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Compiled by Sandy Heflin, President and Founder of Color of Language

Our sincere thanks to Dr. Allen Mahr for permitting us to share the clear and informative audiogram charts he developed to help others understand hearing loss. They are the best we have ever seen. They are available also on his website along with a wealth of information about the physical aspects of hearing loss.

AUDIOGRAMS AND WHAT THEY TELL US ABOUT HEARING LOSS

We strongly recommend you vist his website at www.pacificaudiology.com/audiogram/uya.html Pacific Audiology Center 120Color of Language | www.ColorofLanguage.com |Salem, Oregon 97302| (661) 393-4658 Ramsgate Square SE Suite 100 • coloroflanguage@bak.rr.com 503 364-2828

Environmental sounds and the Speech Banana b. What do the horizontal indicate on an audiogram? d. AUDIOGRAMS AND WHATY THEY TELL US ABOUT HEARING LOSS A. Audiogram typical of the aging process. CHARTS ON HEARING LOSS (Provided by Dr. Allen Mehr from Pacific Audiology Center. g.com | (661) 393-4658 .TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Links to helpful resources III.rr. Audiogram showing normal hearing i.ColorofLanguage. Oregon) a. What do the vertical lines indicate on an audiogram? c. FAQs on the physical aspects of hearing loss Color of Language | www. 2. Where are the speech sounds indicated on an audiogram? f. Salem.com | coloroflanguage@bak. OUR MISSION STATEMENT B. ABOUT AUDIOLOGY C. Degrees of Hearing Loss illustrated h. INTRODUCTION B. Illustration of a common hearing loss – left and right ears. ABOUT COLOR OF LANGAUGE A. UNDERSTANDING YOUR AUDIOGRAM 1. OUR GOALS C. FACTORS AFFECTING LEVELS OF COMPETENCE AND SUCCESS OF DEAF CHILDREN II. Sounds on an Audiogram e.

g. It also comes about through my experiences during these years as I have worked with students and met parents and other educators of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Sometimes what is needed desperetly are sources of reliable information which will aid to finding solutions. otoacoustic emission measurements.Introduction This resource is created based on my years of experience in Deaf Education and now as a business owner of a Sign Language/Deaf Education resources. In addition to testing hearing. This introduction will briefly explain the basics of the science known as Audiology and the role of an Audiologist. Finally.com | coloroflanguage@bak. paediatric populations and assessment of the vestibular system.g.ColorofLanguage. You are your child’s greatest advocate. Tests results are presented on audograms. cochlear implants. As I mentioned.rr. Then I have contacted Dr. knowledge to know and tools to use to help a child whom is deaf and hard of hearing overcome and achieve great things despite the dramatic limitations of not being able to hear. Sandy Heflin. diagrams and the links herein helpful on your quest to better understand and equip yourself to teach and enable your child to great heights. Next: Understading Your Audiogram Color of Language | www. Adapted from Wikipedia’s entry of Audiology. and electrophysiologic tests). Employing tests (e. middle. My hope is that you will find this information. to discover which portions of hearing (high. it is with great hope that I present this resource to you. hearing tests. and if they cannot. Blessings. during the course of this resource.com | (661) 393-4658 . audiology aims to determine whether someone can hear within the normal range. He has graciously allowed us to present to you his findings and information. Mehr and asked for permission to use information and illustrations that he has created to help parents and families understand more about hearing and the tests involved. surgery. hearing aids. audiologists can also work with a wide range of clientele in rehabilitation (cochlear implants and/or hearing aids). videonystagmography. I do use Dr. or low frequencies) are affected and to what degree. Audiologists treat those with hearing loss and prevent related damage. When an audiologist determines there is a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality they will provide recommendations to a patient as to what options are available to the patient (e. appropriate medical referrals). balance and related disorders. Though solutions vary and can be different from case to case. there are similar and consistent actions to take. Allan S. Founder and President of Color of Langauge About Audiology Audiology is the scientic study of hearing. Mehr’s illustrations as a way to show visually what is being written about and to help illustrate the content.

Color of Language | www.com | (661) 393-4658 .rr.ColorofLanguage.com | coloroflanguage@bak.

Mehr Audiologist FAAA Salem. Oregon An audiogram is a picture of your hearing.Understanding Your Audiogram by Dr.com/audiogram/uya.com | (661) 393-4658 . Allan S.com | coloroflanguage@bak.rr.ColorofLanguage. The yellow banana shaped figure represents all the sounds that make up the human voice when speaking at normal conversational levels.html Next: Vertical Lines Color of Language | www. The results of your hearing test are recorded on an audiogram. Information and charts developed by Dr. This demonstrates where different sounds and would be represented on an audiogram. Allen Mehr and available at www.pacificaudiology.

com | coloroflanguage@bak.rr. Information and charts developed by Dr. The most important pitches for speech are 500-3000 Hz. The 125 Hertz (Hz) vertical line on the left side of the audiogram represents a very low pitch sound and each vertical line to the right represents a higher pitch sound.com/audiogram/uya. Moving from left to right on the audiogram would be consistent with moving from left to right on a piano keyboard.ColorofLanguage.pacificaudiology.Vertical Lines The vertical lines on an audiogram represent pitch or frequency. Allen Mehr and available at www.com | (661) 393-4658 .html Next: Horizontal Lines Color of Language | www.

Horizontal Lines The horizontal lines represent loudness or intensity.com/audiogram/uya. Allen Mehr and available at www. Each horizontal line below represents a louder sound.ColorofLanguage. Information and charts developed by Dr.com | (661) 393-4658 .html Next: Sounds on an Audiogram Color of Language | www.com | coloroflanguage@bak.pacificaudiology.rr. The 0 decibel (dB) line near the top of the audiogram represents an extremely soft sound. Moving from the top to the bottom would be consistent with hitting the piano key harder or turning up the volume control on your stereo.

com | (661) 393-4658 .com/audiogram/uya. Allen Mehr and available at www. every point on an audiogram represents a different sound. For example.Sounds on an Audiogram Therefore.html Next: Left Ear and Right Ear Color of Language | www. point A on the audiogram to the right represents a soft low pitch sound and point B represents a soft high pitch sound. Information and charts developed by Dr.rr.ColorofLanguage. Point C represents a loud mid pitch sound.com | coloroflanguage@bak.pacificaudiology.

com | (661) 393-4658 .pacificaudiology. Allen Mehr and available at http://www.com | coloroflanguage@bak.com/audiogram/uya.rr. Information and charts developed by Dr.html Next: Yellow Banana Color of Language | www. The blue X's indicate the thresholds for the left ear and the red O's indicate the thresholds for the right ear.Left Ear and Right Ear This audiogram represents the hearing of an individual with normal hearing in the low frequencies (pitch) sloping to a severe high frequency hearing loss in the left ear and a moderate to severe hearing loss in the right ear.ColorofLanguage.

com | (661) 393-4658 . we can obtain some information regarding this individual's ability to hear speech. The listener is not able to hear any of speech sounds in the right ear. This person would rely on the left ear for speech understanding and would probably experience difficulty hearing in noisy environments.com | coloroflanguage@bak.com/audiogram/uya.Yellow Banana If we now superimpose the speech area on the audiogram. TH) in the left ear (blue X's).rr. S. F.pacificaudiology.html Next: Degrees of Hearing Loss Color of Language | www.ColorofLanguage. Allen Mehr and available at www. Information and charts developed by Dr. The listener is able to hear all the low and mid speech sounds but is not able to hear the high pitch speech sounds (ie.

The audiogram below demonstrates the different degrees of hearing loss.com | coloroflanguage@bak.html Next: Audiogram Samples Color of Language | www.com | (661) 393-4658 .Degrees of Hearing Loss The softest sound you are able to hear at each pitch is recorded on the audiogram. The softest sound you are able to hear is called your threshold. Information and charts developed by Dr. Thresholds of 0-25 dB are considered normal (for adults). Allen Mehr and available at www.com/audiogram/uya.rr.pacificaudiology.ColorofLanguage.

hearingprofessionals.com | coloroflanguage@bak.gif Color of Language | www.com | (661) 393-4658 .rr.http://www.ColorofLanguage.co.nz/Images/Normal-Audiogram.

com | (661) 393-4658 ../audiogram.jp Next: Links to Resources Color of Language | www./audiogram.ColorofLanguage.bayareahearingservices.com | coloroflanguage@bak.bayareahearingservices..com/..rr.jpgwww.com/.TYPICAL OF THE AGING PROCESS: www..

AUDIOGRAMS . most of the personnel do not have extensive training in how to test. How do I know if the assessment of my son’s hearing loss is accurate? ANSWER: If you have gone to a reputable audiologist. Why does my daughter seem to hear some things and not others? ANSWER: What sounds your child hears depends entirely upon the frequencies and decibels she hears or does not hear.com | coloroflanguage@bak. yes. reliable audiological exams. but can hear your husband’s low voice. 3. They are not intended to be a detailed. or nurse practitioner are just that – screenings. You can try speaking in a lower voice to him and see if that makes a difference. great. then I would suggest you visit a certified.ColorofLanguage. DEAFNESS AND HEARING AIDS FAQs: 1.. This method does not usually cover things such as: a. It shows the frequencies (High sounds verses low sounds) that the person hears. The volume is measured in decibels. 2. Most doctors’ offices have the basic screening device to detect hearing loss. They are given basic instructions to push the buttons for each frequency and each decibel in the full range of normal hearing and to instruct the patient to raise their hand if they hear the sound. Her audiogram will show exactly where her loss is and using the charts provided here. If he can hear you when you use a low voice. and the bottom being the loudest. 5. the right being the highest tones. then just be sure you are facing him when you speak to him so he can see your facial expressions and practice reading your lips.D. Your son’s hearing loss may be more in the high frequency tones. licensed audiologist. you can determine and predict what she can or cannot hear and make adjustments or accommodations using that information. Is it possible that the diagnosis of hearing loss at my doctor’s office is wrong? ANSWER: Oh. If so. Why does my son respond to my husband’s voice and not mine? ANSWER: A man’s voice is usually in a lower frequency than a woman’s voice. Give him every available mode of communication so that he does not lose valuable language input and information. If someone who has not been trained as an audiologist has given you the assessment. If that is the case. nurse. It shows what level of volume (loudness or softness) that the person hears. the top being the softest. You can always test it out with the procedures described in question and answer # __.rr. definitive analysis of hearing loss. Whether the diagnosis is positive or negative. 4. you can feel confident that it is accurate. The horizontal lines of the chart show the levels of volume. then. Unfortunately. you will be referred to a qualified audiologist who is trained to do effective. The intelligence of your child to know how to “beat the system” Color of Language | www. The vertical lines show the frequencies – the left being the lowest tones.com | (661) 393-4658 . What is an audiogram? ANSWER: An audiogram is a personalized chart that shows what an individual is or is not hearing. The screenings done in a primary care doctor’s offices by an M. The purpose is to discover if there is possibly a hearing loss and if it is significant. it could most definitely be inaccurate. he would not hear your high voice. If not.

Does he need hearing aids in both ears? c. 7. 2. Would your child benefit from a hearing aid? b. and “get the right answer” he raises his hand anyway. 8.1. but with them. wanting to do a good job. The child doesn’t really understand what he is expected to do. What are the softest sounds he can hear. should function well. Or b. A child is shy and doesn’t respond. simply because they did not hear. He is not blind. depending on the frequency. What information will I gain from an audiogram and how will that help me? ANSWER: You will gain so much vital information such as: a. so. Is it important to have an accurate audiogram? ANSWER: YES! Definitely. Is he deaf or hard of hearing. With a loss of 50-70 decibels. These people are unaware that they are not hearing everything. 6. Not hearing sounds from 25 to 40 decibels is considered a mild hearing loss. With this moderate hearing loss almost all of the speech sounds are inaudible. d.ColorofLanguage. What is the dividing line between being hard of hearing and deaf? ANSWER: Wow. In the following questions and answers. They may be considered “stuck up” or “aloof” for not responding when spoken to. We could spend hours on that question and all its implications. including hearing aids. Does he hear more in the left ear than the right ear. Children with this loss must have serious accommodations to do well in school. These people can hear almost all the speech sounds and function without hearing aids. we will discuss how knowing these things will help you. After 40 decibels. All this information will make such a difference for you in making the most of the hearing your child does have and reducing frustration for both of you. Color of Language | www. school and other agencies.com | (661) 393-4658 . of course. e. h. face whoever is speaking to make use of facial clues and lip read. a hearing aid is definitely required. How loud the sounds have to be for him to hear them. Let’s just briefly say that people who do not hear sounds below 25 decibels have “normal hearing”. We will try to keep it brief. The child watches the tester’s face and “reads” the signals when a button is pushed. Children with this loss can function in a regular classroom. Communication is extremely difficult. He knows few minutes have passed and he has not heard a sound. Environmental sounds are generally intact. Exactly what kind of hearing aid is needed. What speech sounds he can or cannot hear. or what the purpose of the test is. the term deaf would certainly apply. Is he hearing any speech sounds at all. c.rr. They will need some accommodations. Early and continuous intervention must take place with involvement from the family as well as the teacher.com | coloroflanguage@bak. even when he hears the sound. The child is watching the tester’s hand move and knows a button has been pushed. The chart in this article entitled Degrees of Hearing Loss will help you picture what is written here. i. but need to sit up front. g. f.

rr. Should I just wait until he is older and try then? ANSWER: No. but communication is still very difficult. Parents of children with hearing losses od more than 60 decibels will not be able to rely on information from those who’s training and experience has not prepared them for the challenges ahead. Your son cannot afford to lose the information he will lose if he is not wearing his aids. but many have overcome the odds and succeeded. so you will make the effort to help him adjust to them. deaf adults and those who have chartered these waters to gain the knowledge. Usually. It is rare. study and find out your options. As he grows. My son doesn’t like to wear his hearing aid. a new one every year should suffice. the older he is when he is fitted. The mold is not fitting properly inside the ear – see below Children grow fast. A hearing aid may bring his loss into the moderate range. insight and encouragement they will need to help their child succeed.com | (661) 393-4658 . A baby needs a new one every six months. These parents must find teachers. All the odds are against them and it will not be an easy task.ColorofLanguage. They are considered profoundly deaf and will not learn language without a huge amount of intervention and effort on the part of the family. it could rob him of vital speech sounds or of helpful environmental sounds. First.From 70 decibels to 90 decibels. Depending on his hearing loss. most environmental sounds are lost as well as everything else. Don’t just take anyone’s advice on a matter of this import. Careful attention needs to be paid to it. If the molds are new. then give it everything you have. the harder the adjustment. Begin a regime of wearing them for a few minutes Color of Language | www. There are many ways to overcome his objections. With a loss of 90 decibels or more. but it does happen. Simply turn down the volume 2. Check the molds and the volume setting to be sure there is nothing wrong with the aids themselves. school and other knowledgeable agencies with expertise in deafness and deaf education. When should my child be fitted with hearing aids? ANSWER: As soon as possible. if necessary. If they start off making that squeaky sound. 11.com | coloroflanguage@bak. drastic measures must be employed for him to learn language as he will not hear it audibly. The mold he was fitted for when he got the aids needs to be replaced as he grows. absolutely not. as it will discourage him from wearing hearing aids as well as decrease their effectiveness. and so will your child. Research. be sure they are not physically hurting him. Find those people and learn how they did it. It is such a struggle to get him to wear them. Why does my son’s hearing aid make that loud “eeeee” sound? ANSWER: 1. 9. The volume is too high. 10. it is possible that there was a mistake when they were fitted or made and they are defective. and it turns heads everywhere you go. a person would definitely be considered deaf. not hard of hearing. They do require an adjustment period. When the loss is this severe. simply return to the audiologist and ask him to check them and replace them. He benefits very little from spoken communication and must rely on other means of understanding and being understood. but the most important factor is that you understand the importance of them. It is questionable whether they would benefit from a hearing aid. and he will still need auxiliary aids to communicate effectively. You will be glad you did. That sound is annoying to you and the child. He can hear only loud environmental sounds.

You and he will lose the benefit of him developing speech and language easier and quicker. several times a day. Watch her response. he is old enough to change the volume control to be comfortable for him. In fact. Do not let his “fits” determine when he will wear them. With auditory language input the left side of the brain is used and developed. Remove them when he is distracted and not throwing a fit. He will lose the benefit of developing his hearing and all the auditory brain processes that hearing develops. then you will have a fit on your hands each time you try to put them on. But you will definitely see the results if those processes do not occur. Put them back and repeat the procedure several times a day. Check out the articles on brain development and Sign Language. 14. If he is old enough to do it himself. ANSWER: Check it regularly. You may need to check that he has not decided to turn them off for some quiet time. per se. His tolerance for them will grow.rr. according to manufacturer’s assessment.com | coloroflanguage@bak. It is important that both speech and visual language be used together produces optimum results. 13. The brain is developing auditory processes that you will never see. the studies are showing that both the right and the left brain are active when signing is experienced with speech. your child will definitely let you know! The hearing aid dispenser or audiologist should explain the volume settings to you and explain what volume is optimum. you may or may not see the benefit or results for a long time. How do I know if my daughter is benefitting from her aids? ANSWER: Unfortunately. Just be sure she is responding to the sound and not visual clues such as glimpses of you or something else. Color of Language | www. How can I tell if the battery is dead in the hearing aid? My daughter is too young to tell me. 12. take a few minutes to make sounds or noises at the sound level and decibel level that your daughter hears. If you give up. other hearing aid wearer’s or your own Observation and change them accordingly. If he knows he can have them removed by throwing a fit. Memorize the settings and check them each time you place them on your child. When you put the aid in.com | (661) 393-4658 . then the batteries are fine. Thinking processes can be developed through being exposed to visual language. If she turns to look in the direction of the noise. you will both lose. Be aware of how long the batteries usually last.ColorofLanguage. The settings can be accidently changed when handling the aids. Each day you can test quickly to see if it is working. She will be unable to process auditorally and that will show up in her thinking processes and academic skill level.at a time. Teach the child to adjust them himself as soon as possible so he can change them when loud noises are present and make him uncomfortable or if they are too low for him to hear someone’s soft voice. How do I know if his hearing aid is too loud or not loud enough? ANSWER: If it is too loud.

wisc-online.audiologyawareness. conductive. Please check them out and if you have or find any additional websites we should include.deafness. progressive.org/hearingloss/testing/audiogram http://www.com | coloroflanguage@bak. unilateral.com/objects/index_tj. That is the reason we exist.com | (661) 393-4658 . please feel free to contact us for more information.asp www. medicine) types (sensorineural.asp?objID=MBY1802 Next: About Color of Language Color of Language | www. Information such as: causes (genetic-congenital.wikipedia. rhubella. please email us so we can include them here. delivery complications. auditory processing) signs (what to look for and how to confirm) Rather than reproduce all of that here.com/hearinfo_audiogramread.ColorofLanguage.org/wiki/Audiogram www.htm en.about. we have listed some links of websites where all your questions can be addressed.rr.raisingdeafkids.Links to Resources There is so much information available on the physical aspects of hearing loss. LINKS WITH HELPFUL INFORMATION: www.com/cs/earbasics/f/audiograms. If you do not get your questions answered. disease.

Promote healthy self-esteem 5. As that is implemented. The state of California. Reduce frustration 2.rr. Each year the language deprivation gap in deaf children increases as their hearing peers accelerate in reading and academic skills. clear and complete language system that will: 1. and grief to acceptance and action! Factors Affecting Level of Competence and Success * Onset of hearing loss * Degree of loss * Early intervention and access to effective communication and language * Parental involvement and family support * Motivational level National statistics. as many other states. All of the above add up to language deprivation in the most crucial language learning years 0-5 and increasing with each year that passes. indicate that 90% of deaf students graduate from high school with a 1st to 3rd grade reading level. We believe the grief process can be shortened through early intervention which will move parents from denial. development of language and cognitive skills for infants to adults. we hope to promote early intervention.com | coloroflanguage@bak. Our Goals: In creating educational materials we seek to introduce families to a fun. it will go a long way to eliminate the first factor listed above: late diagnosis.com | (661) 393-4658 . Late discovery or late diagnosis of deafness 2. Color of Language | www. Many factors contribute to this travesty. anger. and provide sign language instruction for family members to encourage communication. effective. Enable meaningful bonding relationships 4. By doing so. which are rare and difficult to substantiate.About Color of Language Our Mission: Color of Language is a 501 (c)(3) non-profit company which develops educational materials for Deaf children and their families. Establish effective discipline 3. Develop cognitive skills 6. Family members faced with the overwhelming task of learning a new communication method to communicate with their deaf child. To list just three: 1. Result in age appropriate written skills. 8%-10% graduate with fourth grade or above reading levels. Lack of adequate early intervention (even when diagnosed early) 3. has passed a law requiring hearing testing for all newborns.ColorofLanguage.