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Math 404a/576a, Fall 2007 General Topology Synopsis: This course on general topology covers the following: 1.

Topological spaces: basic denitions, operations on subsets, neighbourhoods, bases 2. Constructions for top. spaces: Subspaces, quotient spaces, product spaces 3. Properties of top. spaces: Connectedness, compactness, countability, separation axioms 4. Function spaces Lecture 1: Topological Spaces - Basic Denitions (Refer to Munkres 12,13) Motivation: The idea of a topological space is intended to capture intuitions about properties of space which do not depend on distance, angles, etc. The key idea is an open set, which can be thought of as a neighborhood saying which points are near each other. Denition 1 A topological space is a set X together with a topology T , a collection of subsets of X such that: 1. T includes the empty set and X itself 2. If O1 , . . . , On are in T , so is the intersection n Oi i=1 3. For any subset S T , so also the union S T The sets included in T are called the open sets of the topology. The concept of an open set is a generalization of the concept of an open interval (or union of open intervals) in the real line. That is, they tell us which points should be thought of as near each other in some sense. Later, we will see that the open intervals actually give a topology. For now, lets look at some more elementary examples.

Example 1 See handout A. The set X is as given, and the set T is the given set of subsets of X. Exercise 1 Check that this T is a topology on X. There are two kinds of topology which can be dened on any set X. The discrete topology is the topology where T = P(X), the power set of X. The indiscrete topology on X is the topology where T = {, X}. Exercise 2 : Check that the discrete and indiscrete topologies on any set X satisfy the axioms 1-3. It should be clear that one can dene many dierent topologies on a given set X. (For example: look at the topology described on handout A. Exchanging the identities of any pair of elements will give another topology.) Since any topology on X is just some subset of P(X), we can ask whether one topology is a subset of another: T1 T2 P(X) Denition 2 If this happens, we say that T1 is (strictly) coarser than T2 , which is ner than T1 . If either T1 T2 or T2 T1 , we say T1 and T2 are comparable. The image here is that a topology with fewer open sets is more lumpy (think of a ne or coarse sieve). The coarsest topology on any set X is the indiscrete topology. You cant pick out any point in an open set in this topology without getting every other point along with it. So the whole set is one big lump. On the other hand, the discrete topology is the nest possible topology: you can pick out any element of X all by itself in its own open set. We will come back to these properties when we discuss the separation axioms. Notice that there could be two dierent topologies on X which are not comparable. (For example: take the topology on handout A, and then the one obtained by exchanging the elements and +. Convince yourself these are not comparable.) One says there is only a partial order on topologies.

Lecture 2: Topological Spaces -Denitions and Examples (Refer to Munkres 12,13) Recall: Last time we dened a topological space as a set X with a topology - which is a collection of subsets of X satisfying some axioms. We also said what it meant for one topology to be coarser or ner than another. All of these concepts are related to that of a partial order. Denition 3 Given a set S, a partial order relation on S is a relation satisfying: 1. s 2. s 3. If r If either s s for all s S (reexivity) t and t s and s t or t s only when s = t (antisymmetry) t then r t (transitivity)

s, then we say s and t are comparable.

Given any set X, there is a partial relation on S = P(X), the set of all subsets of X, given by dening s t if and only if s t (the containment relation). This relation is inherited by any subset of P(X). In particular, a topology on the set X is a subset of P(X), so the containment relation makes the collection of open sets of the topology into a partial order. There is also a partial order on topologies themselves - inherited from the partial order on P(P(X)), since each topology is a subset of P(X)! The relation that says topology T1 is ner than topology T2 means that T2 is contained in T1 . A topology is a special kind of partial order - not any subset of P(X) will do, since the axioms of a topology imply that it has some special properties: 1. There is a maximal and a minimal element (X and ). 2. Given any nite collection of elements (i.e. open sets), there is a unique greatest lower bound - a largest element which is less than (contained in) all of them. (Namely, the intersection).

3. Given any collection of elements, there is a unique least upper bound - a smallest element which is greater than (contains) all of them. (Namely, the union). Notice again that the denition of a topology is not symmetric! We only expect to nd nite intersections, but we can hope for innite unions. In a later exercise, youll investigate properties like these for the partial order of all topologies on X. Why is this strangely asymmetric denition the interesting one? Well see the motivation once we have a better way to describe some more familiar examples. Motivation: A topological space usually has too many open sets to list, or even conveniently describe, since any union of open sets is open. Instead, one often gives a simpler collection of open sets, so that all others can be found from these. Denition 4 A basis for a topology on X is a collection B P(X) of subsets of X, with: 1. Every x X is in some B B 2. For any x B1 B2 , there is some B3 with x B3 B1 B2 (all Bi B) Given a basis B, the topology generated by B consists of all sets O X with the property that x O implies there is a B B with x B O. The idea is that a basis for a topology provides enough open sets so that every other open set in the topology is given as a union of sets in the basis. Example 2 See handout A. The given B is a basis for the topology T . A basis for the discrete topology on any set X is the collection of all one-element subsets of X. A basis for the indiscrete topology on X contains just X itself. Exercise 3 Check these claims. A more familiar example is the usual topology on the line: 4

Example 3 Let X = be the real line, and B be the collection of all open intervals, (a, b) for a, b .

This is the basis for a topology on

, since:

1. Every real number x is in some interval in (x 1, x + 1).

- for instance, the interval

2. If x I1 I2 where I1 = (a1 , b1 ) and I2 = (a2 , b2 ), then we must have that a2 < b1 (by transitivity). So there is a well-dened interval I = (a, b), where a = max(a1 , a2 ) and b = min(b1 , b2 ). It is easy to check that x I and that I I1 I2 . The topology this generates is the usual one on , as we will see later. We will also see that this is a special example of the order topology on a totally ordered set. A similar example deals with the Euclidean plane: Example 4 Let X be the plane 2 , and B be the set {D((a, b), r)|x, y , r + } where D((a, b), r) = {(x, y)|(x a)2 + (y b)2 < r 2 }. Then B is the basis for a topology on X.

Exercise 4 Check this. Also: check that the corresponding denition works for any n .

We will see later that this last example is also special case - in this case, of the metric topology on a metric space. Remark: In this last example, the topology generated by B consists of all sets O 2 such that, for any x O implies there is an open disc of some radius, containing x, and contained in O. This agrees with the usual denition of an open set. The basic idea is that the description of any open set has some leeway in it - if a point is in that set, then suciently close points are also in the set. In the case where there is a metric to dene close, this is exactly right. If there is not, a basis for a topology gives the same information.

These standard examples also help to answer our earlier question - why is the denition of a topology asymmetric? 5

Claim: Consider 2 with the topology generated by open discs. There is a countable collection of open sets in 2 whose intersection is not an open set. Proof: Take any point (x, y) 2 . Then take the collection of sets

On = D((x, y),

1 ) 2n

the disc of radius 21 centred at (x, y). n Then the intersection of all these discs is n On = {(x , y )

|(x x)

+ (y y)2 <

1 n} 22n

which is just the set containing the point (x, y) itself (since the distance between distinct points is positive. This is not an open set. So in this motivating example of a topology, innite intersections of open sets need not be open. On the other hand, it is easy to see that unions of innite collections C of open sets are open, since each point x in the union is in some open set O C, and hence so is some open disc around x - which is therefore in the union as well. Now lets establish technically what weve justied intuitively: Theorem 1 Given a basis B for a topology on X, the collection T of all sets O with the property that x O implies x B O is indeed a topology. Proof: We check the three conditions for a collection of open sets to be a topology. 1. The sets X and should be in the collection. Since there is no x , there is nothing to prove. Since any x X is in some B B by the rst property of a basis, X T . 2. The collection T should be closed under nite intersections. It suces to show this for pairwise intersection, since O1 On = (O1 On1 ) On , so pairwise intersection gives all nite intersections by induction. So suppose O1 and O2 are in T . Then take any x O1 O2 . Since x is in each Oi , we will have, by denition, some basis elements Bi 6

with x Bi Oi . But then x B1 B2 , and by the second dening property of a basis, there will be some element B3 B with x B3 B1 B2 O1 O2 Since this can be done for any such x, O1 O2 is in T . 3. The collection T should be closed under arbitrary unions. This is clear, since if x I {O }, for some collection of O T , then there is some I for which x O . But then, there is a B B with x B O , and this B is also a subset of I {O }. Since this works for any such x, the union is in T also.

Notice here that the two conditions for a basis are exactly the minimum we need to dene open sets in a way analogous to what we do in the usual topology on n . However, we can dene a topology with even less stringent requirements:

Denition 5 A subbasis S for a topology on X is any collection of subsets of X whose union is all of X. The topology T generated by a subbasis is the collection of all unions of nite intersections of elements of S. Here we give up the conditions we need for a basis, at the expense of requiring a more complicated denition of the topology generated by the starting collection of open sets. A proof that this does indeed dene a topology can be found in Munkres p82 (using Lemma 13.1 on p80). In question 5 of the next exercise, you will prove that for both a subbasis and a basis, there is a more elegant - but less explicit - way to describe the topology it generates. In particular, it is the minimal topology containing the original collection of open sets, in the partial order we discussed earlier. Exercise 5 Do exercises 1-6 in Munkres, p83 (Note: For exercise 6 you will need to read the denitions on p81-82)

Lecture 3: Order and Metric Topologies (Refer to Munkres 14,15) Recall : Last time we talked about how to dene a topology using a basis, which is a collection of open sets. A collection of subsets of X is a basis for a topology on X if it satises some properties. Each property requires there to be a basis element around a chosen point x. Then a topology can be dened where an open set O is one which contains a basis element around each point in O. In other words, the open sets in the topology are all unions of basis elements. In an exercise, you showed (eectively) that this is the smallest topology containing the basis. We mentioned that the usual topology on n is generated by a basis consisting of all open balls with any centre and any radius. In the special case n = 1, these are just all open intervals. There is something special about this case, however: intervals can be dened without using the notion of distance in ! They can also be dened using a property of that other n do not naturally have.

Denition 6 A total order is a partial order which is complete. That is, it is a set S with a reexive, asymmetric, transitive relation satisfying the property that any two elements are comparable. That is, for all a, b S, either a b or b a. (Notice that since the relation is antisymmetric, both may be true, but only if a = b.) Example 5 The integers , real numbers , rational numbers tional numbers are all totally ordered sets.

, and irra-

Example 6 The alphabet, seen as a set A = {a, b, c, . . . , x, y, z} with the usual alphabetical order is a totally ordered set. So is the set An of all possible n-letter words, arranged in alphabetical order. This is the etymological origin of the term lexicographic order - i.e. spelling order, from the Greek (word), and (writing).

Denition 7 If S is a totally ordered set (by the relation ), then the lexicographic order on S n is the relation dened by: (s1 , . . . , sn ) lex (t1 , . . . , tn ) if and only if either 1. All si = ti or 2. For some k n, i < k, si = ti and sk tk (Exactly the same denition gives a lexicographic order on S1 Sn if all the Si are totally ordered sets.) So there are totally ordered sets such as n with lexicographic ordering, which is rather dierent from itself, although both are totally ordered. Given any such set, we can dene a topology:

Denition 8 The order topology on any totally ordered set S is generated by a basis of all open intervals, that is, sets of the form (a, b) = {x S|a < x < b} and those of the form [a0 , b) = {x S|a0 x < b} and (a, b0 ] = {x S|a < x b0 } where a0 and b0 are the minimum and maximum elements of S (if they exist). Note that the collection of all open intervals is a basis since the intersection of two open intervals is again an open interval. Exercise 6 Describe the order topology on the alphabet A, or words An with lexicographic ordering. 9

Exercise 7 Is the order topology on n with lexicographic order comparable to the usual topology? If so, is it ner or coarser? But that usual topology on n also depends on only some of the structure it has. For instance, just as the topology on can be dened using only its order, the usual topology on n needs only the metric structure to dene open balls, not (for instance) its linear structure as a vector space.

Denition 9 Given a metric space (X, d) (where X is a set, and d is a distance function on X), the metric topology on X is the one generated by a basis consisting of all open balls: B(c, r) = {x X|d(x, c) < r} Claim: This collection is a basis. Proof: We need to check that the two conditions for a basis hold. 1. Every point x X is in some set in the basis, since we can take B(x, 1), for example. 2. Suppose x B(c1 , r1 ) B(c2 , r2 ). Then the distance from x to c1 is less than r1 , and to c2 is less than r2 . So take r such that d(c1 , x) + r < r1 and d(c2 , x) + r < r2 . Such an r exists by the Archimedean property of (in particular, if r = 1 min(r1 d(x, c1 ), r2 d(x, c2 )), the condition holds). 2

But then we claim that the ball B(x, r) contains x and is contained in the intersection B(c1 , r1 ) B(c2 , r2 ). This is by the triangle inequality, which holds for any metric: d(x, y) + d(y, z) d(x, z) So then if d(x, y) < r, then d(c1 , y) d(c1 , x) + d(x, y) < d(c1 , x) + r < r1 and similarly for c2 and r2 . So B(x, r) is contained in both basis sets. Since these conditions hold, the collection of such open balls is a basis.


Example 7 Any subset S n becomes a metric space using the metric inherited from n , so it also must be a topological space with the metric topology.

Exercise 8 Check that, in this example, any subset in S of the form O S, where O n is an open set in the usual topology on n is an open set in S with the metric topology. Are there any other open sets in S?

Example 8 The set of all bounded continuous functions on space, where d(f, g) = max(|f (x) g(x)|)

is a metric

So it must also be a topological space with the metric topology. We will talk more about this example, and others like it, when we discuss function spaces.


Lecture 4: Subspace and Product Topologies (Refer to Munkres 15,16) Last time we looked at the order topology (which can be dened on any totally ordered set) and the metric topology (which can be dened on any metric space). Now we will look at some constructions which let us use existing topological spaces to get new ones. Subspace Topology Denition 10 If X is a topological space with topology T , and Y X is a subset of X, then we dene the subspace topology on Y to be TY = {Y O|O T }. We say the sets in TY are open relative to (or in) Y . Claim: This collection is a topology. Proof: Clearly TY contains Y = Y X and = Y . The closure properties follow from the basic fact about intersection: (O1 Y ) (On Y ) = (O1 On ) Y and from the general de Morgans law: (O Y ) = (

O ) Y

So the subspace topology is the one which a subset of a topological space inherits from the larger space. If the original topology was dened by a basis, the basis is inherited too: Theorem 2 If B is a basis for the topology T on a set X, and Y X, then BY = {B Y |B B} is a basis for the subspace topology TY on Y . Proof: First we ought to check that B is a basis. I leave this to you. Next we check that this basis generates the topology TY - that is, that the open sets in TY are exactly the sets which contain a basis element around every point y. Any open set in Y is of the form O Y for some open O in 12

X. But any point y O Y is in O, and hence there is an element B B contained in O. But then B Y BY is contained in O Y and contains y. Furthermore, the basis does not generate any other open sets, since every basis element B BY is an intersection B Y . So any set which is a union of such B is an intersection with Y of a union of the corresponding sets B. Exercise 9 Check that BY is a basis.

Example 9 Consider the interval Y = [0, 1) as a subset of the real line The subspace topology is generated by a basis consisting of all intersections of open intervals (a, b) with [0, 1). These include and Y itself, plus any open interval (a, b) [0, 1], as well as any interval [0, b) in Y . So in this case, the subspace topology on Y is the same as the order topology.

with the order topology.

Example 10 Consider the set

[n, n +

1 2n+1

(1) (2)

with the order topology. The subspace topology as a subset of the real line on Y is dierent from the order topology on Y seen as an ordered set with the order inherited from . In fact, the subspace topology is strictly ner than the order topology.

1 1 = [0, ) [1, ) . . . 2 4

Proof: The basis for the order topology includes the set of all intervals (a, b) Y in the order on Y . Each of these is an intersection of the same interval (a, b) with Y . Similarly, intervals including the endpoints of Y are intersections with Y of intervals in . So sets in the basis which generates the order topology are also in the basis which generates the subspace topology. However, there are elements in the basis for the subspace topology which are not in the order topology. Namely, intervals [n, b) where n is not zero.


In the order topology, any open set containing n must contain part of the previous interval. One way to see what is happening here is to realize that this Y is indistinguishable, as far as order is concerned, from the interval [0, 1) Product Topology Denition 11 Given two topological spaces X and Y , the product topology on the product XY is generated by the basis B = {OV |O open in X, V open in Y }. Comment: In other words, the collection B is the set of all products of pairs of open sets in X and Y . That is, if TX and TY are the topologies on X and Y respectively, this B is indexed by TX TY . (It is not the same set - this product consists of pairs (U, V ), whereas B consists of all the products U V .) Notice that the denition says B is a basis, not a topology itself ! Claim: This collection B is indeed a basis. Proof: Since X and Y are each open sets in their respective topologies, X Y is in B. Furthermore, given two sets in B, say (U1 , V1 ) and (U2 , V2 ), consider the product (U1 V1 ) (U2 V2 ) = = = = {(x, y)|(x, y) U1 V1 and (x, y) U2 V2 } {(x, y)|x U1 , y V1 and x U2 , y V2 } {(x, y)|x U1 U2 , y V1 V2 } (U1 U2 ) (V1 V2 )

and since U1 U2 is open in X, and V1 V2 is open in Y , this must be in B. So in particular, there is a set in B contained in the intersection of two elemens - namely the intersection itself. But notice that B is, in general, not a topology. Exercise 10 Explain why not. In fact, we dont necessarily need to use all the open sets in X and Y to nd a basis for the product topology. It is sometimes possible to nd a smaller, more convenient basis. 14

Theorem 3 If B is a basis for the topology on X, and C is a basis for the topology on Y , then D = {B C|B B, C C} is a basis for the product topology on X Y . Proof: First, this collection is a basis (check this!). To see that it generates the product topology, we need to see that any open set O in X Y is a union of sets in D. By denition, such an O is a union of products of open sets in X and Y , so it is enough to show that such a product, U V , is a union of sets in D. But if U X and V Y are open, they are unions of sets in B and C respectively. So we have collections {B } B and {C } C O = U V = ( B ) (

C )


(B C )

which is a union of elements in D. (Note: Munkres uses a dierent proof based on a criterion for recognizing a basis. You should read that proof also.) So to get a basis of open sets for the product topology on X Y , we only need to look at pairs of basis elements in the topologies for X and Y separately. with the usual Example 11 Suppose that X and Y are both the real line order topology. Then the theorem tells us the product topology on is generated by a basis of products of open intervals, (a, b) (c, d).

This is a natural choice for a topology on 2 = . But we already had a natural choice for a topology - the metric topology using the usual Euclidean metric. Fortunately, this is not really a dilemma: Theorem 4 The product topology on ogy.

is the same as the metric topol-


Proof: We have a basis for the product topology - namely, all products of intervals (a, b) (c, d). We also have a basis for the metric topology, namely all open balls B((x, y), r). To show that these generate the same topology, we only need to show that any basis element for one topology is a union of basis elements for the other. This is because each open set in the topology generated by a basis B is a union of basis elements. If each of these is a union of elements from basis B , then so is the original open set. Hence it is in the topology generated by B . So we show this in both directions. Take any point (x, y) (a, b) (c, d). Then x (a, b) and y (c, d), so we can take r = min(|x a|, |x b|, |y c|, |y d|). Then the open ball B((x, y), r) is contained in (a, b) (c, d). So every basis element in the product topology is an open set in the metric topology. Thus, so is every union of such basis elements - namely, every open set in the product topology is open in the metric topology. Exercise 11 Complete this proof: check that every open set in the metric topology is open in the product topology. So we only have one really natural topology on 2 (assuming you dont think the order topology with lexicographic ordering is natural). Later on in the course we will see cases where there is more than one reasonable topology on the same set. There is a description of the product topology which may be even simpler than the above. Denition 12 The projection maps on a product of two sets X Y are the maps 1 : X Y X and 2 : X Y Y given by: 1 (x, y) = x and 2 (x, y) = y Exercise 12 Suppose X and Y are topological spaces, whose topologies are generated by bases B and C, respectively. Then consider the set X Y . Check that the collection S of all preimages of open sets in X and Y under 1 or 2 , 1 1 S = {1 (B)|B B} {2 (C)|C C} is a subbasis for the product topology on X Y . 16

We also can say something about the relation between subsets a product and products of subsets. It says that the product of subspaces is the subspace in a product. Theorem 5 Suppose that A X and B Y are subspaces of topological spaces X and Y (i.e. equipped with the subspace topology). Then the product topology on A B is the same as the subspace topology the set A B inherits as a subset of X Y with the product topology. Proof: Since X Y is generated by a basis consisting of products U V for U X and V Y open sets in their respective topologies. So the subspace topology on A B is generated by basis elements given by intersections of such products with A B: (U V ) (A B) But on the other hand, the open sets in A and B consist of just such intersections of A and B with open sets, U A and V B respectively. So the product topology on A B is generated by basis elements given as products of such sets: (U A) (V B) But (U V ) (A B) = (U A) (V B) (if you dont see this, check it!). So the bases for these topologies are the same, hence so are the topologies themselves. Note: the proof could be given in terms of bases for the topologies on X and Y if we had been given these, but the result doesnt require them. Exercise 13 For HWK due Tues Oct. 2 Do the following exercises from Munkres: p126 no.1,3 p92 no.4,6,9


Lecture 5: Closed Sets, Limit Points (Refer to Munkres 17) We have now seen a number of ways of building topologies on various sets. We will return to these to consider them in more detail, but for now, lets look at a few concepts that turn up in any topological space. Denition 13 A subset A X of a topological space X is called closed if its complement X A is open. If a set is both open and closed, it is called clopen. Example 12 The closed intervals [a, b], (, b], and [a, ) are all closed subsets of . This is because the open intervals (b, ), (, a), or the union of these, is open (in the usual order topology on ).

Example 13 In the plane

with the product topology, the set

{(x, y)|x 1 and y 3} = [1, ) (, 3] is closed (as is any other quarter plane which includes its boundary points as this one does, being dened by non-strict inequalities). This is because its complement is ( (3, )) ((, 1) )

which is open, since each of the intervals in (and itself ) are open, so this union of products is open in the product topology. Another closed set in , with the same topology, is

{(x, y)| min ((x 1)2 + (y 3)2 ), ((x + 2)2 + (y 1)2 ) 4} since this is the complement of the union of two open balls, and these are open in the product topology. (Since it is the same as the metric topology.) Example 14 In the discrete topology on any set X, every set is clopen, since every set is open, but also the complement of every set is open and thus every set is closed. Since closed sets are dened as the complements of open sets, the three dening properties of a topology have mirror images as properties of the collection of closed sets in a topology. That is, with the roles of closed and open, of intersection and union, reversed: 18

Theorem 6 In any topological space X, 1. and X are closed 2. Any intersection of a collection of closed sets is closed. 3. Any nite union of closed sets is closed. Proof: In each case, we use the corresponding property of open sets to show the complement is open: 1. The complements of and X are each other, and both are open. 2. The complement of an arbitrary intersection is: X

C =

(X C )

so if the C are closed, this is a union of open sets, hence open, so the intersection of the C is closed. 3. The complement of a nite union is:
n n


Ci =

(X Ci )

so if the Ci are closed, this is a nite intersection of open sets, hence open, so the union of the Ci is closed.

One could equally well dene a topology in terms of its closed sets, rather than open, using these three properties as a denition, so that the properties of open sets would be a theorem. Just as a set can be open in a subspace Y X, it can be closed in Y : that is, it is the complement Y O of some set O open in Y . Theorem 7 A set is closed in Y X if and only if it is the intersection C Y for some closed set C X.


Proof: See Munkres p 94.

Denition 14 The interior of a subset A X is the largest open set Int(A) contained in A. The closure of A is the smallest closed set A containing A. Exercise 14 Check that this denition is equivalent to saying that the interior of A is the union of all open sets in A, and the closure is the intersection of all closed sets containing A. Denition 15 An open set O containing a point x is called a neighborhood of x. Theorem 8 If A X, then x A if and only if every neighborhood of x has nonempty intersection with A. Proof: By denition, A is the intersection of all closed sets containing A that is, as we have seen, it is the complement of the union of all open sets contained in X A. So if neighborhood of x has empty intersection with A, it is one of the sets in this union, hence in the complement of A - so x is not in A. Conversely, if x is not in A, it is in the complement, which is open, so this is itself a neighborhood of x which has empty intersection with A. Exercise 15 Show that the closure of an open ball B(c, r) n is the closed ball with the same centre and radius. Show that the interior of the closed ball is the open ball.

Denition 16 A limit point of as set A X is a point x such that every neighborhood of x intersects A {x}. Note that x may or may not be in A - but it is close to A: Example 15 Any real number is a limit point of contains a rational number.

, since every interval


Example 16 The only limit point of the set A = { 21 |n } is the point 0, n since any interval about 0 contains one of the points in A, but for any other point x, a sucienly short interval will not contain a point in A x. Theorem 9 If A X, and A is the set of all limit points of A, then A = A A Proof: Any limit point x of A, by denition, has the property that every neighborhood of x intersects A, hence it is in A. Since A A necessarily, we have A A A. But now suppose that x A. Either x A A A or not. If not, then since x A, every neighborhood of x intersects A. Since x is not in A, these neighborhoods intersect A x. Either way, x A A , so A A A .8 Theorem 10 Proof: This follows directly from the previous theorem.


Lecture 6: Closed Sets (contd), Continuous Functions (Refer to Munkres 16,17) (Handout B shows an example, taken from Steen and Seebachs Counterexamples in Topology, which shows a subset A , and the 14 dierent sets, including A itself, which can be constructed from it using the operations of complement, closure, and interior.) Last time we dened a closed set as the complement of an open set. We observed that in the discrete topology, every single point is a closed set.

Example 17 In the usual topology on n , single points are always closed sets. This is because, given a point x0 , every other point x is at some nite, nonzero distance from x0 . Therefore, there is an open set (in particular, an open interval or open ball centred at x with radius less than |x x0 |) around x which does not include x0 . So the only limit point of the set {x0 } is x0 itself. Hence this set is its own closure - so it is closed! Notice that proving this depended on the fact that the topology on n is a metric topology. But the result doesnt mention the metric. Instead, it uses the fact that we can nd an open neighborhood of x which does not include x0 . A related condition is the following: Denition 17 A Hausdor space is a topological space X such that, for any two distinct points x1 and x2 , there are disjoint open neighborhoods U1 and U2 around them. We already know many examples of Hausdor spaces: Theorem 11 Given any ordered set O with the Archimedean property, the order topology makes O into a Hausdor space. Proof: Given two points x1 and x2 , the Archimedean property says we can nd a third point, x, with x1 < x < x2 . Then the open set U1 = {y|y < x} contains x1 and the open set U2 = {y|y > x} contains x2 . These are obviously disjoint. Since the xi were arbitrary, O is Hausdor. 22

Example 18 By the above theorem, is a Hausdor space. By a similar n with the metric topology is also Hausdor, since we can nd argument, 1 open balls with radius less than 2 (d(x1 , x2 )) around x1 and x2 which will be disjoint.

Exercise 16 Refer to handout A again. Check that X is not Hausdor. In fact, not even every space that appears in real applications is Hausdor: Example 19 The Zarizki topology on sets are all sets of the form:

is dened as follows. The closed

{(x, y)|f (x, y) = 0, f I} where I is some set of algebraic functions (e.g. I could be the set {f1 (x, y) = x2 + y 3, f2 (x, y) = (x3 y 5)(x y)}). The Zariski topology is important in algebraic geometry. In fact, it can be dened in many more settings than just 2 , or n - this denition makes sense anywhere there is a concept of algebraic function.

Exercise 17 For HWK Due Oct 2: Check that the Zariski topology on is a topology, and that it is not Hausdor. Hausdor spaces have useful properties:

Theorem 12 If X is a Hausdor space, every nite set S X is closed. Proof: Since a nite union of closed sets is closed, we only need to check this for single points. But then, since X is Hausdor, given a point x0 , and any other point x, we can nd disjoint open neighborhoods U and V of the two points. Since V around x does not include x0 , we know that x is not a limit point of the set {x0 }. Since this works for any x, {x0 } must be closed. Again, we really only used the fact that, given x0 and x, there is an open neighborhood V of x which does not include x0 : the neighborhood U of x0 plays no role here. The condition that such a V exists for any x and a xed x0 is called the T1 -axiom: it is one of the separation axioms, which we will say more about later on. 23

Weve talked about the concept of a limit point of a set - this is related to the notion of convergence, which we can also speak of in a general topological space: Denition 18 A sequence of points x1 , x2 , . . . is said to converge to a point x if, for every open neighborhood U of x, elements of the sequence eventually lie in U. Theorem 13 If X is a Hausdor space, then any sequence of points {xn } converges to at most one point of X. Proof: Suppose {xn } converged to more than one point, say to x and y. Then since X is Hausdor, there are open neighborhoods U of x and V of y which are disjoint. By assumption, there is some NX for which, if n > NX , we must have xn U. Similarly, there is some NY so that if n > NY we have xn V . But then if n > max(NX , NY ), we have xn U V , which is impossible since they are disjoint. Notice that this may not be true in a non-Hausdor space (see, e.g.So in a Hausdor space, if a sequence converges to anything, it converges to a unique point, and we can speak of the limit of the sequence, and write xn x, or x = limn xn . Exercise 18 Try: Munkres: p100, no. 3,8 For HWK due Tues, Oct 2, do Munkres: p100, no. 5,9,13 Continuous Functions Now that we have raised the subject of convergence of a sequence, you should be reminded of matters in the calculus of functions of a real variable. Not all ideas in the calculus make sense in a general topological space, but one which does is the idea of continuous functions: Denition 19 A continuous function (or continuous map) f : X Y between topological spaces X and Y is a function of the underlying sets, such that, if V Y is open, so is f 1 (V ) X. Continuous functions are the maps which are typical of topological spaces. Commonly when a mathematical structure is dened, there is a 24

typical kind of map which takes one such structure to another. For example: linear maps between vector spaces; homomorphisms of groups or of rings, and so on. Often, the maps are the ones which preserve the structure of the objects involved. Notice that the denition of a continuous function actually says that it is f 1 , rather than f , which must preserve the structure of a topological space, in the sense that the image of an open set is an open set - but the image under f 1 . A map for which f (U) is open for every open set U is an open map - also a useful idea, but not to be confused with continuity. Theorem 14 If the toplogy on Y is given by a basis B, then a function f is continuous if and only if f 1 (B) is open for every B B. Proof: Any open set is of the form V =

So then f 1 (V ) =

f 1 (B )

so if all the f

(B ) are open, then so is f 1 (V ).

Example 20 Suppose X and X denote two topologies on the same underlying set X (i.e. this is a shorthand way of talking about (X, T ) and (X, T )) and suppose the topology on X is strictly ner than that on X. Then consider the identity functions: I : X X and I : X X (both are the identity function on the underlying set). Then the rst is not continuous, and the second is not! This is because the preimage of any set V is just itself, but thought of in the other topology. Since the topology on X is strictly ner, it has open sets which are not open in X, whereas any open set in X is also open in X . There are several dierent, equivalent, statements which mean the same as continuity of a function, and make sense in any topological space, and some other common ones which only make sense in metric spaces. The general statements: 25

Theorem 15 If X and Y are topological spaces, and f : X Y is a function, the following are equivalent (TFAE): 1. f is continuous 2. A X, f (A) f (A) 3. B Y closed f 1 (B) X closed 4. x X, and V neighborhood of f (x), U neighborhood of x with f (U) V Well prove the rst three equivalent right now (Munkres does all four: for the proofs of (4) (1) and (1) (4), see Munkres p105. Proof: (1) (2): Suppose f is continuous, and A X. We need to show that if x (A), f (x) f (A) (the image of a limit point is a limit point). But suppose V is a neighborhood of f (x): since f is continuous, f 1 (V ) is an open neighborhood of x in X. Since x A, this must intersect A at some y. But then f (y) f (A) V , so f (x) must be a limit point of f (A), since V was arbitrary. (2) (3): If B is a closed set in Y , we want to show A = f 1 (B) is closed in X. We know A is closed i A = A. Now, if x A, then by (2), we have f (x) f (A) B since f (A) B. So then x A = f 1 (B). But this means A = A. That is, f 1 (B) is closed. (3) (1): Suppose the preimage of any closed set in Y is closed. To show the preimage of any open set is open, suppose A is an open set in Y , with Y A = B. Then since f 1 (B) = f 1 (Y ) f 1 (A) = X f 1 (A) is closed, it must be that f 1 (A) is open. Condition (2) here shows us how to understand continuous maps as maps which preserve structure in the sense we discussed before. That is continuous maps preserve limit points! Of course, in order to dene a limit point, we had to have the concept of an open set - so we originally dened continuity in terms of open sets. By preserving limit points, we mean the familiar idea that, for continuous real-valued functions f , we have

lim f (xn ) = f ( lim xn )


Moreover, condition (4) gives a condition a bit like the denition for continuous real-valued functions, without a metric. 26

Once one knows what the good maps are between topological spaces namely, the continuous ones - we can do things which may be familiar from other settings. One of these is to dene an isomorphism in the world of topological spaces. An isomorphism of sets is a bijection - a set function which has an inverse. In the world of vector spaces and linear maps, we can talk about linear isomorphisms: a linear map with a linear inverse. An isomorphism of groups, h, is a group homomorphism from A to B, for which there is another homomorphism h1 from B to A which is its inverse. The corresponding notion for topological spaces is this: Denition 20 A homeomorphism is a continuous function f : X Y with a continuous inverse. (This implies f is a bijection of the underlying sets). In other words, f gives a bijection of the underlying sets X and Y so that a subset A X is open i f (A) Y is open. Now, a bijection f : X Y gives a corresponding bijection P(Y ) P(X) (preimages of subsets of Y are all distinct). So a homeomorphism gives not only a bijection of the underlying sets, but a bijection of the topologies as well: f : TX TY . So any property of X which can be expressed in terms of open sets (e.g. X is Hausdor, etc.) will be true of Y and vice versa. Properties which are preserved by homeomorphism are topological properties. (In the world of topological spaces, two spaces which are related by a homeomorphism are, for all practical purposes, the same.) Example 21 The function f (x) = tan(x) is a continuous function from ( , ) to . It has a continuous inverse, f 1 (y) = arctan(y). So this open 2 2 interval is homeomorphic to . It is easy to nd a linear function showing that any open interval is homeomorphic to any other, so any open interval is homeomorphic to .

Exercise 19 For HWK due Tues, Oct 2: 1. Show that

is homeomorphic to an open ball in


2. Do Munkres p111, no. 1,3,


Lecture 7: Cts Fns concluded; More on Product Topology (Refer to Munkres 18,19) Weve dened and characterized continuous functions, but well need to know some facts about them, given here for reference without proof (but see Munkres p108): 1. Constant functions are continuous 2. An inclusion function i : A X is continuous 3. If f : X Y and g : Y Z are continuous, so is g f : X Z 4. If A X, and f : X Y is continuous, then f |A : A Y is continuous 5. If X = U , a function f : X Y is continuous if f |U : U Y is continuous for each . Having dened continuous functions, we might want to know how this idea relates to the way we know how to build new topological spaces from old ones - the product topology. Theorem 16 If f : A X Y is given by coordinate functions f1 and f2 as f (a) = (f1 (a), f2 (a)), then f is continuous if and only if f1 : A X and f2 : A Y are both continuous. Proof: The product X Y has the two projection maps 1 : X Y X and 2 : X Y Y , which are both continuous, since
1 1 (U) = U Y

which is open if U is (and similarly for 2 ). Now the coordinate functions are just fi (a) = i (f (a)) Now if f is continuous, then these are composites of continuous functions, hence continuous. On the other hand, if each fi is continuous, then we want to show that f 1 of a basis element in the product topology is open in A. Such an element is U V for open sets U X and V Y . Now, a f 1 (U V ) i f (a) U V , 28

1 1 which means f1 (a) U and f2 (a) V . So f 1 (U V ) = f1 (U) f2 (V ). This is the intersection of two open sets, hence open.

This theorem is closely related to the universal property of the product in category theory: a product of X and Y is an object X Y together with projection maps 1 and 2 such that any other object with maps f1 and f2 into X and Y has a unique map f into X Y with fi = i f . When we are talking about topological spaces, all these maps must be continuous. Our aim in this lecture is to state a similar theorem for much bigger product spaces... We can dene a product topology on the product of more than two sets - indeed, of an innite collection of sets! Denition 21 If {X }I is a collection of sets, and X = can dene the cartesian product of the X to be: X = {f : I X|f () X }

X , then we

and the th projection map is a function :



given by (f ) = f (). That is, the cartesian product is the set of all ways of choosing, for each index , an element of X (by the function f ). The projection maps pick out the value of the function at some index. If I = {1, . . . , n} this agrees with the usual idea that a product consists of n-tuples, and the projection maps pick out the component in some position. Now what about a topology on this? Denition 22 If the X in the above product are topological spaces, then the box topology is the one generated by the basis consisting of all sets U

where U X is open for each . The product topology is the one generated by the subbasis consisting of 1 all sets of the form (U for any , and U an open set is X . 29

Notice that we already proved that for the product of two sets, these are the same. However, generating a topology from a subbasis means taking all unions of all nite intersections. So while the box topology is generated by boxes - which are products of any choice of open sets in each X , the product topology is generated by a basis of boxes which are products of the whole space X for all but nitely many , and any open set in the rest. The product topology is the usual one on a general product of topological spaces - although it is coarser, in general, for innite collections. Now here are some important facts about the box and product topologies: Theorem 17 If the topology on the space X is given by a basis B , then a basis for the box topology is the collection of all sets I B where B B . A basis for the product topology is the collection of all sets of this form where all but nitely many of the B are just X . Exercise 20 Convince yourself that these are bases, and that they generate the right topologies. Next, we point out some results that show both the box and product topologies get along with subspaces, closure, and the property of being Hausdor: Theorem 18 If A X for each , then A

is a subspace if both have the box/product topology. (That is, the subspace topology in the box topology is the box topology on the subspace, and similar for the product topology.) Exercise 21 Check this. Theorem 19 A product of Hausdor spaces is still a Hausdor space in either the box or product topologies. Exercise 22 Check this. 30

Theorem 20 If A X for each , and the product of the X is given either the box or product topology then the closures satsify: A = (See Munkres for a proof). Finally, we have a theorem like the one we began with - and this one distinguishes between the box and product topologies! Theorem 21 If f : A

X is given by component functions as:

f (a) = (f (a))I where f : A X , and I X has the product topology, then f is continuous if and only if each f is continuous. (The proof is similar to that for a product of two spaces - see also Munkres p117). However, the analogous theorem is false for the box topology!