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REVIEW FOR FIRST EXAM ANTH 103: Introduction to Archaeology STUDY QUESTIONS AND TOPICS What is anthropology?

- The study of humans What are the subfields of anthropology? - Cultural, physical/biological, linguistic, archaeology, and applied anthropology Why do we study anthropology? - To learn about past and understanding how human behaviors changed over time. What is archaeology? - Study of material remains of past human cultures What are the methods of survey and excavation? - [SURVEY]: how archaeologists find archaeological sites o Reconnaissance: walking around to look for artifacts  Look for things that do not belong (i.e. vegetation, natural freshwater water, locked trees) o Maps: identifying landmarks, bodies of water, slopes, elevations  Finding desirable places people may have lived (i.e. high lands/waterfront) o Aerial Photography: better picture of what’s in the landscape  Looking at the landscape at afar (i.e. from a plane or satellite) o Remote Sensing: ground-penetrating radar, resistivity  Sensors can detect and measure radiation of land o Shovel Test: After noninvasive survey methods shovel & screen  Hypothetical grid: 2 feet down STP - [EXCAVATION]: systematic removal of layers of the soil; dig in layers based on color and textures of the soil. o Natural: by color, texture, materials, etc. o Arbitrary: by inches, specific measurements, etc. o Vertical: digging down, shovel pit tests, test trenches o Horizontal: open area excavation understanding relationships - [STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS]: analysis of layering of soil o Cross-sectional: looking at soil in the trench  Law of superposition: low layers older than top layers  Law of association: objects in same later were buried at the same time Know the difference between artifacts, ecofacts, features, and sites. - Artifacts: any object that is made, modified, or used by humans (pottery, tools, etc.) - Ecofact: natural material that is found on site (animal bones, shells, seeds, etc.) - Features: immovable product of human activity ( shell midden, statue, etc.) - Sites: largest unit of analysis; anywhere human activities have taken place How do archaeologists interpret archaeological data? - Analogy: reasoning from example, linking the past with present o Ethnographic analogy: do fieldwork & write/record observations o Ethnoarchaeology: live among people to get info to compare with data  (Lewis Binford – corn burning)

Ethiopia by Donald Johanson  The First Family: 13 individuals that all died at the same time/place  Laetoli Footprints—used Potassium Argon dating technique 2. Tool Use (Homo habilis)  Higher/rounder skull.Absolute Dating: depend on region. and fossil remains  Body size similar to Neanderthals. but small brain. sequence dating. available materials. but similar to modern humans from neck down  Well adapted for cold weather. Lake Turkana  Very tall. correlation of animal bones o Stratigraphy (Law of Superposition / Law of Association) . sexual dimorphisms.Relative Dating: stratigraphy. larger cranium  Oldawon Lithic Industry found in Oldavai Gorge. Indonesia) – Homo eructus found by Eugene Dubois  Zhoukoudian (China) – tools from Homo eructus 4. very small  Lucy: found in Hadar. 11 years old. Tanzania  Lewis and Mary Leakey  First Stone tools  Hammerstone + Core = Flake 3. abandoned tree-dwelling lifestyle  Koobi Fora. Increased Brain Size (Homo heidelbergensis)  Found thought Europe (Sierra de Atapuerca. important in dating early hominin sites o Dendrochronology: annual growth rings of trees to build long chronologies. 5”4’  Acheulean Industry: Hand Ave (earliest example of tool-making tradition)  First hominids to migrate out of Africa (growing population)  Java man (Trinil.o Experimental archaeology: using material culture in the present to recreate patterns that can observed in archaeological record  Francois Bordes (flint-knapping) Know the difference between relative and absolute dating. build for cold climates . sculpted for hunting & gathering  Turkana Boy: found in African. Spain – caves)  Gran Dolina: very stratified cave rich in animal. human. Ground Dwelling Bipedalism (Homo eructus)  Small brain. useful in environmental studies o Tephrochronology: tephra-particular matter ejected from a volcano. Bipedalism (Australopithecus afarensis)  Emphasizes travel and dispersal of various species  Small brain with bipedal stature. tephra horizon acts as time marker o Thermoluminesence: measures stored energy from mineral samples by using heat to release the energy in the form of light (light proportional to age of sample) What makes us human? What are the important clues to “humanness” in the fossil/archaeological record? Which hominin demonstrates each of these clues? 1. . time period. budget o Radiocarbon dating: depends on presence of bones by measuring the decay of carbon in organic artifacts o Potassium-Argon dating: breakdown of potassium-40 isotope in ingenious rocks.

Hunting & Scavenging animals from landscape. short/robust/larger brains. microliths. and adaptive Pleistocene climatic fluctuations caused widespread glaciers. found at the same site. Homo sapiens evolved and survived . pigment processing. & Homo sapiens . crude looking tools Simade los Huesos. different chest shape 5. beads. Homo habilis . fishing. images    Responses to environmental changes. intentional.  30 individuals about same age. then behavior follows  Blades.Pliocene: Australopithecus afarensis. Neanderthals. shellfishing.Pleistocene: Homo erectus. which resulted in the extinction of various species. Atapuerca – most evidence of brain expansion. Complex Social Behavior (Homo sapiens)  Gradual Change: anatomy and behavior change occur simultaneously  Creative Revolution: anatomy first.

and they migrated out into Europe. Asia. shellfishing. Congo – barbed point spears. microlithics. Both existed at the same time. marine mammals o Pinnacle Point. Where did the first fully modern humans come from. pigments. harpoons. stone blades o Katanda. What was the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans? What happened to the Neanderthals? . and images. and eventually to the Americas (or multi-regionalism) What is the evidence for complex behavior in modern humans? .Sites of complex behavior of modern humans in Africa: o Klasies River. beads.R.First fully modern human came from Africa.What is the significance of fire for human survival? .Unknown.Fire made it possible to eat cooked meats and was used for defense purposes. cut up shells/bones. miniature blades . . South Africa – curved silvers of stone. D. South Africa – breccias. but there is no evidence as to what their interactions were.Advanced. processing. and where did they go? . complex artifacts. blades.