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Comm 130 Chapter 7 — Movies

The Beauty of Movies
  Comfortable

seats   Food and drink   Story-telling   Stunning photography   Great sound   Blockbusters
“The Passion of the Christ” — 2004

Orpheum Theatre in Wichita

Some Movie Genres
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Basic Hollywood Narrative
  Characters   Beginning,   Plot

Drama Comedy Musicals Romance Action-Adventure Mystery/Suspense Westerns

             

Gangster Horror Science Fiction/Fantasy Film Noir Documentaries Foreign Films Independent Films

middle and end

twists   Resolving conflict

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Hollywood’s Cultural Influence
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Three Crises That Shaped Hollywood
#1 The Hollywood 10: 1947 hearings on “communists” in Hollywood in Congress
Summoned 47 writers, directors, actors Ten who refused to answer questions went to jail Hundreds were blacklisted, including Dalton Trumbo (Johnny Got His Gun and Sparticus) and Ring Lardner Jr. (M*A*S*H)
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Studies show that movies romanticize alcoholism, perpetuate violence and glorify drug use Movies change attitudes on social issues, like nuclear power, morals, government

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Three Crises That Shaped Hollywood
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Three Crises That Shaped Hollywood
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#2 The Paramount decision Court ban on Vertical Integration   Vertical Integration is controlling product from inception to consumption In 1948, U.S. Supreme Court told Paramount and four other studios to divest their side businesses Movie scholars say divestiture had harmful effects and pulled Hollywood apart

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#3 Television challenges Hollywood Weekly movie attendance declines from 90 million in 1946 to about 20 million today By mid-1950s, TV is more popular than movies or radio

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Hollywood’s Response to Television
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Hollywood’s Response to Television
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#1 Technical innovation
Color movies in 1930s, common by 1950s Stereo sound Special effects Cinerama screens (wrap) CinemaScope (cheap, flat) 3-D Smell-o-vision Shock seats

#2 Content Innovation
High budget spectaculars   Cleopatra, The Sound of Music, Star Wars Social issues too risky for TV   Blackboard Jungle, Rebel Without a Cause More violence and sex
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Bonnie and Clyde, Deep Throat

Morality in Movies "
  Chicago

Morality in Movies "
  Motion

law banned objectionable pictures (1907)"   Hollywood scandals"
“Fatty”" Arbuckle case, 1921"   Desmond Taylor" murder, 1922"
  Roscoe

Fatty Arbuckle

Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA)"
  Self-regulatory"   Will

Hays and the “Hays Office,” 1922"   Oversaw movie content"

Will Hays

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MPPDA 1930
 Production Code "
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Movie Ratings "
  MPAA ratings, 1966"   Designed to prevent censorship"
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MOVIES…! May not lower the moral standard of viewers" Must show proper standards of life" Respect for law. No sympathy for violators" Murder should not inspire imitation" No lustful kissing or lustful embraces" No suggestion of obscenity" Dancing costumes should not permit exposure" Film displays seal of approval"

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G - All ages" PG - Parental guidance suggested (originally called M)" PG 13 - Parents strongly cautioned to give guidance to children under 13 (added later)" R - Restricted; those under 17 must be accompanied by parent or guardian" NC-17 - No one under 17 admitted (originally X)"

Movie History
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Movie History
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1889 - Celluloid film developed   George Eastman buys patents from minister Hannibal Goodwin 1889 - Movie sound developed   Thomas Edison’s lab 1894 - Kinetoscope parlors   Thomas Edison, coin machines 1895 - Auguste & Louis Lumière   Show slides in Paris 1896 - Georges Méliès   Early animated sci-fi/fantasy movies
http://course1.winona.edu/pjohnson/h140/early%20film.htm

Edison invented the Vitascope projector to compete with the Lumière brothers

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Making still pictures move "
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Historic Films
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Kinetoscope"
Thomas Edison, 1888"   William K.L. Dickson"
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Eadweard Muybridge
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Motion photos to settle bet The Kiss Trapeze Disrobing Act The Life of an American Fireman

Thomas Edison
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Perforated film and sprockets, to minimize jumps "  

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Peepshow viewer" April 14, 1894, in New York City"

Edwin Porter
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First kinetoscope parlor"
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Historic Films
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Historic Films
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1902 – America’s first narrative film   Edwin S. Porter   “The Life of an American Fireman”   “The Great Train Robbery”   Editing, closeups, story-telling

1915 - “Birth of a Nation”
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Civil War epic, D.W. Griffith Classic study of racism

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Movies Become Big Business "
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Movies Become Big Business "
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Studio system"
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Block booking"
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Topical Press Agency/Getty Images"

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Florence Lawrence, uncredited “Biograph Girl,” first movie star in 1909" Salaried stars and production staff under exclusive contract"
Florence Lawrence

Theaters signing up to show dozens of films as a “package”" Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith" Independent studio run by the stars themselves"

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United Artists, 1919"
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Studios move to Hollywood, California"

Pickford, Griffith, Chaplin and Fairbanks!

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Smartest Star
Early 1920s — Mary Pickford   Talented actress   Bucked the studio system and took charge   First woman to earn $1 million a year
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Movie History
1920s to 1960s – Newsreels 1922 - Fox used sound in Movietone newsreels
http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=EhFfNieThOk

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Historic Films
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The Big Five "
  1930s

1927 — Warner Brothers distributed first talkie, The Jazz Singer, which had sound in two segments. Talkies almost extinct by 1933.

movie moguls"
Brothers"

  Warner

  Metro-Goldwin-Mayer"   Paramount"   RKO"   20th

Century Fox"

Disney Begins "
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The Golden Age of Movies "
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Steamboat Willie, 1928
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Gone With The Wind, 1939
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First animated sound cartoon
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Blockbuster panorama tale of the Civil War South, 4 hours with intermission Fantasy story about Dorothy travelling to Oz, really a political parody of government

The Wizard of Oz, 1939
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Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1937
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Citizen Kane, 1941
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First full-length animated feature Cost $2.25 million, as much as an MGM musical

Actor, director Orson Welles, often voted greatest film ever (Also did War of the Worlds on radio)

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Movie History
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Movie Business"
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Major studios!
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1946 - U.S. box office peaked
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90 million visits a week U.S. pop 141 million

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1950s to 1960s - Drive-in theatres peak at 4,400 theatres
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© PETER MORGAN/Reuters/Corbis"

Disney, Viacom/Paramount, Sony Pictures Entertainment, etc."   About 20 movies a year each" First independent studio since United Artists in 1919" Parts of Dreamworks since have sold to major studios" Separate creators, investors, distributors and exhibitors"

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Dreamworks, 1994!
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Now there are 368 or fewer

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1970s - Multi-plex theatre complexes in suburbs 2011 - 1.28 billion movie tickets sold, with box office revenues at $10.2 billion

Geffen, Katzenberg and Spielberg of Dreamworks, now part of Viacom!

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Most fragmented industry!
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Making Money "
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Making Money "
Copyright © Columbia Pictures/courtesy Everett Co./Everett Collection"

$107 million avg. film cost, but varies widely" 2 of 10 make money" Ancillary rights"
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“The Social Network,” which cost $50 million to produce, made $60 million in its first two weeks of release in late 2010.!

Illustration 7.1!

Source: [London] TimesOnline, Money Central, March 5, 2010.!

Videos and DVDs" Network and Pay TV" Airline, base, campus rights" Soundtrack albums" Books, etc."

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Financing Movies
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Financing Movies
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Box office receipts
Split 50-50 between movie house & distributor   Concessions are major moneymakers (60 percent markup)
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Major studios finance movies with profits from earlier movies But most movies are made by independent producers, or big investor groups, or corporations — or a combination of them

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Financing Movies
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Melding of Movies & TV
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Almost all rely on music, toy and other merchandising tie-ins to make a profit

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Movies earn revenue from aftermarkets: HBO, Cinemax, Showtime, video release, etc. Three-quarters of all movies are made for TV Foreign release of U.S. movies is extremely profitable

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Working in the Movies "
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Copyright © Walt Disney Co./Courtesy Everett Collection"

Alternative Voices
  Digital

Screenwriters"
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Independent writers" Funding and logistics"

video:

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Producers"
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  Cheaper

Actors" Production"
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The movie creators" Publicity and advertising" Accounting, etc."

Marketing"
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and more accessible than standard film equipment   Films can be made for much less money   Same format as DVDs and Internet video, so films can be distributed online easily

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Film Career Link "

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Administration"
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Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age
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Digital Technology & Movies "
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Copyright © Paramount/Courtesy Everett Collection

Movie industry worked to embrace digital downloads Netflix, Amazon.com, Hulu, and YouTube all offer digital movie rentals Internet also an essential tool for movie marketing

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Production"   Smaller cameras"   Computer effects"   Digitized color" Distribution"   Satellite distribution"   Digital projectors"   Internet distribution?" Future of Exhibition"   Alternative tech experiences"   Motion simulation (“realride”)"   “Real D” (one for each eye)"

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