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Second Quantization Second Quantization vs Classical Quantum Description One Mode Independent Excitations Extreme limit for fermions Extreme limit for bosons Waves Waves= Special Bosons photons in cavity waves as independent excitations Conserved particles conserved fermions in a box conserved bosons in a box bose transition dynamics of fermions at low temperatures Landau’s description dynamics of bosons

Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff

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The latter approach uses the grand canonical ensemble and it is the one we shall follow for this chapter. To discuss independent excitations in degenerate quantum theory. In this kind of description. we use as our weight function exp[-β(H-µN)] and we are allowing the number of particles to vary. To describe such a system. Thus we start with a description of possible modes of the system and talk about their occupation. So instead of using exp(-βH).5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 2 . we use a formulation in which we allow the number of excitations to vary. or even in using an ordinary wave function in a quantum description. Particle 7 is sitting right in front of me. We can only specify how many particles are doing this or that. A degenerate quantum system is one composed of identical particles sufﬁciently squeezed so that their wave functions overlap. The former approach is called using the canonical ensemble. we cannot talk about the behavior of individual particles. we would say that there are seven particles in mode 3 and none in mode 2. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. etc. Hence we are varying the number of particles. we base everything on the particle. and is what we have done up to now. particle 23 is in the upper left hand corner.Second Quantized versus Classical Description In a classical description. and keeping the number of particles ﬁxed.

p’s. but not always. of the form p=ħ k In the quantum mechanics of non-interacting particles. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. ky. This gives periodic wave functions.1 This result is interpreted by saying that the quantum sum over m goes into a sum over phase space in discrete pieces of size h3.r). kz) must be of the form (2 π/L)m = (2 π/L) (mx. labelled by the m’s. many terms contribute from such a sum so that it can be written as an integral over wave vectors or momenta in the form L → 2π 3 m L dk = 2π¯ h 3 dp vi.Quantum Description To describe a degenerate quantum situation.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 3 . We imagine placing everything in a box of side L. mz) where the m’s are integers. a complete set of wave functions. One neat formulation has periodic boundary conditions. Corresponding to these k’s are momenta. That is to say. Of course. there is no h3 in any sensible formulation of classical mechanics. each mode is dynamically and statistically independent of the others. my. So something funny will have to be done to patch together classical mechanics and quantum theory. The different modes of excitation are described by wave functions which are of the form (1/L)3/2 exp(ik. We have a discrete inﬁnity of modes. the Hamiltonian is a sum of terms each referring to a different mode. A sum over the independent modes in quantum theory can be written as m Usually. and what is more important. The wave number k=(kx. we ﬁrst specify the modes.

. For fermions the excitation or mode can either be empty or occupied. For the fermion. 1. nj .5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 4 . the normalizing factor is ξ= 1 +exp[-β(ε-µ)] The probability for ﬁnding the state full is <n> = 1/ {1 +exp[β(ε-µ)]} The probability for ﬁnding the state empty is 1-<n> = 1/ {1 +exp[-β(ε-µ)]} vi. For bosons this n can be any non-negative integer 0. . In either the bose or the fermi cases.2b vi. the probabilities are given by ρ(n)=(1/ξ) exp[-β(ε-µ)n]. 2. the only difference between bosons and fermions is the possible values of the excitation number of a given type.In the grand canonical formulation.2a Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1.. corresponding to n=0 or 1. One mode We next look to a single mode of excitation.

in equilibrium.μ)] This picture gives plots of <n> versus ε/μ for various values of 1/(β μ). while the smaller ones are closer to the classical limit. The large numbers indicate highly degenerate situations. all modes have a very low probability of being occupied and <n>≈ exp[-β(ε. The extreme classical limit is the one with large values of -β μ. In that limit the mode is always completely full (empty) depending on whether (ε-μ) is negative (positive).5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 5 . In that limit.Extreme Limits for fermions The extreme quantum limit is the one with large values of β μ=μ/(kT). Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1.

3 An extreme quantum limit is the one with very small positive values of β (ε-µ). The normalizing factor is ξ= 1 +exp[-β(ε-µ)] + +exp[-2β(ε-µ)]+ +exp[-3β(ε-µ)] +. the mode can have lots and lots of quanta in it. In that limit. Once more <n>≈ exp[-β(ε. You can even have macroscopic occupation of a single mode. The average occupation is <n> = 1/ {exp[β(ε-µ)]-1} vi. This is also called Bose-Einstein condensation after the discoverers of this effect.. in which a ﬁnite fraction of the entire number of particles is in a single mode.. ξ=1/{1 -exp[-β(ε-µ)]} Note that ε-µ must be positive. If they are not conserved. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. Bosons need not be conserved. Satyendra Nath Bose The extreme classical limit is once more a very large value of -β μ and a small average occupation of the state.For the boson the equilibrium probability distribution for occupation of the single mode is ρ(n)=(1/ξ) exp[-β(ε-µ)n]. All integer values of n between zero and inﬁnity are permitted.μ)] in this limit.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff . the equilibrium situation has μ=0.

These quanta have the property that they are not conserved.Independent Excitations: waves One example of a boson excitation is provided by a set of waves. atoms or molecules. the quanta are called respectively photons and phonons. but it is convenient to use a statistical theory in which we allow the total number of particles to vary. When the basic objects under consideration are conserved quantities. the Hamiltonian for the system is a sum over terms corresponding to the different excitations in the system H= j j nj vi. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. In the simplest situation. is called the grand partition function. the Hamiltonian is of exactly the same form.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 7 . e. In these two cases. and they don’t interact. The density of particles increases as µ increases. and use a probability function of the form ρ{n}=(1/Ξ) exp(-β[H{n}-μN{n}]) N = j where N is the total particle number nj Here µ is called the chemical potential. There are two major examples: light waves and sound waves.4 and the statistical mechanics is given by the usual formula ρ{n}=(1/Ξ) exp(-βH{n}) where the normalizer. Here.g. Ξ. εj is the energy of a single excitation of type j and nj is the number of excitations of that type.

The average energy in the mode is <n>ε = ε/ {exp[β ε]-1}= ħω/ {exp[β ħω]-1} Classical limit = high temperature <n>ε=1/ β = kT Therefore classical physics gives kT per mode. In this way. Therefore the classical result of kT per mode is simply wrong. a cavity has inﬁnite energy?!? In quantum theory high frequency modes are cut off because they must have small average occupations numbers. Therefore.Waves=Special bosons ε=ħω. so that 1 ___________ ξ= 1 -exp[-β ε] Note that ε must be positive or zero. So there is no inﬁnity. Planck helped us get the right answer by introducing photons and starting off the talk about occupation numbers! Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. <n>.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 8 . A cavity has an inﬁnite number of electromagnetic modes. the probability distribution for the single mode is ρ(n)=(1/ξ) exp[-β ε n] The normalizing factor is ξ= 1 +exp[-β ε] + +exp[-2β ε]+ +exp[-3β ε] +. so in the classical limit the energy of a photon goes to zero...

kz)=2π(mx.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 9 . < H >= 2(kT ) 4 L 2π¯ ck h 3 0 ∞ 1 dq 4πq exp(q) − 1 3 This calculation provides a start for the age of quantum physics.σ nm.σ ¯ ck(m) h We can then ﬁnd the average energy in the form 1 < H >= 2 nm.ky.photons in Cubic Cavity k=(kx.σ ¯ ck(m) h exp(β¯ ck(m)) − 1 h m If the box is big enough. L < H >= 2 2π 3 1 d k ¯ ck h exp(β¯ ck) − 1 h 3 The integration variable can then be made dimensionless L 2 < H >= β 2πβ¯ ck h 3 1 d qq exp(q) − 1 3 and the integral rewritten in a form which converges nicely at zero and inﬁnity. the sum over m can be converted into an integral over k. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1.mz)/L where the m’s are integers describing the cavity’s modes Here ω=ck (There are two modes for each frequency) H= m.my.

the electrons are mostly frozen into their momentum states and cannot do much For some materials. M. For example they move with a velocity v=∇pεp. doi:arXiv:cond-mat/9912229v1. For these the Fermi sea forms a ball with radius pF. The electrons near the Fermi energy are said to reading when I was be close to the top of the Fermi sea. sea. Series A 112: 661-77. Enrico (1926). For lesser energies. Rend. Dirac. JSTOR: 94692 Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. Calculate the T=0 energy density. within that a grad student. "Sulla quantizzazione del gas perfetto monoatomico" (in Italian). εp ≈ p2/(2m). You may use the free particle energy-momentum relation. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Lincei 3: 145-9. Paul A. Harder: Calculate the entropy density as a function of T at low T.Conserved Fermions in Box In a metal electrons act as independent quasiparticles with energy an momentum relation energy = εp For modes with energy near the value of the chemical potential. . translated as On the Quantization of the Monoatomic Ideal Gas. "On the Theory of Quantum Mechanics". 1999-12-14. these modes behave very much like non-interacting particles with a changed energy-momentum relation. called in this context beautiful quantum mechanics book the Fermi energy. Fermi. and pressure of these electrons in terms of pF. particle density. play an important role in moving heat and particles which I enjoyed through the system.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 10 . Only the electrons Paul Dirac has a with energies close to the chemical potential. like Aluminum. (1926).

However. The basic theory of how this ocurs is due to Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogolyubov. that is bosonic helium. undergoes a phase transition into a superﬂuid state in which it can move without viscosity.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 11 . Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. This is believed to arise because a ﬁnite fraction of the entire number of atoms falls into a single quantum mode. The Einstein-Bose theory of a phase transition in a non-interaction Bose liquid is a pale reﬂection of the real superﬂuid transition. Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogolyubov I shall outline the three dimensional theory.Conserved Bosons in Box At low temperatures ﬂuid Helium4. it is quite interesting both in its own right and also because the recent development of low temperature-low density Bose atomic or molecular gases may make it possible to observe this weakinteraction-effect. described by a single wave function. The theory in two dimensions is more complex.

For a sufﬁciently large box.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 12 . The remaining terms contribute to an integral which remains bounded as µ goes to zero. it can only € do so by having the ﬁrst term on the right become large enough so that a ﬁnite proportion of the entire number of particles in the system will fall into the lowest mode. The term in which m=0 can be € arbitrarily large because µ can be arbitrarily small.Bose Transition n=number of particles per unit volume = 1 1 3 ∑ L m 1+ exp{β[ε(m) − µ]} Here the sum is over a vector of integers of length three. M being the mass of the particle. which we believe it can. This is believed to be the basic source of superﬂuidity. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. If this € system is to maintain a non-zero density as T goes to zero. there are two qualitatively different contributions to the sum. The result is 1 n= 3 −L βµ + ∫ dp h3 1 p2 1+ exp[β − βµ] 2M € The integration has a result that goes to zero as T3 as the temperature goes to zero. and the energy is ε(m)=m2 ħ2 /(2ML2).

13.r. Landau proposed a “Boltzmann equation” for degenerate fermions of the form below.r.(∇r ε) .q ➝ p´. ∇r f(p.r.r. As the occupations changed the free energy would change by dpdr (p. f(p. r.t) . r.t) = collision term The collision term will be the same as in the classical Boltzmann equation with one important difference: Since fermions cannot enter an occupied state. t) δf (p.Dynamics of fermions at low temperature Landau described fermions at low temperature by saying that they had a free energy which depended upon. Thus.t)) .(∇r ε(p. using the usual Poisson bracket dynamics the distribution function would obey.f(p´) f(q´) (1-f(p)) (1-f(p)) ] Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1.p´-q´) δ(ε(p)+ ε(q) . t) δF = 3 h Then.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 13 . ∇r .t) the occupations of the fermion modes with momentum in the neighborhood of p and position in the neighborhood of r at time t. ∇p f(p. as in equation v.r. ∇p] f(p) = - ∫∫∫ dq dp´ dq´ δ(p+q .r. with the new terms in red [∂t + (∇pε) .q´ ) [f(p) f(q)(1-f(p´)) (1-f(q´)) .ε(p´)-ε(q´)) Q( p.t)) .t) + (∇p ε(p. ∂t f(p. the probabilities of entering a ﬁnal state will be multiplied by a factor of (1-f).

e. This approach gives us a piece of a theory of He3.v. exp{-β[ε(p)-μ-p. An important difference is that this equation gives us a particularly low scattering rate at low temperatures. For example this equation also has an H theorem with H being an integral of f ln f+(1-f) ln(1-f). i.f(p´) f(q´) (1-f(p)) (1-f(p)) ] We can do just about everything with this equation that Boltzmann did with his more classical result.(∇r ε) . ∇p] f(p) = - Q( p.) as we knew it should be.q´ ) [f(p) f(q)(1-f(p´)) (1-f(q´)) .e. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. To complete the theory one should also consider the emission and absorption of phonons.v.ε(p´)-ε(q´)) 14 . As a result. the scattering rate ends up being proportional to T2 at low temperatures.v2/(2m)]}.Landau’s equation for low temperature fermion systems: [∂t + (∇pε) . Probably the most important result is that there is a local equilibrium solution of the right form. i. the fermion form of helium.v2/(2m)]}.q ➝ p´.p´-q´) δ(ε(p)+ ε(q) . this gives us f(p)=1/ (1 + exp{β[ε(p)-μ-p. Only modes with energies within kT of the fermi surface can participate in the scattering.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff ∫∫∫ dq dp´ dq´ δ(p+q . ∇r . with f/(1-f) equal to a linear combination of exponentials of conserved quantities. sound wave excitations.

9.3.ε(p´)-ε(q´)) Q( p.(∇r ε) . Speciﬁcally. we must have f/(1+f) be. In the scattering events there are. who ﬁrst saw the need for the “1” in the 1+f term. as in the fermion case.p´-q´) δ(ε(p)+ ε(q) . The f in the 1+f term was known in the 19th century in terms of the simulated emission of light. This extra piece was introduced to make the bose dynamical equation have the right local equilibrium behavior. which is a kind of boson. The logic used by Einstein includes the fact that for local equilibrium via equation vi. ∇p] f(p) = - Dynamics of bosons ∫∫∫ dq dp´ dq´ δ(p+q . for bosons. more scattering when the ﬁnal single particle states are occupied than when they are empty. Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. and particularly Einstein. the equation would look like [∂t + (∇pε) . A low temperature conserved boson system cpuld be expected to obey the same sort of equation.).q ➝ p´.Some part of the story of bosons is much the same. an exponential in conserved quantities and this result agrees with the known statistical mechanical result of equation vi. and also the emission and absorption of phonons were not too signiﬁcant.q´ ) [f(p) f(q)(1+ f(p´)) (1+ f(q´)) . The 20th Century brought Planck. under circumstances in which the bosons were conserved.f(p´) f(q´) (1+f(p)) (1+f(p)) ] vi.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 15 . One says that fermions are unfriendly but bosons are gregarious (or at least attractive to their own tribe.9 Once again the new feature is shown in red. ∇r .

18 121 (1917). “Rereading Einstein on Radiation”. A Einstein. D. ter Haar.5 9/11/09 Leo Kadanoff 16 . New York. Z. Pergamon Press. p. English translation. The Old Quantum Theory.References Daniel Kleppner. (February 2005). Perimeter Institute statistical physics Lecture Notes part 6: Bosons and fermions Version 1. Physics Today. 167 (1967).. Phys.

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