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PII. S0161171203007488

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DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS—REVISITED

SUDESHNA BANERJEA and C. C. KAR

Received 30 April 2001

Dual integral equations with trigonometric kernel are reinvestigated here for a

solution. The behaviour of one of the integrals at the end points of the interval

complementary to the one in which it is deﬁned plays the key role in determin-

ing the solution of the dual integral equations. The solution of the dual integral

equations is then applied to ﬁnd an exact solution of the water wave scattering

problems.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 45F10.

1. Introduction. Boundary value problems with mixed boundary conditions

arising in diﬀerent branches of mathematical physics can be reduced to dual

integral equations. A mixed boundary condition is the one in which one con-

dition is prescribed at one part of the boundary while some other condition is

prescribed at the remaining part of the boundary. The solution of the dual in-

tegral equations essentially depends on the behaviour of one of the integrals at

the end points of the interval complementary to the one in which it is deﬁned

[1, 4]. This behaviour is dictated by the physics of the problem.

In the present paper, we consider the following dual integral equations:

_

∞

0

A

j

(k)L(k, y)dk =−R

j

exp(−Ky), y ∈G

j

,

_

∞

0

kA

j

(k)L(k, y)dk =iK

_

1−R

j

_

exp(−Ky), y ∈B

j

,

(1.1)

where

L(k, y) =kcosky−Ksinky,

G

j

=(0, ∞)−B

j

,

(1.2)

A(k) is an unknown function, and R is an unknown constant. This integral

equation arises in the well-known problem of scattering water waves by a ver-

tical barrier under the assumption of linearised theory [5, 6, 7, 8]. The vertical

barrier may be (i) partially immersed in deep water, (ii) completely submerged

and extending inﬁnitely downwards in deep water, (iii) a vertical wall with a

gap, or (iv) a submerged plate. The solution of (1.1) has been obtained here by

noting the behaviour of the second equation of (1.1) at the end points of the

interval G

j

, which can be determined from physical consideration. Equation

1094 S. BANERJEA AND C. C. KAR

(1.1) was then reduced to a singular integral equation whose kernel involves

Cauchy and logarithmic type singularity. The solution of this singular integral

equation is known (cf. [3, 4, 6, 8]). The solution of (1.1) was then obtained

by utilizing the solution of aforesaid singular integral equation. Knowing the

solution of (1.1), the solution of the corresponding scattering problems was

obtained in a closed form. In Section 2, we consider the genesis of dual inte-

gral equation (1.1), and in Section 3, we ﬁnd the solution of (1.1) and hence the

solution of the corresponding scattering problems.

2. Genesis of the dual integral equations. The two-dimensional problemof

the scattering of surface waves by a vertical barrier present in deep water under

the assumption of linearised theory consists in solving mixed two-dimensional

boundary value problem given as follows: φ

j

satisﬁes

∇

2

φ

j

=0 in −∞<x <∞, y ≥0, (2.1)

the free surface condition

Kφ

j

+φ

jy

=0 on y =0, K =

σ

2

g

, a constant, (2.2)

the condition on the barrier,

∂φ

j

∂x

=0 on x =0 y ∈B

j

, j =1, 2, 3, 4. (2.3)

Here, B

j

represents the vertical barrier. (i) For j = 1, the barrier is partially

immersed to a depth a

1

below the mean free surface y =0 so that B

1

=(0, a

1

).

(ii) For j =2, the vertical barrier is completely submerged and extends inﬁnitely

downwards, so B

2

= (a

2

, ∞). (iii) For j = 3, the vertical barrier is in the form

of a wall with a gap, so B

3

= (0, a

3

) +(a

4

, ∞). (iv) For j = 4, the barrier is in

the form of a plate submerged in deep water, so B

4

= (a

5

, a

6

). The bottom

condition is given by

∇φ

j

→0 as y →∞. (2.4)

At the sharp edges of the barrier, we must have

r

1/2

∇φ

j

bounded as r →0, (2.5)

where r denotes the distance from sharp edges a

j

of the barrier, j =1, . . . , 6

φ

j

∼

_

_

_

R

j

exp

_

−Ky−iKx

_

+exp(−Ky+iKx) as x →−∞,

T

j

exp(−Ky+iKx) as x →∞,

(2.6)

DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS—REVISITED 1095

where T

j

, R

j

are unknown complex constant. The function φ

j

, j =1, 2, 3, 4, rep-

resents the velocity potential for two-dimensional irrotational motion corre-

sponding to various scattering problems. The function exp(−Ky+iKx) (drop-

ping the time dependent factor exp(−iσt) where σ is the circular frequency

K = σ

2

/g, g being acceleration due to gravity) represents the wave propagat-

ing from the negative x-direction incident upon the barrier B

j

. The complex

constants R

j

and T

j

are the reﬂection and transmission coeﬃcients, respec-

tively.

By Havelock expansion of water wave potential, a suitable representation of

φ

j

satisfying (2.1), (2.2), (2.4), and (2.6) is

φ

j

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

R

j

exp(−Ky−iKx)+exp(−Ky+iKx)

+

_

∞

0

B

j

(k)L(k, y)exp(kx)dk, x <0,

T

j

exp(−Ky+iKx)+

_

∞

0

A

j

(k)L(k, y)exp(−kx)dk, x >0,

(2.7)

where (cf. [8])

T

j

+R

j

=1, A

j

(k) =−B

j

(k). (2.8)

By condition (2.3), using (2.7) we have

_

∞

0

kA

j

(k)L(k, y)dk =iK

_

1−R

j

_

exp(−ky), y ∈B

j

. (2.9)

Also, φ

j

is continuous across the gap G

j

below/above/between the barrier so

that

φ

j

(+0, y) =φ

j

(−0, y), y ∈G

j

. (2.10)

Using (2.7), we have

_

∞

0

A

j

(k)L(k, y)dk =R

j

exp(−ky), y ∈G

j

. (2.11)

Here, G

1

=(a

1

, ∞), G

2

=(0, a

2

), G

3

=(a

3

, a

4

), and G

4

=(0, a

5

)+(a

6

, ∞). Equa-

tions (2.9) and (2.11) give the required integral equations. In the following

section, we determine the solution of (1.1).

3. The solution of (1.1). Let

iK

_

1−R

j

_

exp(−Ky)−

_

∞

0

kA

j

(k)L(k, y)dk =

_

_

_

0, y ∈B

j

,

h

j

(y), y ∈G

j

,

(3.1)

1096 S. BANERJEA AND C. C. KAR

where h

j

(y) is the unknown function. In view of (2.9), (2.3), and (2.4),

h

1

(y) ∼

_

¸

_

¸

_

O

_

¸

¸

y−a

1

¸

¸

−1/2

_

as y →a

1

,

→0 as y →∞,

(3.2)

h

2

(y) ∼

_

¸

_

¸

_

O

_

¸

¸

y−a

2

¸

¸

−1/2

_

as y →a

2

,

bounded as y →0,

(3.3)

h

3

(y) ∼

_

O

_

¸

¸

y−a

i

¸

¸

−1/2

_

as y →a

i

, i =3, 4, (3.4)

h

4

(y) ∼

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

O

_

¸

¸

y−a

i

¸

¸

−1/2

_

as y →a

i

, i =5, 6,

→0 as y →∞,

bounded as y →0.

(3.5)

By Havelocks’ expansion theorem [8], we have from (3.1)

i

_

1−R

j

_

=2

_

G

j

h

j

(t)exp(−Kt)dt, (3.6)

kA

j

(k) =

2

π

1

K

2

+k

2

_

G

j

h

j

(t)L(k, t)dt. (3.7)

Substituting A

j

(k) from (3.7) into (2.11), we have

2

π

_

G

j

h

j

(t)

_

∞

0

L(k, t)L(k, y)

k

_

K

2

+k

2

_

dkdt =R

j

exp(−Ky), y ∈G

j

. (3.8)

Simplifying (3.8) and applying (d/dy+K), we have

_

G

j

h

j

(t)

_

Kln

¸

¸

¸

¸

y−t

y+t

¸

¸

¸

¸

+

1

y+t

+

1

y−t

_

dt =0, y ∈G

j

. (3.9)

This is a singular integral equation in h

j

(t), whose kernel involves a combi-

nation of Cauchy type and logarithmic singularity. An appropriate solution of

(3.9) can be obtained by considering the behaviour of h

j

(t) at the end points

of G

j

, which is given in (3.2), (3.3), (3.4), and (3.5) for various conﬁgurations of

the barrier. Hence (3.6) and (3.7) show that the behaviour of h

j

(t) at the end

points of G

j

plays the key role in determining the solution of (1.1).

Now, considering (3.2), (3.3), (3.4), and (3.5), we ﬁnd h

j

(t) for j = 1, 2, 3, 4

and hence A

j

(k) and R

j

for j =1, 2, 3, 4.

DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS—REVISITED 1097

(1) Knowing (3.2), h

1

(t) is given by (cf. [8])

h

1

(t) =C

1

d

dy

_

exp(−ky)

_

y

a

t exp(Kt)

_

t

2

−a

2

_

1/2

dt

_

, y ∈G

1

, (3.10)

where C

1

is a constant. Substituting h

1

(t) in (3.6) and (3.7), we have

A

1

(k) =

−a

1

C

1

K

2

+k

2

J

1

(ka), R

1

=1+ia

1

C

1

K

1

(Ka). (3.11)

To ﬁnd C

1

, A

1

(k) and R

1

are substituted in the ﬁrst equation of (1.1) to get

C

1

=

1

a

1

1

,

1

=πI

1

_

Ka

1

_

−iK

1

_

Ka

1

_

. (3.12)

So that

A

1

(k) =−

J

1

_

ka

1

_

1

_

K

2

+k

2

_

, R =

πI

1

_

ka

1

_

1

. (3.13)

(2) For j =2,

h

2

(y) =C

2

d

dy

_

exp(−ky)

_

y

b

exp(Kv)

_

b

2

−v

2

_

1/2

dv

_

(cf. [6]), (3.14)

where C

2

is a constant. Substituting in (3.6) and (3.7)

A

2

(k) =

−C

2

K

2

+k

2

J

0

_

ka

2

_

, R

2

=1+iπC

2

I

0

_

Ka

2

_

. (3.15)

The constant C

2

is determined by substituting A

2

(k), R

2

in ﬁrst equation of

(1.1). On simpliﬁcation, this gives

C

2

=−

1

K

0

_

Ka

2

_

+iπI

0

_

Ka

2

_

. (3.16)

(3) For j =3 (cf. [3]),

h

3

(y) =

d

dy

exp(−Ky)

_

y

a

4

C

3

exp(Ku)λ(u)du, (3.17)

where

λ(u) =

u

R(u)

_

δ−

2

π

F

1

_

a

3

, a

4

, u

_

_

, (3.18)

1098 S. BANERJEA AND C. C. KAR

C

3

is a constant,

F

1

_

a

3

, a

4

, u

_

=

_

a

3

0

R(v)

v

2

−u

2

dv,

R(u) =

¸

¸

a

2

3

−u

2

¸

¸

1/2

¸

¸

a

2

4

−u

2

¸

¸

1/2

,

δ =

K

−1

exp(Ka)+(2/π)α

2

_

−K, F

1

_

α

2

(−K)

,

α

i

(K) =α

i

(K, 1), α

i

_

K, F

1

_

=

_

t

i

uF

1

_

a

3

, a

4

, u

_

R(u)

du,

t

i

=

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

−a

3

, a

3

_

, i =1,

_

a

3

, a

4

_

, i =2,

_

a

4

, ∞

_

, i =3,

(3.19)

and hence (3.6) and (3.7) give

A

3

(k) =

2

π

C

3

k

_

K

2

+k

2

_

_

−sinka+k

_

a

4

a

3

λ(u)coskudu

_

,

R

3

=C

3

I,

I =δ

_

α

1

(K)−α

3

(K)

_

−

2

π

_

α

1

_

K, F

1

_

−α

3

_

K, F

1

__

.

(3.20)

To ﬁnd C

3

, substitute A

3

(k) and R

3

in the ﬁrst equation of (1.1) to get

C

3

=

i

J +iI

, (3.21)

where

J =K

−1

exp(ka)+δα

2

(K)−α

2

_

K, F

1

_

. (3.22)

(4) For j =4 (cf. [2]),

h

4

(y) =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

d

dy

_

exp(−Ky)

_

y

a

5

exp(Ku)P(u)du

_

, y <a

5

,

d

dy

_

−exp(−Ky)

_

y

a

6

exp(Ku)P(u)du

_

, y <a

6

,

(3.23)

where

P(u) =

C

4

R

0

(u)

_

d

2

0

−u

2

_

, (3.24)

C

4

and d

2

0

are constants,

R

0

(u) =

¸

¸

u

2

−a

2

5

¸

¸

1/2

¸

¸

u

2

−a

2

6

¸

¸

1/2

, (3.25)

DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS—REVISITED 1099

and (3.6) and (3.7) give

A

4

(k) =

J(k)

K

2

+k

2

C

4

, J(k) =

_

b

a

_

d

2

0

−u

2

_

R

0

(u)

sinkudu, (3.26)

R

4

=1−iC

4

_

α

0

−β

0

_

. (3.27)

To determine C

4

and d

2

0

, we substitute A

4

(k) in the ﬁrst equation of (1.1) to

get the relations

−R

4

=C

4

γ

0

, (3.28)

−R

4

=C

4

_

γ

0

−

_

a

6

a

5

_

d

2

0

−x

2

_

R

0

(x)

exp(Kx)dx

_

, (3.29)

which yield

_

a

6

a

5

_

d

2

0

−x

2

_

R

0

(x)

exp(Kx)dx =0. (3.30)

This determines d

2

0

. Equating (3.26) and (3.28), we have

C

4

=

i

4

,

4

=α

0

−β

0

−iγ

0

, (3.31)

where

α

0

=

_

a

5

a

−5

_

d

2

0

−x

2

_

R

0

(x)

exp(Kx)dx,

β

0

=

_

∞

a

6

_

d

2

0

−x

2

_

R

0

(x)

exp(Kx)dx,

γ

0

=

_

a

6

a

5

_

d

2

0

−x

2

_

R

0

(x)

exp(Kx)dx.

(3.32)

Thus, knowing A

j

(k) and R

j

, the corresponding φ

j

(x, y) for j = 1, 2, 3, 4 are

known from (2.7).

Acknowledgment. This work was supported by the National Board of

Higher Mathematics (NBHM) through research project No. 48/3/99-R&DII/611,

given to S. Banerjea.

References

[1] S. Banerjea and C. C. Kar, A note on some dual integral equations, ZAMM Z. Angew.

Math. Mech. 80 (2000), no. 3, 205–210.

[2] S. Banerjea and B. N. Mandal, Solution of a singular integral equation in a double

interval arising in the theory of water waves, Appl. Math. Lett. 6 (1993), no. 3,

81–84.

[3] , On a singular integral equation with logarithmic and Cauchy kernel, Int.

J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol. 43 (1995), 267–313.

1100 S. BANERJEA AND C. C. KAR

[4] A. Chakrabarti and N. Mandal, Solutions of some dual integral equations, ZAMM Z.

Angew. Math. Mech. 78 (1998), no. 2, 141–144.

[5] D. V. Evans, Diﬀraction of water waves by a submerged vertical plate, J. Fluid Mech.

40 (1970), 433–451.

[6] B. N Mandal and P. K. Kundu, Scattering of water waves by a vertical barrier and

associated mathematical methods, Proc. Indian Nat. Sci. Acad. Part A 53

(1987), 514–530.

[7] D. Porter, The transmission of waves through a gap in a vertical barrier, Proc.

Cambridge Philos. Soc. 71 (1972), 411–421.

[8] F. Ursell, The eﬀect of a ﬁxed vertical barrier on surface waves in deep water, Proc.

Cambridge Philos. Soc. 43 (1947), 374–382.

Sudeshna Banerjea: Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92

APC Road, Calcutta-700009, India

E-mail address: jumsb@hotmail.com

C. C. Kar: Mathurapur High School, Mathurapur, 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India

Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences

Special Issue on

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