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BBA VI Semester (2nd shift, Section -A) Batch 2010-2013 Submitted to: Ms. Palak Gupta Designation Submitted by: Mukesh kumar 03724501710
JAGANNATH INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL. KALKAJI
I hereby certify that this is my original work and it has never been submitted elsewhere
by: Mukesh kumar
Description Acknowledgement Executive Summary Certificate of completion Introduction to topic Objectives Literature review Research Methodology Analysis &Interpretation Findings & Techniques Recommendations & conclusions Bibliography
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Palak Gupta for her helpful hand in the completion of my project. I would like to send my sincere thanks to Ms.I would like to take an opportunity to thank all the people who helped me in collecting necessary information and making the project. Today. Getting a project ready requires the work and effort. The growth of the company was due to a good product being delivered at a good price and offering perceived value. NAME: MUKESH KUMAR EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The study aims to study Pizza Hut started out as a pizza parlor opened up by two brothers in Topeka. Specially. energy and wisdom. Kansas. I am grateful to all of them for their time. 4 . I would like to thank all those who have contributed in completing this project. the company has restaurants all over the world The company and its annual sales are in the billions.
then the company will still be a leader for generations to come. proving that the new campaign Domino's started is not working. The restaurant managers are paid The problem was that bonuses based on the result from their respective customers. with stores in over 50 countries. and Connie's. the company noticed that managers of underperforming locations where receiving bonuses while managers of extremely profitable locations were not. as people order our pizza en masse for large groups because it is more cost -effective than other pizza delivery places. Chicago's pizza business consists of brands like Giordano's. the customer will return and more importantly. and the customer will take care of you.has adjusted to new entrants into the market and has managed to stay ahead of the competition. In an open -ended survey question. a marketing campaign was created that changed their recipe due to poor customer reviews. DOMINO’S Domino's Pizza is the largest pizza deliverer in the United States. more people in Chicago preferred Giordano's pizza • 5 . These chains defined the quality expected of all pizza in Chicago. customer Pizza hut focused on providing good customer service in order to In return. In our focus group taste test. and Little Caesar. The hope is that the new and improved recipe means new and more frequent customers. Uno's. Nearly 75% of Chicago land people surveyed have not had Domino's in over six months to over a year. Research was conducted to see if Domino's pizza's new taste and campaign had an effect on Chicago's pizza market. but not bad for the quantity of pizza. the become an advocate. Recently. Pizza Hut. Recommendations have been made in order to fine tune the bonus plan so that manager incentives will be balance lineup. will create customer loyalty. Domino's is seen as a “value” meal. Pizza Hut is a pioneer and continues innovation with its service initiatives and product As long as the company keeps focusing on its customers. between profits and customer service. The philosophy for growth is simple: Take care of the customer. the pizza was widely construed as terrible. Domino's competition has come from other pizza places like Papa John's. In order to better their brand image. Customer feedback programs were put into place in order to measure the customer experience and also to uncover opportunities.
We have a good grasp on people who want to eat for cheap. The project is complete to the best of my knowledge and worth appreciation. delivery or dine in. 6 .than to any other pizza. but now energy should be focused on the dine in restaurant service - CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION This is to certify that MUKESH KUMAR of BBA VI A (E) has prepared this project sincerely and satisfactorily under my guidance. • - Domino's aims to create a new restaurant chain that can compete with well established pizza franchises like Giordano’s.
PALAK GUPTA INTRODUCTION Fast food is one of the world’s largest fast growing industry types. India’s fast food industry is growing by 40%. The 6000 corer fast food retail industry is mainly dominated by the multinational players and the key players which are active in the research of the food retailing. global chains are flooding into the country. Because of the availability of raw material for fast food.Project guide: Ms. The percentage share held by foodservice of total consumer expenditure on 7 .
6% in 2001. The growth in nuclear families. particularly in urban India.food has increased from a very low base to stand at 2. exposure to global media and western cuisine and an increasing number of women joining the workforce have had an impact on eating out trends. Major players in fast food are: • • • McDonald’s KFC Pizza hut Dominos pizza Café coffee day Barista Subway Papa John’ Smoking joeys • • • • • • OBJECTIVES 8 . Eating at home remains very much ingrained in Indian culture and changes in eating habits are very slow moving with barriers to eating out entrenched in certain sectors of Indian society.
To find out the comparative analysis between Pizza-hut and dominos-pizza. To find out which factors are more preferred by the customers. To find out the various forces and their results on the industry. • • • • LITERATURE REVIEW 9 . To check out the preferences of the people or the consumers.• To find out the market strateg ices of both the brands.
Brand loyalty is the extent to which a consumer constantly buys the same brand within a product category. They do not buy from other suppliers within the product category. customer satisfaction. commitment. brand trust. price sensitivity. etc. It is measured through methods like word of mouth publicity. The consumers remain loyal to a specific brand as long as it is available. Brand loyalty exists when 10 .BRAND LOYALTY Brand Loyalty is a scenario where the consumer fears purchasing and consuming product from another brand which he does not trust. repetitive buying.
Greater loyalty levels lead to less marketing expenditure because the brand loyal customers promote the brand positively. wide distribution network. A year later. price or quality. respond less to price changes and self. As brand loyalty increases. Examples of brand loyalty can be seen in US where true Apple customers have the brand's logo tattooed onto their bodies. Also. A company having brand loyal customers will have greater sales. Kansas. customers will respond less to competitive moves and actions. ensuring quality products. an organization should know their niche market. are willing to pay higher price for that brand. Brand loyalty can be defined as relative possibility of customer shifting to another brand in case there is a change in product’s features. Brand loyal consumers are the foundation of an organization. When consumers are brand loyal they love “you” for being “you”. Even if the other brands are available at cheaper price or superior quality. and they will minutely consider any other alternative brand as a replacement. less marketing and advertising costs. target them. Brand loyal customers remain committed to the brand.promote the brand as they perceive that their brand have unique value which is not provided by other competitive brands. the Carneys and Bender opened the first Pizza Hut restaurant. and will promote their brand always. provide customer satisfaction.friendly menu system used by Nokia phones. It also restrains new competitors in the market. Similarly in Finland. support their product. Brand loyalty is a key component of brand equity. in 1959. it acts as a means of launching and introducing more products that are targeted at same customers at less expenditure. the brand loyal consumer will stick to his brand. etc. Nokia customers remained loyal to Nokia because they admired the design of the handsets or because of user. Pizza Hut was 11 . continuous improvement. and they borrowed $600from their mother to start a business with partner John Bender. Renting a smallbuilding at 503 South Bluff in downtown Wichita and purchasingsecondhand equipment to make pizzas.the consumer feels that the brand consists of right product characteristics and quality at right price. To develop brand loyalty. bring constant innovation in their product and offer schemes on their product so as to ensure that customers repeatedly purchase the product. This is because the brand loyal customers are less reluctant to shift to other brands. Brand loyalty is always developed post purchase. When a friend suggested opening a pizza parlor--thena rarity--they agreed that the idea could prove successful. Pizza hut Pizza Hutwas founded in 1958 by brothers Dan and Frank Carney in theirhometown of Wichita. Brand loyalty can be developed through various measures such as quick service. and best pricing. ensure easy access of their product.
long-term business plan was necessary.PepsiCo took advantage of global change following the end of the Cold War. and DickHassur opened the first franchise unit in Topeka. Thatsame year. when thenumber of Pizza Hut franchisee units had grown to 145. and Robert Chisholm joined the company as treasurer. all challenging its number oneposition in the pizza restaurant trade. the chain's 500th restaurant opened.000th franchise unit. Two years later. the Carney brothers bought out the interest held byBender. In 1966. Next Door.In 1971 Pizza Hut became the world's largest pizza chain. Germany. By the 1990s the delivery andcarryout business had grown to account for approximately 25 percent of the company's totalsales. in the early 1960s Pizza Hut grew on the strength of aggressive marketing of thepizza restaurant idea. becoming a division of the global soft drinkand foodconglomerate. Australia. and Britain.In 1984 Steven Reinemund was appointed president and chief executive officer of Pizza Hut. The Moscow locationquickly established itself as Pizza Hut's highest volume unit in the world. in Dallas.In 1970 Pizza Hut opened units in Munich.In 1977 Pizza Hut merged with PepsiCo.At the end of 1972 Pizza Hut made its long-anticipated offer of 410. and Sydney.Restaurants just behind in total volume served were found in France.S.incorporated in Kansas. Texas. a one million dollar sales weekin the U. It aimed atacquiring 40 percent of the company's franchise operations. In 1991 PepsiCo hadrestaurant outlets in 80 countries and by 1997.000 shares of common stock to the public. Pizza Hut introduced "Pan Pizza" in1980 throughout its network. A year later the chain gained a listing on the New York StockExchange. Hong Kong.In 1973 Pizza Hut expanded further by opening outlets in Japan and Great Britain. Kansas. Tennessee. Pizza Hut also achieved. Also. In 1962. Three years later the chain had more than 100 restaurants outside the UnitedStates and two thousand units in its franchise network. for the first time. In 1986 Pizza Hut opened its 5.In 1994 several changes 12 . and the Flaming Steer. or 120 stores. The company expanded by purchasing threerestaurant divisions: Taco Kid. according to sales andnumber of restaurants. andbegan its successful home delivery service.By 1986 there were 100 restaurants in UK and 5000 worldwide. The 1980s brought new competitors to Pizza Hut. andadding them to the six outlets wholly owned by Pizza Hut. in Nashville. Pizza Hut restaurants had spread to90 countries.In early 1970 Frank Carney decided that the business strategy was inadequate.In 1990 Pizza Hut opened its first restaurant in Moscow.Finland. and a new $10 milliondollar headquarters office opened in Wichita. market. a home office wasestablished to coordinate the businesses from Wichita. the firstPizza Hut franchise was opened in Canada. This was followed by the establishmentof the International Pizza Hut Franchise Holders Association (IPHFHA).expanding Pizza Hut into new and emerging markets. The turning pointoccurred when Pizza Hut went public and began growing at an unprecedented pace. andthat a more developed. to raise its profile. Sales that year reached $436 million. then worth $15billionin sales annually in theUnited States alone.
including PizzaHut. However. The pizza market was no longer growing.In the late 1990s. Pizza Hut Inc. stipulated that each PepsiCo shareholder would receiveone share of Tricon stock for every ten shares of PepsiCo stock owned.Enrico. Also as a result. If approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission. 1997. PepsiCo drew together its restaurant businesses.In July 2000. up 40 percent from the year before.2 billion. Pizza Hut became the first company in historyto place its logo on the world’s largest proton rocket. The formal plan. In January 1997 the company announced plans to spin off this restaurant division." Pizza Hut’s Mission Statement “To be the first choice among restaurants and delivering brands by developing ourpeople capability to deliver maniacal service.In 1996 Pizza Hut planned to introduce a major new product each year and two orthree line extensions. UK was100% owned by Yum! Lastly. and KFC. approved by the PepsiCo boardof directors in August 1997. the spinoff wouldtake place on October 6. Whitbread sold their shares to the joint venture to Yum! Brands Inc. andinvestment in new outlets was draining corporate resources. fast food rivals cut prices.5 billion at the time of thespinoff .6 to 27 percent. 100% customersatisfaction. and operating income rose to $414million. we believe all our businesses can better flourish with two separate and distinct managements and corporate structures.In 2002. 1995sales increased 16 percent to $5. up to date in 2008.Some indicators were promising: market share rose from 25. PepsiCo's restaurantdivision saw sales in restaurants open at least one year fall six percent in 1994. The planalso required Tricon to pay a one-time distribution of $4. innovation and building great look and feel restaurants to 13 . product quality .contributing to a drop in profits of 21 percent (to $295 million).resulted in the company's first decline in operating profitsin 15 years. Our restaurantbusiness has tremendous financial strength and a verybright future.explained the move: "Our goal in taking these steps is todramatically sharpen PepsiCo's focus. who had risen to the position of PepsiCo CEO.In 2006. Pizza hut owners have boughtGodfather’s Pizza with 28 stores in Ireland. given the distinctly different dynamics of restaurants andpackaged goods. In 1996 Pizza Hut accounted for 17 percent of PepsiCo's totalsales and 13 percent of its operating profit. creating an independent publicly traded company called Tricon Global Restaurants. Taco Bell. Tricon Global became YUM! BRANDS INC. Inc .
R ECONGNIZE the achievement of others and have fun doing it. daily transactions.E.Computer based customer data is MIS (managing information systems) helpsin collecting customer data. this is a green signal for the business as the per capita incomeif the people will be increased and they will spend more money. When the inflation rateincreases the cost of raw material also increases and this leads towards highprices of the products and vice versa. E XECUTE with positive energy and urgency. Due tonew technology there are new ways of marketing like: internet. A business has a variety of goals and objectives.L. values. All businesses need to organize their business activities in order to achieve their business objectives. so the organization is overwhelmed by the westernculture. Every country hascultural norms. beliefs and religious obligationswhich can affect the organization. middle class and lower class.R.provideattractive returns to our stake holders.S conceptP.A. New vehicles will make their service more efficient.”And also known through the P.S P ASSION for excellence in doing everything. telemarketingand the organization can advertise their products with much faster pace. SOCIAL FACTORS: Pizza hut is multinational. where as baking and heating ovens willbe of new and efficient technology and will provide efficient service. respond to the voice of the customers.L. hence the GDP of the country will bepowerful also. There are social forms of society which consist of upper class. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS:Now a day’s technology is improving. future forecasting anddecision making. In our surveywe came to know that most of the people in the beginning of the monthsspend more and they visit pizza hut very often. L ISTEN and importantly.R.E. we conducted research on Economical. ENVIRONMENTAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF PIZZA HUT In our visit to Pizza Hut and Technological Analysis. STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY PIZZA HUT: A business’s strategy is the pattern of decisions and actions that are taken by the business to achieve its goals. Running a business involves planning the current as well as the future 14 .A. A CCOUNTABLE for growth in customer satisfaction and profitability. It has basically originated fromAmerica. Social ECONOMICAL FACTORS:If the country’s economy is strong.
The shift managers have the task to observe whether the quality standards are met or not. in the future this competition will increase and Pizza Hut will have to change all its business level strategies in order to compete with its rivals. Hence. whereas there is a total quality standards department at the main office in Karachi. corporate objectives become easy. human resources and etc. but unlimited small competitors exist in the market. When a business 15 . the kitchen assistants are trained accordingly. present strategies adopted by Pizza Hut are keeping in consideration the present competition. The strategies are as below:- Functional Strategies: These are strategies designed to improve the efficiency of a business’s operations. Similarly.activities. Pricing Strategy: The level of competition a business faces determines its pricing strategy. their strategies are to be taken into consideration for further modifications. Whereas. This strategy is important in order to satisfy the customers. it will result as a threat for Pizza Hut and hence. Pizza Hut has decided upon the strategies and their current strategies are divided into five main categories and further have sub-parts. Sometimes a business has the scope to set its price and other times it does not. After considering all the factors. such as marketing. there are no large competitors of Pizza Hut. The threat of competitors is very low as there is no international food chain offering pizza in Pakistan at present. around the world. In order to make the functional strategy efficient. Hence. Now as Domino’s has opened in varies cities of Pakistan. They are given extra classes in order to meet the quality standards set by Pizza Hut. If we take a look at the Pakistani market. all the businesses need to adopt business level strategies in order to compete in a competitive environment. All the employees ’back-of-the-house i. These environmental changes are seen through the SWOT analysis. Pizza Hut has adopted many strategies which help achieve the targets set by the main office. They often focus on an area. This department has the task to implement quality standards and know whether they are achieved or not. Pizza Hut has made all the functional departments cooperate with each other. Therefore. Different quality management staff is also present at Pizza Hut. Business Level Strategy:Business level strategies are plans made to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals in a market. Total Quality Management (TQM): This is the most important factor for a food chain like Pizza Hut. all business organizations adopt different strategies. All business organizations adopt strategies at functional level and as the function all level is achieved. in order to achieve the business objectives.e. Changes are the external as well as internal environment has led Pizza Hut to rethink their past strategies and has therefore designed new strategies after noticing the changes in the environment. This strategy is strictly implemented in Pizza Hut in order to fulfill the quality standards.
the pricing strategy adopted by Pizza Huts ‘market skimming’. This is a golden era for Pizza Hut. WHO IS THE FRANCHISER? Pizza Hut represents a strong brand that has demonstrated economic stability over time. The pricing strategy is not just to get the worth of quality but also to gain maximum profits before any competitor enters because then Pizza Hut will have to change its pricing strategy.. Inc. They satisfy the target market as the food quality is worth the price paid. As there are no such competitors of Pizza Hut which could compete with the quality of pizza produced at Pizza Hut.while the rest 32% is divided in the remaining pizza provides globally. Taco Bell. A&W and Long John Silver’s under its umbrella. Ky. based in Louisville. convenience. Pizza hut is free to charge any price they want. with revenues in excess of $11 billion in 2008.Pizza Hut. Yum! is ranked #239 on the Fortune 500 List. They are charging higher prices due to the uniqueness of the product. and value by combining two brands under one 16 . Yum! Brands were spun off from PepsiCo as Trico Global Restaurants.000restaurants in over 110 countries and territories and more than 1 million associates. Which also has KFC. Now At present Yum! Brands is the worldwide leader in Multi-branding.has the scope to set its prices this is a number of pricing strategies or policies it might choose. and Mexican-style food and quick-service seafood categories.comthat pizza hut is having 48% of overall Pizza market in the world. Taco BellandLong John Silver's– are the global leaders of the chicken. but Pizza Hut is the one who got the bigger market shares globally. Although the prices would be lowered with the new entrants in the market but not to a greater extent as the quality food products are not home-produced. pizza. In October 1997. Pizza Hut has adopted this pricing strategy as they want to hold maximum share of the market by maximum profit. offering consumers choice.survey. Market Share: As there are dozens of Pizza Suppliers globally providing services in different parts of the world. They are imported from different countries keeping in view the best quality . At that moment it established as a singular goal from which they never wavered: To be the best in the world at building great brands and running great restaurants. After that Dominos is leading with a percentage of 20%. therefore. This is a survey taken bywww. Inc. Four of our restaurant brands – KFC..it is the world’s largest restaurant company in terms of system restaurants with more than 36. Pizza Hut is one of the flagships brands of YUM!Restaurant Int. as there are no competitors and hence. YUM! BRANDS: Yum! Brands.
17 .roof. Multi-brand opportunities still exist across America and offer franchisees a competitive edge as well as many advantages.
Outside the United States in 2008. Franchise History When did the first Pizza Hut open?1957 When did Pizza Hut start Franchising?1959 YEAR 2003 2002 2001 2000 U. which has the potential to increase the average check size. two Category Leading Brands. Pros 18 . This can broaden customer appeal. Field offices are located throughout the U. and two menus. What We Like Yum! Brands offer the power of multi-branding that includes two National Media Budgets.The Yum! System includes three operating segments: . the Yum! System opened more than four new restaurants each day of the year. to support franchise and company restaurant operations.000 in liquid assets. Pizza Hut is part of an organization that offers tremendous franchise support including advertising. and cooperative sourcing.A 4725 5901 6126 4277 CANADA N/A N/A N/A N/A INTERNATIONAL 2562 3571 3509 N/A CORPORATE 2544 2493 2508 2469 How Much Does a Pizza Hut Franchise Cost? If you have a budget of between $1.U.S. You must commit to building at least 3restaurants over 3 years.S. Thailand and KFC Taiwan).. development. business coaching. Performance Improvement Programs and support are also offered to each new franchisee along with 12-16 weeks of required training.S. making us the largest retail developer in the world . but there are other requirements as well. training. you can be in business within a year.3 million to $3 million and a net worth of $1 million with $360. International (Yum! Restaurants International) and China Division (includes mainland China.
But still the company is planning to encapsulate more market shares.Ranked No. In addition. Pizza hut falls#7in the list whereas. Pizza Hut has diverse targets set for them and they have adopted different strategies to successfully achieve those targets set which will help them rank #1 in all categories in the near future. •Multi-Branding . in the Franchise 5oo®Rank .•Ranking . in2008 itwas#4 In the list of Fastest-Growing Franchises it is listed #65 as of 2009 and in 2008 it was #23. Cons •Operations . 1 in its category in 2008. 19 .Pizza Hut has built a strong reputation of its brand through giving quality products and has earned respect from its customers.Yum! Brand is the worldwide leader in Multi-branding. but it’s probably worth the wait Today. And in the America’s Top Global Franchises it is ranked #7 in the year 2009 and in the past year it was at #9.Can take up to 46 weeks to open the first store. Its innovation and quality has elevated them to higher standards during the past few years.
Michigan. James traded his half of the business to Tom for a used Volkswagen Beetle. In 1975. By 1978. alleging trademark infringement and unfair competition. near Eastern Michigan University. In 1967. Inc. in 1965. states. On May 2. Eight months later. Domino's Pizza was sold to Bain Capital in 1998 and went public in 2004. United States. Michigan. Monaghan renamed the business Domino's Pizza. Domino's faced a lawsuit by Amstar Corporation. a federal appeals court found in favor of Domino's Pizza International expansion Domino's Outlet in India. As sole owner of the company. Michigan. The deal was secured by a US$75 down payment and the brothers borrowed $500 to pay for the store. the franchise opened its 200th store. the first Domino's Pizza franchise store opened in Ypsilanti. 20 . Mich. 1980. Early years Tom Monaghan and his brother. Domino's is the second-largest pizza chain in the United States (after Pizza Hut) and has more than 10.Domino’s Domino's Pizza is an American restaurant chain and international franchise pizza delivery corporation headquartered in Ann Arbor Township. Founded in 1960. near Ann Arbor. maker of Domino Sugar. The company logo was originally planned to add a new dot with the addition of every new store. The three dots represent the stores that were open at the time (1969).000 corporate and franchised stores in 70 countries and all 50 U. but this idea quickly faded as Domino's experienced rapid growth. purchased DomiNick's. James.S. a small pizza store in Ypsilanti.
Illinois. Industry trade publication Pizza Today magazine named Domino's Pizza "Chain of the Year" in 2003. the Domino's Pizza store in Tallaght. it has 8. the first Domino's with a dining room opened in Stephenville. store in Huntley.000 total stores for the system. In addition.On May 12. Florida. and its 3. 2010. In 2004.S. 1983. Manitoba. Delivering the Dream franchising programs and also rolled out its online and mobile ordering sites. sold 93 percent of the company to Bain Capital.35 million) per year. became the first in Domino's history to hit a turnover of $3 million (€2. opening seven stores in one day across five continents. they opened their first store in the United Kingdom in Luton Also in 1985. Since 2005. As of September 2006. Domino opened their first store in Tokyo.000 international locations. Domino's has also expanded to India with numerous locations. making 8. In 1997. Domino's opened its first international store. In 1985. Dublin. Also that year. Canada.000th store overall. By 1995 Domino's had 1. In 2008. In 2007.  A year later. after 44 years as a privately held company. Texas. the voice of Domino's Pizza's US phone ordering service 1-800-DOMINOS has been Kevin Railsback.4 billion in gross income. an online application that allows customers to view the status of their order in a simulated "real time" progress bar. Domino's introduced the Pizza Tracker. Domino's opened its 1. That same year. for about $1 billion and ceased being involved in day-to-day operations of the company. Domino's began trading common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "DPZ". in Winnipeg. 21 . Domino's opened its 1.500th international location. after 38 years of ownership. Domino's opened its 5. Brandon Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Current era The exterior of a Domino's Pizza store in Spring Hill. the company named David A.238 stores which totaled US$1. Ireland.000th international store in Panama City.000.000th U. Japan. In a simultaneous celebration in 2006. giving the customers the option to either eat in or take their pizza home. Inc. and 2011. Domino's introduced its Veterans. Domino's Pizza founder Tom Monaghan announced his retirement. of at least 1. Within the last five years. Sale of company In 1998.
Domino's 50th anniversary. Pizza is the primary focus. the success was described by Doyle as one of the largest quarterly same-store sales jumps ever recorded by a major fast-food chain. Cheese's. Chicken Pepperoni. Patrick Doyle as its new CEO and experienced a historic 14. breadsticks. 22 . Domino's announced plans to entirely reinvent its pizza.3% quarterly gain. Additional entrees include pasta. In December that year. The menu offers chicken side dishes. The new pizza was introduced that same month. A makeline at a Domino's The current Domino's menu features a variety of Italian-American entrees and side dishes.In a 2009 survey of consumer taste preferences among national chains by Brand Keys. Products Domino's Pizza (Malaysia). It began a self-flogging ad campaign in which consumers were filmed criticizing the pizza's quality and chefs were shown developing the new product. New York Crust. Domino's launched Artisan style pizzas that offer a base blend of rich flavors to complement chef inspired toppings. In 2011. the company acquired J. Domino's was last — tied with Chuck E. specialty and custom pizzas available in a variety of crust styles and toppings. and the following year. While admitted not to endure. bread bowls and oven-baked sandwiches. as well as beverages and desserts. with traditional.
starting with the 30-slice. and Coca-Cola as the only soft drink option. Domino's once again branched out into non-pizza fare. in August 2002. the Philly Cheese Steak Pizza. Domino's began selling its BreadBowl Pasta entree. 11 toppings. intended to compete with Subway's toasted submarine sandwiches. The company introduced its American Legends line of specialty pizzas in 2009. cornmeal baked in to add crispness. baked. In August 2003. a lightly seasoned bread bowl baked with pasta inside. Domino's continued its move toward specialty pizzas in 2006. composed of a crunchy chocolate shell filled with warm fudge. with the introduction of its "Brooklyn Style Pizza". The breaded. making significant changes in the dough. shortly after the company's 50th anniversary. Its introduction followed market research showing that 40% of American pizza customers preferred thick crusts. to ensure efficiency of delivery. That same year. Domino's changed its pizza recipe "from the crust up". Their advertising campaign admitted to earlier problems with the public perception of Domino's product due to issues of taste.000 cakes to deliver at Hoffstadt Bluffs Visitor Center near Mount St Helens.From its founding until the early 1990s. such as offering free sandwiches to customers named "Jared. The product launch also marked the beginning of a partnership with the National Cattlemen's Beef Association." a reference to Subway's spokesman of the same name. Domino's tapped into a market trend toward bite-size foods with spicy Buffalo Chicken Kickers. of which $15 million was spent on new sheet metal pans with perforated bottoms. The first menu expansion occurred in 1989. offering oven-baked sandwiches in four styles. and larger slices that could be folded in the style of traditional New York-style pizza. Domino's started testing extra-large size pizzas in early 1993. yard-long "The Dominator". Early marketing for the sandwiches made varied references to its competition. sauce and cheese used in their pizzas. and Lava Crunch Cake dessert. are packaged in a custom-designed box with two types of sauce to "heat up" and "cool down" the chicken. featuring a thinner crust. Domino's announced its first new pizza since January 2000. The new product launch cost approximately $25 million.  Historically. as an alternative to Buffalo Wings. similar to chicken tenders. whitemeat fillets. In 2010. or pan pizza. Domino's menu consisted solely of one pizza in two sizes (12-inch and 16-inch). In 2008. Domino's promoted the item by flying in 1. featuring 40% more cheese than the company's regular pizzas. along with a greater variety of toppings. with the debut of Domino's deep dish. whose beef Check-Off logo appeared in related advertising. 23 . the menu at Domino's Pizza was kept simple relative to other fast food restaurants.
CEO from March 2010. Mark Nunnelly. has a lifetime contract to sell Pepsi products). made athletic director of the University of Michigan in January 2010. provided more than 12. Asi Sheikh. Previous chief executive David Brandon. Diana Cantor. CFO. remains chairman. due to its previous ownership by PepsiCo. Domino's announced it was going to roll out pan pizza on September 24. Domino's has seen its sales rise dramatically through its efforts to rebrand and retool its pizza. Corporate governance Headquarters of Domino's Domino's management is led by J. respectively. Other members of the board are Andrew Balson. Charitable activities In 2001. Through a matching funds program. Domino's began its current partnership with St. That same year. and Kenneth Rollin. Team USA. Domino's serves Coca-Cola products. Even as the economy has suffered and unemployment has risen. the company stores in New York City and Washington D. It should be noted that following this move.000 to the American Red Cross' disaster relief effort. General Counsel.000 pizzas to relief workers following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon. Domino's operations are overseen by a board of directors led by Brandon. the corporation donated $350.C. Robert Rosenberg and Bud Hamilton. and as of January 2012 is the only "Big Four" pizza chain to do so. Scott Hinshaw. Among 11 executive vice presidents are Michael Lawton. Deep Dish was discontinued after 23 years of being on the menu. the company's stock had grown 233 percent by late 2011. In 2004.After a stock low in late 2009. Domino's launched a two-year national partnership with the Make-A-Wish Foundation of America. Rivals Papa John's Pizza and Little Caesars sold Coca-Cola in the past (Pizza Hut. Patrick Doyle. formerly president of Domino's USA. Franchise Operations and Development. In September 2012. Domino's Pizza in Mexico switched to Pepsi in November 2012. but both switched to Pepsi in 2012 and 2007. Jude 24 . 2012.
raising more than $1. Super Show! in 1989. participating in the hospital's "Thanks and Giving" campaign since it began in 2004. the company gave away nearly 11. Furthermore." Due to a glitch on the Domino's website. 2009 and promised to reimburse store owners for the pizzas. which was driven by Arie Luyendyk. The code was never deactivated though and resulted in the free giveaway of the pizzas across the United States after someone discovered the promotion on the website by typing in the word "bailout" as the promotion code and then shared it with others on the Internet." Domino's also sponsored Michael Waltrip Racing and driver David Reutimann during the 2007 season in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series.Children's Research Hospital. Domino's Pizza sponsored The Super Mario Bros. who then hired Will Vinton Studios to produce the television commercials that they created. The catchphrase associated with the commercials was "Avoid the Noid. and was briefly seen in the 1990 film Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Domino's Pizza was seen in the final scene of the 1985 film The Goonies. Advertising and sponsorship Arie Luyendyk's Lola-Chevrolet which won the 1990 Indianapolis 500 for Doug Shierson Racing. Domino's deactivated the code on the morning of March 31. That concept was created by Group 243 Inc. The character of Lawrence "Chunk" Cohen exclaims it is his favorite after his mother brings him one on the beach after escaping the pirate cave. from 1998 to 2008 the company provided funding for the American cartoon sitcom The Simpsons. In 2003. 25 . The company had planned the campaign for December 2008 but dropped the idea and never promoted it.3 million in 2006. Domino's teamed up with NASCAR for a multi-year partnership to become the "Official Pizza of NASCAR. Domino's Pizza was well known for its advertisements featuring The Noid. In the 1980s.000 free medium pizzas in March 2009. Domino's sponsored CART's Doug Shierson Racing. and the team won the 1990 Indianapolis 500.
but three companies have acquired multiple master franchise agreements. "You Got 30 Minutes". operate and franchise branches of the chain in Australia. In another 1993 lawsuit.30-minute guarantee Starting in 1973. France. according to Monaghan. Domino's Pizza had a guarantee that customers would receive their pizzas within 30 minutes of placing an order. The company continues to offer "30 minute or Free" guarantee for orders placed in its stores situated in Colombia. New Zealand. In December 2007. alluding to the earlier pledge but stopping short of promising delivery in a half hour. Vietnam. but accepted a payout of $15 million. The master franchises for the UK and Ireland were purchased in 1993 by the British publicly listed Domino's Pizza Group. the Netherlands and Monaco are currently owned by Australian Domino's Pizza Enterprises. the company settled a lawsuit brought by the family of an Indiana woman who had been killed by a Domino's delivery driver. *A "Free Regular Pizza Voucher" is given in these markets instead if later than 30 minutes. The guarantee was dropped that same year because of the "public perception of reckless driving and irresponsibility". covering a number of countries: • • The rights to own. paying the family $2. or they would receive the pizzas free.  which in 2011 also acquired the 26 . Mexico. brought by a woman who was injured when a Domino's delivery driver ran a red light and collided with her vehicle.8 million. In most cases. Domino's has master franchise agreements with one company per country. The guarantee was reduced to $3 off in the mid 1980s. Domino's Pizza has locations in more than 60 countries. the woman was awarded nearly $80 million. Singapore* and Turkey. Domino's introduced a new slogan. Belgium. India. Malaysia*. In 1992. International operations Map showing Domino's Pizza's global locations. having bought the master franchises from the parent company in 1993 (Australian and New Zealand) and 2006.
The Vision • • • To be the best operator Domino's Pizza system with the best talent. Sri Lanka and Bangaladesh are currently owned by the Indian company Jubilant FoodWorks. Exceptional People serving the best pizza in the world. Number one in people. Liechtenstein and Luxembourg by buying the Swiss master franchise holder. 27 . Have more fun. Sell more pizza. Mission and Vision The Mission • • • • Maintaining high standards of the international chain of pizza delivery in Mexico and provide the experience of an excellent product with excellent customer service. with an option to acquire the Austrian master franchise as well.master franchise for Germany. Nepal. Number one in pizza. and in August 2012 the company also added Switzerland.  • The master franchises for India.
We are not ordinary. but I scold you are the one out of the oven and the pizza must be cut. There are times when you just gather orders leave like 5 minutes to get home from the store. Set the bar high. train.8 hours and hours a day of rest. Employees Distributor Salary previously as (every 15 days). mop or whatever you send the manager). Incentivise what you want to change. Produce the best for less. manage and share what’s important. we are exceptional. Your payment is with target. never stop learning. Promote from within. Measure. (but after you get your 8 hours to wash the dishes. You have to wash the bike all the time. They do not charge the pizza if you're late. Think big and grow.Values • • • • • • • • Treat people as you’d like to be treated. 28 .
pizza in expiration less than 3 preparer dates. 29 . Telephonist learning have your clean to use computers good work roomclean to program customer area toilets their codes relations clean Manager Is the person responsible for seeing that in a production process of the pizza meets the objectives and the production plan providing solutions to problems presented as soon as possible by ensuring that employees comply and commit to their duties.Pizzas Care for Learn to make a Learning you a lot of code. minutes.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This data has been taken from secondary source of information. Advantages of secondary data : • • • • it is cheap and inexpensive. Already published reports. It avoids data collection problems and it provides a basis for comparison. This data is collected by a person or organization other than the use of the data.. Journals and publications. Secondary Data is data or information that is already available. websites. . This data is collected from various sources: • • • • • Books. Research papers etc. It is easily accessible. It saves time and efforts. It is already available. Magazines. 30 .
and the monthly sales figures are projected to double in the next four years.. Domino's went a step ahead by differentiating regions and applying the taste-factor accordingly. Domino's and Pizza Hut . Pune .e. 600 Crore. Kolkata.000 people. Domino's also made ordering simpler through a single toll-free number throughout the country. of the total branded quick service restaurant market make a sale of over Rs1. the pizza chains contribute around 50 per cent of the sales i. According to industry data. both the players redefined their recipes to suit the Indian tastes. Domino’s and Pizza Hut expanded their market ever since they entered India . the two big US fast food chains entered India in 1996. Hyderabad. and Chandigarh and Yum! is in the process of opening Pizza Hut restaurant sat many more locations to service a larger customer base across the country. Chennai. Mumbai. According to the India Retail Report 2009.The major players of the Pizza industry are:- Pizza Hut Domino’s Smoking joe’s Garcia’s Papa john’s Us pizza Market share as on 1999 31 . worth Rs.tried to grab as large a slice of the pizza pie as possible. Each claimed it had the original recipe as the Italians first wrote it and was trying desperately to create brand loyalty. Domino's USP was a 30-minutedelivery frame. While Pizza Hut relied on its USP of "dining experience". People across the country are consuming over three million pizzas a month currently. including Delhi. To penetrate the market. Today Domino's Pizza India has grown into a countrywide network of more than 300 stores with a team of over 9.000 restaurants across 97 countries and 143 stores across 34 cities in India. Bangalore.Pizza Hut is the world's largest casual dining restaurant chain with over 13. Domino’s were the largest Pizza chain in India and the fastest growing multinational fast food chain between 2006-2007 and 2008-2009 in terms of number of stores Market shares and major players Indian taste buds are demanding more and pizza industry ± one of the most intensive industry is all gearing on.Analysis & Interpretation Domino's and Pizza Hut.200 Crore.
Threat of new entrants 32 .
Much young crowd flock their restaurants and their taste buds are getting modified. Thus if the brand recall of a particular company is good. service. However 33 . Now the new entrants are also likely to enter the small cities and make their presence. Higher the quality of food.With the economic reforms and liberalization. Generally it is assumed that when people dine outside. They have to constantly differentiate their services from the newer entrants Substitutes There are lots of substitutes which are available to choose with respect to the fast food industry some of them are McDonald’s Barista Cafe coffee day Chinese restaurants (main land china) Other restaurants Largely it depends upon the customers what they want to have. more people will tend to go there. Thus pizza hut and dominos have to rethink their strategies so as to retain their customers. higher will be product recall and sales Buyer’s bargaining power Pizza hut and dominos have higher market reach and greater visibility in the market with respect to the pizza industry and hence they command supplies at lower rate. they think of having pizza at least 25% of time. many new entrants also want the revenue of the200 billion Indian fast food industries. There are many new entrants in the branded pizza industry some of them are • Papa john’s pizza Us pizza • Some Indian brands are:• • Pizza Express Pizza Corner Slice of Italy They have captured a lot of customers with their new style and discount offers.
their counterparts, competitors cannot command such lower prices. Thus the muscle power of pizza hut and dominos is way beyond the others.
Supplier’s growing bargaining power
Supplies till now were not a problem but with the advent of the rising food costs (raw material inflation). Suppliers are not ready to supply items at the normal rate. Thus supplier’s muscle power grew only doe to inflation. Thus the company either has to increase the menu costs or reduce the operational costs to recover. Failing to do this will make the company into losses or to lose out in the industry.
Trends in the Indian market
Marketing to children Fast food outlets in India target children’s as their major customers. They introduce varieties of things that will attract the children’s attention and by targeting children’s they automatically target their parents because children’s are always accompanied by their parents. Low level customer commitment Because of the large number of food retail outlets and also because of the tendency of customer to switch from one product to other, this industry faces low level customer commitment. Attracting different segments of the market Fast food outlets are introducing varieties of products in order to cater the demands of each and every segment of the market. They are introducing all categories of product so that people of all age, sex, class, income group etc can come and become a customer of their food line Competitors of the Pizza Hut and Dominos • Pizza corner • • • •
McDonald’s Barista Cafe coffee Day Subway Papa john’s
Region- pizza hut outlet its in different countries is a way of segmenting the ir market according to region and finding out potential markets. City- they also segment the cities as classic lassie, metros, small towns
Annual income –below 10yrs , 10 to 18yrs ,18 to 25yrs , 25 to 40yrs Family income –middle class , upper class , high class
In geographic segment they targeted countries where there were no pizza hut outlets. Initially opened in class i cities and then have now moved to metros.
In demographic segment their main target is the young adults ranging from 25 years to40 years and also dual income earners family. They aim basically at the upper middleclass and the high class income families. •
In psychographic segmentation they targeted a1, a2, b1 socio-economic classes. In behavioral segmentation they targeted for occasions such as birthday bashes, corporate lunches. It was also found that they were targeting the first time users because they felt that their quality and taste would automatically make them a loyal customer.
The ambience and decor of all pizza hut outlets are good and the outlets are spacious.Dominos • In geographic segment they targeted countries where there were no dominos outlets.navamani. In behavioral segmentation it was found that they were targeting the first time users and also their regular users. upper middle class income families. pizza hut only comes into their mind. In psychographic segmentation they targeted a2. both pizza hut and dominos has to deliver or serve pizza in less time as compared to other main course food items served in other restaurants. coimbatorev. b1. Pizza hut has customized birthday party invites with different themes for the customers to choose and use it as invitations. • • • Positioning Points of difference The major point of difference between pizza hut and dominos is that pizza hut concentrates onion-restaurant dining. says Mr. b2 socio-economic classes. young adults ranging from 21 years to 35 years. metros and smaller towns. Points of parity Category points of parity ± the main food item that is sold in pizza hut and dominos is pizza. In demographic segment their main target is the teenagers and college students (13 to21years). Park outlet.c. pizza comes under the fast food category of foods. birthday parties and business meetings in their outlets. manager of dominos. both the companies must be good in speed of making and service. Whenever customers want to have pizza at home.o. Dominos aims at fast home delivery of pizza. Irrespective of the cost. Pizza hut also arranges kitty parties. ³ We earn 60% of our revenue from home delivery of pizzas and 40% from the restaurant sales´ . They aim basically at the middle class. they think of calling dominos and ordering for it because they are experts in home delivery of pizza. Initially opened in class ii cities and then have now moved to class i. the major revenue is from restaurant sales. 37 . When customers think of party and decide to have pizza. In case of pizza hut. As we all know.
MARKETING STRATEGIES Overall both the companies achieve what they want to as for Dominos they have achieved in positioning themselves as the fastest serving pizza outlet and quenching the hunger. When we visit pizza hut. Differentiation and Focus This is achieved very effectively by Dominos as they do not intend to lose their focus fromdelivering pizzas at home • • Dominos Brand thus relates mainly to service & delivery neither they promote their indining experience nor they spend revenue for it. who do not bother about spending. In case of dominos. but look for quality and personalized service. They concentrate on turnover of covers and cater to customers who don’t have time to spend on food and just stop over for refreshment. it can be seen that even customers feel the same as what thecompany wants them to. Strategic Formulation Overall Cost Leadership. dominos mainly looks into home delivery of pizzas and are experts in it. they have their own customers. Pizza Hut has come to become synonymous with the µbest pizzas under one roof¶.Competitive points of parity competitive points of parity in case of pizza hut is that. They have positioned themselves for their unique dining experience. they have restaurant hostess who will assign us tables and introduce the steward who will be taking care of us. Domino's vision is focused on” Exceptional people on a mission to be the best pizzadelivery company in the world!´ “ Thus Dominos are able to provide good pizzas at relatively lower rate as they don¶t spend muchfor the restaurant Pizza Hut¶s Premium price Pizza Hut is committed for providing uncompromising product quality. Moreover.Thus from the market feedback. but offer good pizzas at nominal price. This is generally a procedure that is followed in five star category hotels and pizza hut is also following it to emphasize on service quality. they are not costly as pizza hut and do not offer great ambience to customers. friendly and 38 . even though pizza hut is costlier than dominos. offering customers thehighest value for money and giving service that is warm.
39 .A critical factor in Pizza Hut¶s success has been a menu that has constantly evolved andexpanded to cater to the changing needs and specific preferences of customers in different partsof the world. Pizza Hut Workforce of Pizza Hut is chosen with the motto³Together we grow´ with primary concern being quality of service. All other activities. Further. time and again Domino's Pizza has been innovating with delicious new productssuch as crusts. toppings and flavors suitable to the taste buds of Indian Consumers. Thus the customer has the maximumincentive to come back to Dominos. promotion where hunger gets quelled inless than 30 minutes was a great value proposition .personal • They stress heavily on the dining experience and the ambience • Thus at each point company charges a premium Thus Pizzas from Pizza Hut costs a premium hence their customers also changes to high income groups Creation. creating. Communication and Capturing Value Domino¶s Domino's Pizza constantly strives to develop products that suit the tastes of its consumers andhence delighting them. providing value for money at affordable products to the consumers has been Dominos motto. Domino's believes strongly in the strategy of ³Think global and act local. They have the maximum offers withrespect to the discounts they offer throughout the year. be it in terms of delivery or quality of pizzas.Delicacies that do not rip wallets have always got the crowd coming back to the Dominosalthough its ambience is not up to that of its competitors. greatservice.Initiatives such as Fun Meal and Pizza Mania have been extremely popular with consumers.The Brand Positioning of ³Khushiyon ki Home Delivery´ (Happiness Home delivered) is theemotional benefit Dominos offer to consumers. Thus. timely deliveries or more for the same price the effort of Dominos has always beendirected towards making its customers happy. ³Hungry Kya?´. In having understood the pulse of the customers in India. be it new variants. communicating and delivering value.
kitty parties and corporate lunches They also have a variety of combinations of menuitems which a customer can choose so that both the customer and the company can have a win-win situation.From the menu card one can see the family size variants and the different pizza combinations inthe same one pizza are all the different ways of pricing.Once the customer dines/ orders @ home. Thus customers are forcedto maintain loyalty towards pizza hut 40 . Moreover Pizza Hut is not just a hangout zone for youngsters. it was the first pizza chain to open a 100% vegetarian restaurant in India in Surat and later in Ahmedabad and Chowpatty. The company can have the maximum of the consumer surplus at the same time theconsumer might feel that this was the best offer.Pizza Hut has clearlyestablished itself as a brand with an Indian heart. normally discount coupons are given to the customer so that there is an incentive for the customer to order from pizza hut. The company attains the maximum profit in the meat items. where it offers a Jain menu sans all rootbasedingredients. It organizes birthday bashes. Besides offering an extensive range of vegetarian pizzas. so they give the selection of pizzas slices of different varieties and theyare clubbed together to form a single pizza.
SWOT Analysis of Pizza Hut n SWOT Analysis of Dominos 41 .
4p’s of dominos and pizza hut Pizza hut PRODUCT Worldwide and in India. This is because at Pizza Hut the belief is that every pizza has its own magic. 43 . thus making it a destination product –whicheveryone seeks. Pizza Hut has come to become synonymous with the ‘best pizzas under one roof’.
Place • • • The ambience is vibrant and casual whichappeals to young people. Nice music is being played in the background. Pizza hut product line can be divided into:Sides: pasta and rolls Pizza’s Appetizers & BeverageDessert PRICE •Pizza Hut has successfully used the high/lowpricing strategy when setting the retail price of its products • Pan Pizzas start at just Rs 65. The seats. • Last but not the least• THE BELL the pizza huttradition to say thank you when you ring thebell.A critical factor in Pizza Hut’s success has been its unique dining experience. 44 . couches are comfortable to sit. which is probablyamong the lowest in the world.
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 45 .
The response set of one variable is compared with another set of variable to ensure a detailed analysis of data.Based on the type of data collected and the target segment with the appropriate statistical methods. inference should be made. • Data Analysis done with the help of various IT tools like MS Excel and SPSS Software Frequency distribution tables and Graphs. • AGE Age below 20 20-24 25-34 35-39 40 and above Figure 1 ANALYSIS 46 . One should be able to recognize what type of data is appropriate for each statistic and one should be able to recognize the level of measurement for the scales that you are analyzing.
CITY 47 .60% and between 25-34 which was 43%. 3.60% respondents. GENDER Gender Male Female Pies show counts Figure 2 ANALYSIS We were surprised to find out that out of total respondents who filled out the questionnaire male to female ratio was almost equal which depicted that females were equally interested like males to fill out the questionnaire which says about their keen interest towards search engines. we can also say that women are at par with men. Moreover.Majority of the respondents in our survey consisted of people in the age group of 20-24 which was 47.20% respondents were in the age group 35-39 while below 20 age group had 2.
80% 0. Mumbai.40% 4. Bangalore. While Off liners in Abn-Amro bank-noida. Ahmedabad.20% 26. Noida.40% 3.80% 3.00% Figure 3 ANALYSIS We carried on our survey both online and offline in around 25 cities like Delhi. Hcl-noida.20% 2. Indore. EDUCATION 48 .80% 0.80% 0. Gurgaon. Chennai.80% 1.20% 18.20% Agra Ahmedabad Bangalore Chennai Chandigarh Delhi Faridabad Gurgaon Hyderabad Jaipur Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Noida Pune Others 0.80% 11. Amity University.80% 2. and other cities across India.00% City 2.80% 20.0. Fidelity-gurgoan.
OCCUPATION 49 .Figure 4 125 100 Count 75 50 25 Under Graduate Graduate Post Graduate Education ANALYSIS Out of the people whom we targeted highest number of responses came from post graduates which was followed by graduates and then the under graduates which shows the decreasing trend of awareness.
educations which was further followed by researchers. IT. managers and marketing people. 50 .40 30 20 t n c r e P 10 0 Ed uc at ion Do E cto ngin ee r r M ed ia ot he rs y nc lta su on C s es sin Bu g in nk sis Ba er aly ag an d an an M ch ar se Re ing s rti ve Ad g tin ke ar M er wy La m lis na ur Jo t en ud e St stat E om H R H er ak l ea R e IT nc ra su In Occupation em Figure 5 ANALYSIS The maximum respondents were students who were keen to fill out the questionnaires which show their level of curiosity in search engines. These were followed by advertising.
FINDINGS AND TECHNIQUES 51 .
over the last five years it has fueled more than one-third of 52 . 33% of Internet users have a penchant to buy movie merchandise online & this frequency is likely to grow as we are reaching to households owning DVD Players & Recorders (35%). ringtones. The 18-35 age group are the biggest spenders. with 92 percent of executives projecting revenues derived from E-commerce. there is high propensity to talk. share amongst friends. VCD Players (56%) 94% of users are susceptible to mobile marketing. 47% of Internet users would pay for mobile content like alerts. wallpaper etc. 73% of Internet users spend less than Rs 500 on a visit to the cinema indicating an affluent demographic.Some interesting facts : 44% of Internet users believe that a film's online participation influences their judgment in watching a movie reinforcing the need for movie houses to be present online. Moreover. Although the information technology that supports electronic marketing currently accounts for just 8 percent of the United States’ total economic output. The results of a survey of global chief executive officers portend significant Internet growth and business usage over the next five years.
higher levels of education. The remarkable growth and impact of the Internet and World Wide Web have spurred almost every business to explore E-marketing strategies to enrich relationships with customers.economic growth in the United States. In fact. Internet marketing to simply equate to Search Engine Marketing. However. Internet shop. TV and direct mail. the process is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. This is multi-channel E-marketing. Generally. online store. Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce which allow consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without intermediary service. employees. web-shop. Other names for an online shop are: e-shop. e-store. but while this is important this scope is too narrow to take full advantage of digital media. occupation of the head of the household and income correspond to more favorable perceptions of shopping online. Online customers must have access to the internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction. The largest of these online retailing corporations are E-Bay and Amazon. and suppliers. the characteristics and availability of the E-commerce infrastructure are driving strategic planning. 53 . These techniques are used to support objectives of acquiring new customers and providing services to existing customers that help develop the customer relationship. and virtual store. both of which are based in the United States. In the case where a business buys from another business. the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. Increased exposure to technology also increases the probability of developing favorable attitudes towards new shopping channels. for Internet marketing to be successful there is still a necessity for integration of these techniques with traditional media such as print. The concept of an online scope evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-andmortar retailer or shopping center. web-store.com.
In a December 2011 study. Equation Research found that 87% of tablet users made online transactions with their tablet devices during the early holiday shopping season Users between the age of 18-35 are the biggest segment in India accounting for 50% of all users on the Internet. 54 .
personal characteristics. online purchasing. Each of these studies addresses some aspect of online shopping attitudes and behavior. Five (external environment. demographics. Of these. online shopping decision making. we identify a total of ten interrelated factors for which the empirical evidences show significant relationships. vendor/service/product characteristics. After examining the 35 empirical studies. Our goal is to develop a taxonomy representing factors/aspects related to online shopping attitudes and behavior covered in the existing empirical IS literature. These ten factors are external environment. intention to shop online. attitude towards online shopping. Other research methods such as lab experiments and free simulation experiments are occasionally employed. and consumer satisfaction. • • • • • • • External Environment Demographics Personal Characteristics Vender/Service/ Product 55 . intention to shop online. and consumer satisfaction) are ordinarily dependent variables in the empirical. 29 of them used survey method. decision making. vender/service/ product characteristics. demographics. online purchasing.A Taxonomy of Consumer Online Shopping Attitudes and Behavior A total of 35 empirical studies are analyzed in this study. and website quality) are found to be ordinarily independent and five (attitude toward online shopping. personal characteristics.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Characteristics Website Quality Attitude towards Online Shopping Consumer Satisfaction Intention to Shop Online Decision Making Online Purchasing Antecedents Few of the 35 studies examined cover all ten factors. The five factors identified as antecedents are normally independent variables. and there is some inconsistency in the empirical results of those that include similar factors. although some studies have treated Website Quality as a dependent variable. we integrate these ten factors in a model (Figure 1) in which the expected relationships among them are depicted. Nevertheless. These five factors directly determine attitude towards online 56 . for the sake of discussion.
This increases transaction costs for the consumer. The depicted relationships among attitude. and is sometimes considered to be a behavioral stage. 2000. Attitude and intention to shop online have been clearly identified and relatively widely studied in the existing empirical literature. In addition.shopping. online shopping attitudes and behavior. Decision-making is the stage before consumers commit to online transaction or purchasing.the number of Internet stores that provide the same service and products. Lee and colleagues (2000) argue that the fewer the competing vendors. and online purchasing are based on the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975). two of the antecedents. have been found to have direct impact on consumer satisfaction. which attempts to explain the relationship between beliefs. p. Consumer satisfaction is considered to be a separate factor in this study. which can be defined as . It includes three dimensions. and actual behavior. vendor/service/product characteristics and Website quality. 57 . External environment refers to those contextual factors that impact consumers. intention. The third factor is the numbers of competitors. trust attitude to the online stores. External Environment Only two out of 35 studies discuss the influence of external environment on online shopping. attitudes. involvement during the online shopping process. (Lee et al. attitude. intentions. The second is the system of the Third Party Recognition in which many third party certification bodies are working to ensure the trustworthiness of online vendors (Borchers 2001).307). It can occur at all possible stages depending on consumers. intention. decreasing intention to revisit a specific online store. decision-making. These two factors are positively associated with consumers. The first is the existing legal framework that protects the consumers from any kind of loss in online transactions. The relationships between satisfaction. decision making and online purchasing are proposed to be two-way relationships due to the reciprocal influences of each on the other. the greater the possibility of opportunistic behavior on the part of existing vendors so as to maximize profits.
however once people are online. Bhatnagar and colleagues (2000) provide evidence that demographics are not relevant factors in determining which store to patronize or how much to spend. Bellman 58 . the literature suggests that the impact of demographics on Internet buying behavior is not strong. skill. gender. p. because they are time-constrained and do not mind buying products without touching or feeling them if they can save time in this way.Internet Li & Zhang/Consumer Online Shopping Attitudes & Behavior 2002 . 2001). computer. 33) report that . Potential consumers are often prevented from shopping online by their concern for security (Han et al. 2001). In another study. wealthier. such as their Internet knowledge. perceived risk can be reduced by knowledge. more educated. Personal Characteristics Personal characteristics have drawn the attention of fourteen studies. and time online. income. demographics do not seem to be key factors affecting purchase decisions or shopping behavior. though men and women do tend to buy different types of products or services via the Internet. In summary. They argue that demographics appear to play an important role in determining whether people use the Internet. Demographics include such variables as age. and cultural environment.. Bellman and colleagues (1999. These consumers regard convenience during shopping as the most important factor in purchase decisions. although the gaps are gradually closing. 2001. Sukpanich and Chen 1999. need specificity. However. and experience on the Internet. level of education. It can be defined as a group of specific customer features that may influence their online shopping attitudes and behavior.Demographics Eight of 35 studies examine the impact of demographics on online shopping attitudes and behavior. Senecal 2000. and online shopping (Ratchford et al. Ha et al. Li and colleagues (1999) found that customers who purchase Internet stores more frequently are more convenience-oriented and less experience-oriented. Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems 511 surveys agree that the online population is relatively younger.
Kimery and McCord 2002. 2000. Vender/service/product characteristics refer to features of the Internet stores. Lowengart and Tractinskky 2001. Koufaris et al. the extent to which they like being first to use new technologies.. (2) store reputation. to do their work. (3) product availability. news clips). online shopping attitudes and behavior significantly. Lee et al. online shopping attitudes and behavior include cultural environment. (7) dependability of product. Vender/Service/Product Characteristics Sixteen out of the 35 studies examine the relationship between vender/service/product characteristics and other factors. In addition. Pavlou 2001. 2001. need specificity. seals. Measures employed to value vender characteristics in the empirical studies include (1) real existence of the store/physical location. Their routine use of the Internet for other purposes leads them to naturally use it as a shopping channel as well. (4) price.2002. Cho et al.entrances. (5) number of Internet store . 2000. product involvement. to search information. (3) store size. Lee et al. Liang and Lai 2000. (8) possibility of customized products. the products they sell. and (9) brand (Jahng et al. 2000). Kim et al.. (2) product quality/performance/product uncertainty.g. the extent to which they would like to share values and information with others. (5) social presence requirement. researchers examine different aspects of service provided by the venders through the online shopping process. 2001. online shopping behavior are (1) variety of goods. These factors are found to influence customers. 2001. (6) assurance-building mechanisms (e. (4) reliability. 2001. Liang and Huang 1998.2000. and tendency to spend money on shopping (Borchers 2001. Among product features that impact customers. 2001. or for recreational purposes. Jarvenpaa et al. Bellman et al 1999). warranties. to read news. Service factors related to online shopping attitudes and behavior include 59 . Grazioli and Wang 2001. These consumers use the Internet as a routine tool to receive and send emails. and the service they provide to support the transactions. and (7) use of testimonials (van der Heijden et al. Other factors found to impact consumers. Lowengart and Tractinskky 2001. disposition to trust.and colleagues (1999) propose that people living a wired lifestyle patronize e-stores spontaneously. Bhatnagar et al. Muthitacharoen 1999). Kim et al. (6) product presence requirement.
(1) customer communication channels/ease of vendor contact. (6) availability of personalized services. PEOU only has an indirect influence on online shopping behavior by directly influencing PU. informational influence. (11) peripheral costs. which in turn positively influence consumer 60 . and (12) promotion (Ho and Wu 1999. self-efficacy. (2) response to customer needs. and resources facilitation. service. Website Quality Twenty studies investigate the relationship between website quality and consumers online shopping attitudes and behavior from different points of view. (5) timeliness of orders or services/waiting time. (7) ease of return and refunds. Song and Zahedi (2001) classify website quality elements into five categories according to their purpose: for promotion. tracking and tracing). (2001) obtain the similar findings in their recent study of design factors affecting consumer loyalty. (8) fraud. They report that while PU affects intended use when a Web site is used for a purchasing task. perceptions in these factors. For example. (9) delivery (speed. These investigators find that each of the five significantly and positively reinforces the consumers. Gefen and Straub (2000) investigate the impact of perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) on e-commerce adoption using 202 MBA students as subjects. (4) reliability of the purchasing process/process uncertainty. In one study. (3) accessibility of sales people. Lee et al. (10) transaction costs.
Hygiene factors are those whose present make a website functional and serviceable. interaction between customers and venders. In their opinion. Technical Aspect. security. the measures employed to value website quality by the researchers include the websites. Zhang and von Dran 2001a. Online shopping attitudes and behavior. Zhang et al. Visual Appearance. They suggest that providing good transaction support will help Internet venders to beat their electronic competitors. and third media richness factors. Their studies show that website design features can be regarded as hygiene and motivator factors that contribute to user dissatisfaction and satisfaction with a website. Credibility. two of them are also named motivators and hygiene factors. Cognitive Outcome. motivators are those who support the transaction process directly while hygiene factors protect the consumers from risks or unexpected events in the transaction process. while the hygiene factors need to be paid attention if they want to attract consumers from traditional stores. p. Attitudes Towards Online Shopping 61 .online shopping attitudes and behavior. Motivator factors are those that add value to the website by contributing to user satisfaction. and so forth In summary. Small. Navigation. 2). User Empowerment. Five categories of motivation factors are: Enjoyment. Zhang. searching mechanism. Liang and Lai (2000) review website quality factors influencing Internet buying behavior by categorizing them into three groups. media richness. Zhang et al. 2000. and Zhang and von Dran (2000) make an attempt to evaluate website quality from user satisfaction and dissatisfaction perspective. information content. Some of the categories of hygiene factors are: Privacy and Security. 2001). (Liang and Lai 2000. Media richness factors . navigation. In their continued effort. they further discover that the most important website quality factors ranked by e-commerce consumers are hygiene factors (von Dran and Zhang 1999. and Information Content. information presentation. and Organization of Information Content. Impartiality. a variety of factors related to website quality have been demonstrated to significantly influence consumers. von Dran. Overall. site technical feature. 2000). and whose absence causes user dissatisfaction.add more information channels or richness in information presentation. 2001b. and Barcellos (1999.
financial loss. it is believed that consumer attitudes will affect intention to shop online and eventually whether a transaction is made. empowerment. However. Fishbein and Ajzen 1975). This is a multidimensional construct that has been conceptualized in several different ways in the existing literature. customers. perceived risk.g..e. product risk. According to Lee and colleagues (2001). perceived control/users. can reduce perceived risk. Consistent with the literature and models of attitude change and behavior (e. the likelihood of purchasing 62 . consumers. attitudes towards online shopping Intention to Shop Online Consumers. and nonrepudiation. acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel (Jahng et al. These first two dimensions are negatively associated with the third. the fourth dimension of attitude. to what extent consumers think that shopping at this store is appealing). The second is the perceived risk associated with context of online transactions. it refers to the consumers. enjoyment/playfulness. 2001). willingness to buy and to return for additional purchases. opportunity loss. trust in the stores. time loss. and product risk.. this factor is measured by consumers. the likelihood of purchasing from the store within the next three months. two main categories of perceived risk emerge in the process of online shopping. Consumers.s website. the influence of financial risk. The latter also contributes to customer loyalty. and includes risk of privacy. Among them. Borchers 2001. intention to shop online is studied by 13 out of the 35 papers. intention to shop online by asking a series of questions assessing the likelihood of returning to a store. with 22 out of 35 papers focusing on it. Jarvenpaa and colleagues (2000) assess consumers. security. First. Commonly.Consumers. attitudes toward online shopping have gained a great deal of attention in the empirical literature. it refers to consumer attitudes toward a specific Internet store (i. and concern for privacy and security is significant (Senecal 2000. In addition. and perceived real added-value from membership have also been shown to be important dimensions of consumers. The first is the perceived risk associated with product/service and includes functional loss. intention to shop online refers to their willingness to make purchases in an Internet store. 2002). Bhatnagar et al. Secondly.
intention to shop online is positively associated with attitude towards Internet buying. performing relative comparisons across products based on some desirable attributes and make a purchase decision. satisfaction. In addition. Using a controlled experiment. In addition. and influences their decision-making and purchasing behavior. The results bearing on this factor directly influence consumers. these authors discover that the . potential consumers appear to use a two-stage process in reaching purchase decisions. consumers typically screen a large set of products in order to identify a subset of promising alternatives that appears to meet their needs. Online Purchasing 63 .interactive tools designed to assist consumers in the initial screening of available alternatives and to facilitate indepth comparisons among selected alternatives in an online shopping environment may have strong favorable effects on both the quality and the efficiency of purchase decisions. there is evidence of reciprocal influence between intention to shop online and customer satisfaction.within the next year. Consumers. They then evaluate the subset in greater depth. there appears to be an impact on users. there are only five studies that include it. purchasing behavior. and choice making. comparison of alternatives. and general the likelihood of ever purchasing from a particular store again. Initially. Though it is important. According to Haubl and Trifts (2000). Online Shopping Decision Making Online shopping decision-making includes information seeking.
This is the most substantial step in online shopping activities. other less commonly used measures are unplanned purchases of the relationship between online purchasing behavior. the measures used are total amount spent and frequency in last 6 months. perceived risk of the product/service. These expectations influence their attitudes and intentions to shop at a certain Internet store. service. which refers to consumers.Fourteen studies discuss online purchasing. and consequently their decision-making processes and purchasing behavior. and decision making Consumer Satisfaction Consumer satisfaction is the focus of the investigation in only three articles. Perceptions of the online shopping experience confirm their expectations. vendor/service/product characteristics. perceived ease of use. intentions. perceived usefulness. Most consumers form expectations of the product. It can be defined as the extent to which consumers. dissatisfaction is negatively associated with these four variables 64 . and quality of the website that they patronize before engaging in online shopping activities. decisions. In contrast. with most empirical research using measures of frequency (or number) of purchases and value of online purchases as measures of online purchasing. customers achieve a high degree of satisfaction. website quality. attitudes toward online shopping. which influences their online shopping attitudes. and perceived risk in the context of the transaction. vendor. Online purchasing is reported to be strongly associated with the factors of personal characteristics. intention to shop online. and purchasing activity positively. If expectations are met. actions of placing orders and paying.
it is very easy to do price comparisons for a given item. you can see if you are getting the best deal with just a few clicks. model number. And making it even easier. when you purchase online. • Shop 24/7 Online stores are available twenty-four hours a day. • 2. The same claim cannot be made by most (if any) retail stores. Online shopping allows you to shop whenever you want. you can place your order and move on to other things.the pool of products and available inventory for you to choose from is vastly larger than those available to you via local retailers within driving distance. at your convenience. so you get to compare the actual. all year long. but no matter how expensive or inexpensive gasoline might be at any given time. You can also quickly determine whether the item is "in stock" or not. Saves Fuel Fuel prices have been up and down in recent years. and these sites will often even calculate and include any shipping charges. no matter what the cost. Also. seven days a week. 65 . • Larger Inventory With online retailers. total cost of the item. your wait time will simply be the time required to display the website ordering page. style. so it doesn't consume any fuel. there are now search engines specifically designed for price comparisons. shopping online does not require any driving. it is much easier to find the item.Advantages of Shopping Online • Saves Time If you already know what you're looking for. shopping online can save you a significant amount of time. online shopping does not restrict you geographically -. With just a few clicks of the mouse. and size you want. In fact. there are no long lines that you are forced to stand in line just to make a purchase. • 3. Once you have determined what you want to purchase. Price Comparisons While shopping online. • No Waiting When purchasing online. color.
such as instructions. whereas in a physical retail store. the product was not satisfactory). For example. the product was not what the consumer ordered. visit the post office and pay return shipping. There are also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products. Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information. the online shoe retailer Zappos. Reviews and even some blogs give customers the option of shopping for cheaper purchases from all over the world without having to depend on local retailers. and many consumers have Internet access both at work and at home. Some provide background information. In a conventional retail store.• Convenience Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day. photos.. and then wait for a replacement or refund.com includes labels for free return shipping. the actual product and the manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might involve a test drive. or manufacturer specifications. Consumers may need to contact the retailer. Some online stores have real-time chat features. but most rely on e-mails or phone calls to handle customer questions. demonstrations. consumers are concerned with the ease of returning an item in exchange for either the correct product or a refund. • Information and reviews Online stores must describe products for sale with text. online shops are prohibited from charging a restocking fee if the consumer cancels their order in accordance with the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Act 2000). or other experimentation). In the event of a problem with the item (e. In contrast. safety procedures. clerks are generally available to answer questions. and multimedia files. fitting. or how-to guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy. visiting a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business hours. Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. 66 . Other establishments such as internet cafes and schools provide internet access as well. (Note: In the United Kingdom. advice. and does not charge a restocking fee. even for returns which are not the result of merchant error. Some online companies have more generous return policies to compensate for the traditional advantage of physical stores.g.
especially for larger and heavier items. you will have to wait a few days for your order to arrive. Some retailers (especially those selling small. especially from another country. there will sometimes be an additional expense to ship your purchases. 67 . while you wait for your order to be packed. Many online retailers offer "free" shipping. but only if the cost of your order reaches a certain minimum amount. Shipping a small number of items. The additional shipping costs can make the overall cost of purchasing online. Problems faced by customer on E – retail websites • Shipping Costs Unless you purchase digital products. online price comparison services and discovery shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or service. Another major advantage for retailers is the ability to rapidly switch suppliers and vendors without disrupting users' shopping experience. Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online merchandise. Unless you are purchasing digital goods that can be "downloaded" immediately. Search engines. a lack of sales tax may compensate for this. Lack Of Instant Gratification Unlike retail stores. You simply can't walk out of the store with your newly acquired item in-hand. The shipping cost will often depend on the size and the weight of the item.• Price and selection One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for items or services provided by many different vendors (though some local search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby stores). much less attractive than buying locally. though depending on the jurisdiction. high-value items like electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders. • 2. shipped. is much more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers order. and delivered to you. purchasing online will require some patience after you place your order.
or even non-existent. Feel It Some shoppers like being able to see and feel an item. While this risk is also an issue for local retail stores (and some security experts say an even greater risk). • Support Online support may be limited. the purchaser can often make a far more reasonable assessment of the quality. and being able to physically feel and inspect the item. See It. • Personal Data Some people are concerned about the potential security risks of storing and sharing of their personal data and credit card numbers with online retailers. you rarely have the opportunity to build a relationship with the seller. many people feel that purchasing online is an added security risk that they are just not willing to take. and to test it or try it on prior to purchasing. simply because of the personal interaction between buyer and seller. • No Relationship When you purchase online.• 3. local retail stores are far more likely to form relationships with their customers. Touch It. quite often the only option is to pack the item up and ship it back to the online retailer for a credit or replacement. On the other hand. This is difficult to do if you are just looking at an online photo of the item. And 68 . By actually seeing the item. for items purchased online. • Defective Items When trying to deal with defective items purchased online.
Identity theft is still a concern for consumers. Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants. However. where consumers are fooled into thinking they are dealing with a reputable retailer. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and the merchant. as are server and network outages.S. Also. one must still trust the merchant (and employees) not to use the credit card information subsequently for their own purchases. However. who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls and anti-virus software to protect their networks. although the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard is intended to minimize the impact of such breaches. A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s has prompted some U. hackers might break into a merchant's web site and steal names. Merchants also risk fraudulent purchases using stolen credit cards or fraudulent repudiation of the online purchase. consumers are at higher risk of fraud than face-to-face transactions. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens. After waiting a few days for your item to arrive in the first place. Phishing is another danger. the existence 69 . The purpose of these seals is to increase the confidence of online shoppers. addresses and credit card numbers. Quality seals can be placed on the Shop web page if it has undergone an independent assessment and meets all requirements of the company issuing the seal. Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and e-commerce service providers. However. merchants face less risk from physical theft by using a warehouse instead of a retail storefront.the customer is often responsible for any return shipping costs. and not to pass the information to others. when they have actually been manipulated into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party. • Fraud and security concerns Given the lack of ability to inspect merchandise before purchase. this adds even more time to the overall process.
Some shipping companies will offer refunds or compensation for the damage. Some services such as the Canadian based Wishabi attempts to include estimates of these additional cost. Different legal jurisdictions have different laws concerning consumer privacy. Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result from supplying contact information to an online merchant. many merchants promise to not use consumer information for these purposes. Brick-and-mortar stores also collect consumer information. Product delivery is also a main concern of online shopping. it may not be easy to see the total cost up front. though consumers 71 . it is a constant fight to maintain the lead. However. Additional fees such as shipping are often not be visible until the final step in the checkout process. or provide a mechanism to opt-out of such contacts. but this is up to their discretion. It is advisable to be aware of the most current technology and scams protect consumer identity and finances. and different levels of enforcement. but nevertheless.accessible to anyone who knows how to obtain it. Even though online retailers are making efforts to protect consumer information. criminals are constantly responding to these developments with new ways to manipulate the system. Most large online corporations are inventing new ways to make fraud more difficult. where the cost indicated at the final checkout screen may not include additional fees that must be paid upon delivery such as duties and brokerage. While it may be easy to compare the base price of an item online. In response. The problem is especially evident with cross-border purchases. the lack of general full cost disclosure remains a concern. Most companies offer shipping insurance in case the product is lost or damaged. • Lack of full cost disclosure The lack of full cost disclosure may also be problematic. • Privacy Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers. Many websites keep track of consumer shopping habits in order to suggest items and other websites to view. Some ask for a shopper's address and phone number at checkout.
If the customer does not have prior exposure to the item's handling qualities. • Hands-on inspection Typically. Hence. These can be helpful for prospective customers but can also be based on personal preferences. they will not have a full understanding of the item they are buying. a practice known as showrooming (using the store as a showroom for the online merchant). 72 . Many larger stores use the address information encoded on consumers' credit cards (often without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list. only simple pictures and/or descriptions of the item are all a customer can rely on when shopping on online stores. written and video reviews are readily available from consumers who have purchased similar items in the past. many consumers have begun going to real-world stores to view a product. However. Because of this. before purchasing online. For example.may refuse to provide it. This information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash. or alternatively. Brick-and-mortar merchants have responded with various countermeasures. reviews from other consumers may not reflect end-user satisfaction once the item has been received. products available exclusively from their store. Target has requested distributors give them equally low prices.
CONCLUSION 73 .
BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites • • • • www.org www. Diplomkaufmann (FH) Marco Erlenkamp 74 .org • Books • • • E retailing . Dennis.retailresearch.uk www.net www.theretailersadvantage.retailsurvey. Charles E.ezinearticles. Tino Fenech. Bill Merrilees Retailing Management (Hardcover) by Michael Levy (shelved 2 times as retailbusiness) Retail Analytics: The Secret Weapon (Hardcover) by Emmett Cox (shelved 1 time as retail-business) • Basics Marketing 01: Consumer Behaviour By: DR Hayden Noel Publisher: AVA Publishing • The role of perception in consumer behavior.com www.co.shoppingnavigator.
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