air pollution are both natural and human-based. Air pollutants have sources that are both natural and human. . Now.

Pinatubu in the Phillipines in 1991). natural air pollution does not occur in abundance in particular locations. Volcanic eruptions. fossil fuels that contain impurities (e.  Pollen dispersal.g eruptions from Mt. and as a result. and  Natural radioactivity are all among the natural causes of air pollution. Though some pollution comes from these natural sources. Usually. most pollution is the result of human activity. Primary air pollutants and possible sources: Pollutants Carbon dioxide (CO2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Sources Fossil fuel.g. Combined.  Evaporation of organic compounds. deforestation Volcanic eruptions (e. these two sources are responsible for about 90% of all air pollution. The pollution is spread around throughout the world. poses little threat to the health of people and ecosystems. The biggest causes are the operation of fossil fuel-burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel.  Wind erosion. low grade coal normally has high as impurities) Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Automobiles sulfur .

automobiles Volatile organic compounds Vehicle (VOCs) industrial household usages. biomass fuels incomplete burning of Ground-level ozone (O3) Hazardous (HAPs) air Industries. Particulate (microscopic particles) matters Construction works. mining. and also severely affects natural ecosystems. in 1984). fossil fuels. . release of methyl isocyanate gas from a pesticide plant in Bhopal. As a result. air pollution is a global problem and has been the subject of global cooperation and conflict. India. emissions. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings.Carbon monoxide (CO) Automobiles. air pollution is able to travel easily. solvents used for and 5. agricultural burning etc. vehicles pollutants Chemical plants (e.5 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION : : The effects of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Because it is located in the atmosphere. industrial processes.g.

Many different chemicals in the air affect the human body in negative ways. Just how sick people will get depends on what chemicals they are exposed to. Older people are highly vulnerable to diseases induced by air pollution. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US alone could be over 50.000. Cities with large numbers of automobiles or those that use great quantities of coal often suffer most severely from problems of air pollution. Some cities suffer severely because of heavy industrial use of chemicals that cause air pollution. and for how long. Air pollution is responsible for major health effects. the health of countless people is ruined or endangered by air pollution. . Every year. in what concentrations.Some areas now suffer more than others from air pollution.

Air pollutants such as ozone. Many diseases could be caused by air pollution without their becoming apparent for a long time. nitrogen oxides. and heart disease may all eventually appear in people exposed to air pollution. it is often hard to know exactly which pollutants are responsible for causing sickness. and can kill animals. especially fish in highly polluted rivers. and sulfur dioxide also have harmful effects on natural ecosystems. . it is often difficult to isolate those pollutants that are at fault. They can kill plants and trees by destroying their leaves. Diseases such as bronchitis. because a mixture of different pollutants can intensify sickness.Because people are exposed to so many potentially dangerous pollutants. lung cancer. Also.

Acid rain also accelerates the decay of building materials and paints. Ground-level ozone is a colorless gas that can be found in the air we breathe. and many sensitive forest soils. trucks and buses. and people with respiratory diseases are also particularly sensitive. Human sources of ground-level ozone include: 1) automobiles. Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream through the lungs and forms a compound that inhibits the blood's capacity to carry oxygen to organs and tissues. Air toxics are air pollutants that cause adverse health effects. Motor vehicles emit several pollutants that EPA classifies as known or probable human carcinogens People exposed to high levels of toxic air pollutants may increase their risk of getting cancer or experiencing other serious health effects. 2) gasoline storage and transfer. Infants. the elderly. including irreplaceable buildings. . People with heart disease are especially sensitive to carbon monoxide poisoning and may experience chest pain if they breathe the gas while exercising. Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and damages water bodies. 3) large combustion and industry sources such as utilities.Acid rain is a broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere. statues and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. trees and other plants.

Results of ozone depletion are increases in skin cancer. broad band of gas that extends through nearly all the stratosphere. construction equipment and lawn and garden equipment. 5. . It is a warm. boats.6 OZONE : Ozone (o3) is formed by the dissociation of molecular oxygen(o2) and the combining of atomic oxygen(o) with molecular oxygen. O + O2 >>o3 Ozone layer is found at an altitude 30 km or 20 miles. and reduction of plankton populations may result from the increased UV exposure due to ozone depletion.4) industrial use of solvents and degreasing agents. However it was soon found that they were not so ideal when they reached the upper atmosphere. damage to plants. CFCs and halons are produced by humans used in many applications such as refrigerants. fire-fighting equipment and the manufacture of materials such as Styrofoam. 5) consumer products such as paints and cleaners. The ozone in the ozone layer is being broken down by chlorine atoms from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecules and bromine atoms from halons. UV radiation provides the energy for this dissociation. aerosols. and environmentally neutral. Ground-level ozone is a component of smog and a harmful pollutant. They were thought to be completely safe. locomotives. The ozone layer acts as a shield from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun by absorbing most of the short wavelengths of the radiation. chemically inert. anesthetics. and 6) off-road engines such as aircraft.

Ozone hole watch from NASA’s Aura satellite. .

the gas rolled along the ground and diffused among residential areas in the early winter morning in Bhopal and caused the fatality.respiratory failure due to swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs that prevents exchange of gases (absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide). Majority of the deaths caused due to ‘pulmonary edema’ .5. A picture from Bhopal Gas tragedy in 1984. Being heavier than air. Methyl isocyanate (C2H3NO) is a colorless organic compound with sharp odor that is used as a chemical intermediate for the production of carbonate pesticides and is extremely toxic to the environment upon exposure.7 INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND AIR POLLUTION On 3rd of December in 1984. India. .500 people and hospitalizing tens of thousands. a Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 43 tones of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from overheated holding tank into the local area in Bhopal. killing more than 2.

scientists and environmentalists are using or testing a variety of methods aimed at reducing pollution. and move to non-polluting renewable forms of energy production. Output control. Also.5. making them less desirable to tax payers and polluting industries. Five major input control methods exist. In wealthier countries. industries are often able to shift to methods that decrease air pollution.8 CONTROL MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION : : Air pollution has many disastrous effects that need to be curbed. the opposite method. Output controls are also more expensive. governments. Input controls are usually more effective than output controls. automobile-produced pollution can be decreased with highly beneficial results. Current air pollution control efforts are not all highly effective.  Input control  Output control Input control involves preventing a problem before it occurs. They are : . In the United States. This usually means cleaning up an area that has been damaged by pollution. There are two main types of pollution control. use less energy. However. for example. air pollution control laws have been successful in stopping air pollution levels from rising. or at least limiting the effects the process will produce. seeks to fix the problems caused by air pollution. in developing countries and even in countries where pollution is strictly regulated. reduce waste. improve energy efficiency. Control of air pollution by equipment is done basically by the four means available for the control of effluent discharges into the atmosphere and there by control of their detrimental effects. much more needs to be done. People may try to restrict population growth. In order to accomplish this.

i. Reduction of pollutant discharge at the source by the application of the control equipment.1. 4. Reduction at the source through raw material changes. 3. proper planning and zoning of industrial areas. . or replacement of process equipment. Dilution of the source discharge by the use of all tall stacks. . 2. or modification. Dispersion of source locations through allocation of land usage.e. operational changes.

CONCLUSION : : Thus. which also helps the future generations to use renewable sources. AIR pollution a serious threat to the future generations must be brought to the minimum level. The various control measures like Input control.6. Output control which are explained previously should be followed. Other control options by equipment and the measures adopted by the developed countries which keep the pollution levels at the minimum rate are to be followed by the countries having a serious threat of AIR pollution. People also should be well educated regarding the pollution reduction methods.renewable sources should be adopted at the maximum levels to keep the environment safe and also to reduce the pollution. Industries should be given strict orders to reduce the pollution levels. . The use of renewable sources rather than the non.

Air pollution by M.N.rao 3.7. http://www. REFERENCE : : 1. 6. Clay’s library of health and the environment.Air pollution by Jeremy colls. http://www. . Wkipedia 4.lbl. Rao and H. http://scienceprep.V.