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Deejays Very Basic Brewers Guide

DJx2 © 2006

Why this text? Because I think brewing beer is simple and fun and if it were presented in a way that makes it sound simple and fun more people might be willing to try it. Many of the great books published on home brewing are pretty technical in nature and strike fear in the hearts of timid would be home brewers. My theory is this – start simple by brewing a basic ale and see how simple it can be, and once you’ve done it a few times you can get as technical or complicated as you want. Most people I’ve talked to don’t want to get technical they just want to make a good brew that they can enjoy with their friends and families and maybe even save a few bucks. So what is beer? Very basically - beer is a fermented beverage made by introducing yeast to sugar. The yeast eats the sugar so that it may grow and multiply. The bi-product of this consumption is ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Sounds simple doesn’t it? Well it really is, so let’s get started! The first thing you need to learn before you start brewing your own beer is this …

Sanitize everything!
Brewing beer is pretty simple, but we always fear the unknown don’t we? The most important facet of home brewing is cleanliness! Everything has to be washed thoroughly, and sanitized completely – contamination from surface or air born bacteria is a big problem. That being said, I’m going to introduce you to the simplest form of homebrewing – malt extract brewing. There are numerous local stores and websites throughout the world from which you can purchase your supplies. Putting a little thought into you mail order purchases can save you a lot of money on shipping.

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Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................. 5 How Do I get Started ? ................................................................................................ 5 Batch Sizes.................................................................................................................. 5 Brewing Methods......................................................................................................... 6 Fermenting Containers .............................................................................................................. 7 Mini Homebrew Kits (2.5 gallon Sized) ........................................................................ 7
The Beer Machine.................................................................................................................7 Mr. Beer ................................................................................................................................8

Large Sized Fermenters (3 to 10 Gallon sized) ....................................................... 10
The Simple Food Grade Bucket Fermenter ........................................................................10 Coopers Micro Brew Kit ......................................................................................................12 The Glass / Plastic Carboy Fermenter ................................................................................13

Conical Fermenters................................................................................................................... 14
Stainless Steel Conical Fermenters ....................................................................................14 PVC Conical Fermneters ....................................................................................................15

Other Brewing Equipment....................................................................................................... 17 Basic Brewing Ingredients...................................................................................................... 18 Malts .......................................................................................................................... 18
Malted Grains......................................................................................................................18 Specialty Grains ..................................................................................................................18 Liquid Malt Extracts.............................................................................................................18 Dry Malt Extracts.................................................................................................................19

Hops .......................................................................................................................... 19 Yeast ......................................................................................................................... 19 Hydrometer Readings ............................................................................................................. 20 What is a hydrometer?............................................................................................... 20
How To Use a Hydrometer..................................................................................................20

The Pre-Brewing Steps ........................................................................................................... 21 Sanitizers................................................................................................................... 21 Water Preparation ..................................................................................................... 22 Brewing Your First Extract Beer......................................................................................... 23 Brewing an All Extract Wort ....................................................................................... 23 Brewing Extract with Steeped Grains and Hops ....................................................... 24

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Brewing Your First All-Grain Beer....................................................................................... 25 The Mash................................................................................................................... 25 Back To Extract Brewing ........................................................................................... 26 Calculating % Alcohol .............................................................................................................. 28
% Alcohol by Volume ..........................................................................................................28 % Alcohol by Weight ...........................................................................................................28

Preparing to Bottle Your Beer .............................................................................................. 29 I have a Hydrometer! ................................................................................................. 29 I don’t have a Hydrometer ......................................................................................... 29 What do I need to Bottle my Beer?............................................................................ 29 Priming the Beer ....................................................................................................................... 31
Bottle Priming......................................................................................................................31 Bulk Priming ........................................................................................................................31

It’s Bottling Time! ................................................................................................................... 33 Bottling Your Beer ..................................................................................................... 33
Racking From A Fermenter With A Spigot ........................................................................33 Racking From a Carboy ......................................................................................................33 Bottle Conditioning ..............................................................................................................33 Chilling and Drinking ...........................................................................................................33

Appendix .................................................................................................................................... 34 Grains, Extracts & Sugars ......................................................................................... 35 Hops .......................................................................................................................... 43 Spices, Flavors & Finings .......................................................................................... 46 Yeast Statistics .......................................................................................................... 50 Beer Style Statistics With Commercial Examples...................................................... 54

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It takes an average of one or two weeks to ferment the beer and one or two weeks to condition the beer before you drink it. but these are exceptional brews and not common very common. Bottles Number of 12 oz. There are several types of starter kits available. Bottles Number of 20 oz. Don’t worry! I’ll take you through it step by step … Batch Sizes One of the first things you may want to consider is size. Bottles 1 2. Some recipes can take as much as a month just to ferment and several months to condition. so make sure you know what’s included in you kit to avoid disappointment. varying in size and level of simplicity. Some kits include everything but the pot to cook it in and others include almost nothing. Basic Beer Bottling Calculations Batch Size in Gallons Beer Produced in Ounces Number of 8 oz. How much beer do you normally drink at a time? Is one case of beer enough? Do you have frequent get-togethers where you may want several cases on hand? Let’s do some basic math first.Introduction How Do I get Started ? The simplest way to get started is to purchase a Homebrew Starter Kit. it also stands to reason that it takes longer to brew larger batches. Once you get started brewing you may find you need find reasons not to brew! 5 . That being said.5 3 5 5. have limited storage or refrigerator space you may want to stick to smaller equipment and brew more frequently. So if you live in a small apartment.5 6 128 320 384 640 704 768 16 40 48 80 88 96 11 27 32 53 59 64 8 20 24 40 44 48 6 16 19 32 35 38 10 1280 160 107 80 64 Keep in mind that in general the bigger the batch size the bigger the equipment necessary to make it and the more space needed to store the equipment and the finished beer. Bottles Number of 16 oz. From the table below you can see just how much beer can be made using the various sized kits available.

The basic process is to add the grains to the mash tun. Put specialty grains in a muslin bag. place in a second small pot of water. When the water in the big pot boils add extracts and the “tea” from the small pot. pour in the concentrated beer malt and away you go. Partial Mash – In one pot boil water. Extracts with Steeped Grains . maybe a can of plain malt syrup and sometimes the yeast. to make a special recipe but that’s basically it. Put water in the pot.Brewing Methods There are many methods and variations used to brew beer from the simplest extract brewing to the more complicated All-Grain brewing. I’ll explain in more detail later but for now. You need a mash tun to soak to grains in and two large pots. Add hops as needed. one to add the water to the mash tun and one to collect the water from the mash tun.Same as the extract above but you add a few ounces of crushed malt grains you steep in a small muslin bag like making tea. This is how beer has been made for thousands of years. here’s a brief run down of what they are and what each means: Extract Brewing – Kind of like making condensed soup. You still have the option of adding additional ingredients. bring water up to 170°F turn off heat and let it steep like tea for about 20 minutes then remove the bag. allow the water to be filtered through the grains to extract the sugars and boil the collected sugar water down to make an extract – then it’s just like extract brewing. When you purchase a beer extract kit you usually get a can of condensed malt syrup in the style or your choice with the hops already added. there are basically 4 types. * Note the concentrate may be in the form of a powder. All-Grain – This is the most complicated of the four and takes some extra equipment. 6 . Not a whole lot more effort but a big difference in taste for some beer styles.

but I do know people who do and they seem happy with it. Beer may be dispensed from the cask. If you not sure about how much you’ll like brewing. then move it into your refrigerator for 4 to 5 days. and Nineteen re-usable 500ml bottles and caps. There are four different casks available and 18 different beer mixes to try.html Other Equipment Needed for The Beer Machine Fermenter The Brewery Upgrade Kit If you want to bottle your beer you’ll need this kit it comes with a Bottling Platform. $25 I don’t see why you can’t just buy a short length of tubing for this… 7 . I have seen this unit at Wal-Mart at Christmas time and I believe it can be purchased at the As Seen On TV stores for around $129. Filler. This is a self.beermachine.6 gallon batches of beer. seal the cask. I’ll try to list an average price per unit you can use these information for comparison purposes. leave the Beer Machine out at room temperature for 3 to 5 days. To see the available products for the Beer Machine go to: http://www. I’ll go over several types to give you an idea of what’s available and to help you choose the one that’s right for you. A friend of mine who just return from Iraq said they had these in the barracks.Fermenting Containers Mini Homebrew Kits (2. Beer or Beer Machine. I have not personally used this unit. you are short on space or you don’t expect to make more than a few gallons at a time. The Beer Machine The simplest type of Mini Brew system is the Beer Machine.contained single step unit which allows you to brew 2. It uses small CO2 cartridges (like the ones used in paintball) to add carbonation to the beer in the cask. pour in one of the prepackaged Beer Mixes. I recommend the self contained fermenting kits such as Mr.com/index.5 gallon Sized) There are several types of beer brewing kits available from the more traditional bucket and carboy to the newer self contained keg fermenters. According to the instructions you just pour water into the airtight Beer Machine cask.

it is called aerating the wort. Do Not open the keg again until it’s time to bottle! 8 . With 5 kegs I can try a new recipe every other night if I am so inclined. the ingredients in make one batch of beer sanitizer and plastic bottle caps for $30 . This is called wort. The Deluxe Kit comes with the keg. This is a great size for testing the waters or experimenting with different malt extracts. Place the cover on the keg and let it sit in a cool (68º to 76º F) dark place for 7 to 10 days (or more) until bubbles stop forming. Set a pot on the stove with about 2 gallons of water and boil it. Once the yeast is in the wort aeration is not a good thing. Beer company also sells ingredients sized just for the kegs which allow you to make all sorts of beers.5 gallon batch of extract based beer only takes about two hours to brew start to finish. ciders and even rootbeer. A 2.mrbeer. I actually got started brewing with the Mr. If you have a wire whisk whip it up to a good froth – air at this point is good for the yeast. then bring the water to a boil.5 quart mark on the keg and stir vigorously. steeped grains and even mini mash recipes. These bubbles/foam are called krausen. Cool the wort down to 130º F before putting it into the keg. Mr. Beer product called “Booster” add it to the water pot before the boil and dissolve it. Add water until the water level reaches the 8. Beer? The basic Mr. It may take as much as a full day before you start to see bubbles forming on top of the wort. I love the little keg fermenters! They are easy to use and easy to clean.5 gallons of beer. After 5 minutes mix it in well making sure NOT to cause a lot of bubbles. I did say I love them right? The Mr. If you are using a Mr. one liter PET bottles as well $40. They even have a monthly brewing club. Beer sold replacement kegs a while back online for only $15 and I bought three more of them for a total of 5 kegs. There are a few different packaging variations of this kit. http://www. Turn off the heat and add the can of extract and stir until completely mixed. The cap threads have little cuts down them to let excess CO2 bleed out if needed. The Premium Kit also comes with eight. If you go to their website you can find look over products and over 200 easy to brew recipes. so an airlock is not needed. Each keg produces about 2. Set one gallon aside to cool and save it for later. but you are not limited to buying just their products. Beer A more traditional yet small sized brewing system. It’s just a little PVC container with a spigot and a cap. hops. Beer recipes goes like this. When temperature is down to 70º to 90º F sprinkle yeast on top of wort in keg and wait for 5 minutes.Mr. Beer brew system.com How Do I brew Using Mr.

Beer Fermenter Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. $2 Tubing Although not required a short length of tubing for bottling is helpful and keeps from introducing air to your brew. You can also do mini mash brew and small batch All-Grain brews – just make sure the wort is down to 130º F before putting it into the keg. Other Equipment Needed for Mr. Beer extract brew. 9 .This was a simple Mr.

$2 3-piece Airlock S type airlock 10 . It’s called this because it’s shaped like the letter “S”. iced tea mixes. How does it do that? I did say it was simple right? Inside the main body that looks like a pill bottle there is a little tube which is inserted into the bucket with a bit still extended into the body. What’s an airlock? An airlock is just a simple little device which allows excess gas to escape the bucket but doesn’t let any germ carrying air back in. Do you have a restaurant you frequent? Maybe you could ask them it they throw away their white food buckets? A lot of stuff comes in these buckets. As the gas from the bucket tries to escape it lifts the cap and goes out the top making bubbles in the airlock.. pickles. Other Equipment Needed for Bucket Fermenter Air Locks The next thing we need to do to convert this bucket into a beer fermenter is to add an airlock. Make sure the hole in the lid is small enough to slip the grommet in but not push through. sea food you name it! They come in sizes from about 55 gallons to 1 gallon. You’ll want at least one (two is better) 5 gallon size. Airlock Grommet or Rubber Stopper The Airlocks slip into a hole drilled into the bucket lid using a airlock grommet which is a rubber stopper made for this purpose. I would have paid at least $6. I got one free from a lunch counter at work.50 just for the shipping so I was still ahead. $1 Another type of air lock is the “S” type. Then one day I went by one by favorite Chinese Supermarket and they had at least 50 of these things sitting out back. $1 They both work fine which one you chose is up to you. The little bottle is partly filled with water and a small cap is placed on top.Large Sized Fermenters (3 to 10 Gallon sized) The Simple Food Grade Bucket Fermenter This is the simplest of the traditional brew fermenters. pancake mixes. I asked the woman in the store if I could have one and she sold me one for$3. It’s not hard to make and you may already have the parts laying around the house. They can be purchased completely assembled for about $20 or you can do it yourself. Don’t forget the lids! Look around you might get them for free. It work like the drain trap in your sink. I prefer the 3 piece air lock because on occasion you might need a blow-off tube and one can easily be inserted into the cap of the 3-piece unit.

It can be plastic. Turn it and it stays on until you turn it off. I like this style best because it has a tapered spout making it easy to slip hoses on and off and doesn’t required you hold it to pour the liquid out. make it easier with this tool 11 .Blow-Off Tube Some brews will be extra active fermenters and blow off the top of you airlock. They go for about $3. That was easy now wasn’t it? Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. The cheapest and simplest is shown on the right. Pail Opening Tool Buckets are a pain to open. When this happens you simply add an extra length of tubing either into you bucket or into you airlock and place that in another bucket or container to catch the foam and gases that escape. Here is what the completed fermenting bucket looks like. brass or stainless steel. Just remember to cover the end of the tubing with water so germs and bacteria won’t enter your brew! Spigots As with everything else there are many spigot types available.

1 Bag of Carbonation drops an Instruction booklet an Instructional Video. $70 Coopers Brewery of Australia has been around since 1862. Thermometer. an Airlock. hops and yeast all you add is an additional (2. "Little Bottler" tube and bottling valve.pretty complete package! I can not attest to the quality of the components but it is certainly all you need to get stated except the pot to boil water in . 1 1 kg CSR Brewing Sugar. a Hydrometer. I can recommend the Brewmaster Series beer kits – the IPA was really very good! Other Equipment Needed for Coopers Micro Brew Nothing 12 . Sediment Reducer. Plastic Spoon. 1 1.7kg Coopers Home Brew Lager Concentrate . 30 740ml PET bottles and caps. They have sixteen beer kits that come with malt.I have not personally used this kit but it looks like a nice kit.2 lb) of fermentable to produce 5 gallons of really good beer.Coopers Micro Brew Kit Coopers Micro Brew Kit consists of: A plastic 30 litre ( makes up to 6 gallons) fermenter with lid . a Tap. Airlock grommet.

The Glass / Plastic Carboy Fermenter Glass carboys are the most tradition method of fermenting beer or wine.5 gallons ($16) to 6. I do not consider this an option. airlocks and blow-off tubes or racking canes to the carboy. They are very popular but very slippery and heavy (especially when full) and explode when dropped! Carboy Handle – This is slipped over the mouth of the carboy to give you a better grip for moving or lifting. used for transferring the wort or beer from one container to another. $3 You can also just use a drilled rubber stopper but this is more convenient. Tubing Food grade tubing. Other Equipment Needed for Carboy Fermenter Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. You will also need one of the airlocks shown earlier in the bucket fermenter section of the guide.5 gallons ($25). Today they are also made of plastic. Siphon This is used to get the beer out of the fermenter and into your bottles or kegs Carboy Brush A necessity for cleaning inside of carboys Racking Cane. These things really explode when dropped! $5 Carboy cap – Used to attach hoses. They come in sizes from 3. Tubing and Bottle Filler For Moving Wort from carboy to Brew Bucket 13 .

Carboy Brush A necessity for cleaning inside of fermenter 14 . no need to transfer to a secondary fermenter to clarify your beer. It is also good for capturing the yeast for reuse later. Conical fermenters make brewing amazingly easy (especially on your back). The trub can be dumped out using the lower ball valves for cleaner. needless to say they are VERY expensive but they also come in PVC The steeply angled bottom (about 60 degrees) allows all of the trub and spent yeast fall to the bottom. used for transferring the wort or beer from one container to another. clearer beer. Not exactly in the beginners price range.Conical Fermenters Commercial breweries and micro breweries generally use huge conical fermenters. Tubing Food grade tubing. Other Equipment Needed for the Stainless Steel Conical Fermenter Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. Leg extensions to get the fermenter off the floor go for around $65. The upper ball valve is used to remove your beer above the trub line so you could simply leave the old yeast in there and add new wort to start a whole new batch of beer! Stainless Steel Conical Fermenters A 7 gallon stainless steel conical fermenter like the one the left by Blichmann goes for about $500. One container does it all! The most common conical fermenters are made of stainless steel or copper. No lifting heavy buckets or carboys.

The picture on the left shows how It’s designed to hang on a wall but I have mine setup on a stand made of some scrap angle iron and rebar (right picture). I use the “extra female coupler and tubing adapter for racking (it’s hanging over the stand). When I reclaim the yeast I use mason jars to store it in so why wash an extra container? This thing is great! I wish I had more than one! I bought this on sale for $99 at Christmas time the regular price is $149. Other Equipment Needed for the V-Vessel Conical Fermenter Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. bracket and mounting accessories.PVC Conical Fermneters The V-Vessel Another style of conical fermenter and one that I use is called the V-Vessel. The V-Vessel System consist of the unit itself (looks like a big light bulb) with the collection capsule. The collection capsule is used for removing trub and yeast – I use a jar. rubber bung and airlock. an extra female coupler with a tubing adapter and 5 ft of tubing. Tubing Food grade tubing. cleaning brush. Carboy Brush A necessity for cleaning inside of fermenter 15 . used for transferring the wort or beer from one container to another.

They come in 6. The price of the 6.5 gallon unit is $120.MiniBrew Conical Fermenter Similar to the V-Vessels are the MiniBrew polyethylene plastic conical fermenters. Carboy Brush A necessity for cleaning inside of fermenter 16 . The MiniBrew has it! What is also has is a second valve port for draining your brew from above the yeast and trub. 25 gallon and 40 gallon sizes. I have not used this product however I have got to say I’ve had to convince myself more than once that I really don’t have room for another conical. Tubing Food grade tubing. 15 gallon. Other Equipment Needed for the MiniBrew Conical Fermenter Adhesive Thermometer Sticks on the side of your fermenter so you can watch your temperature. used for transferring the wort or beer from one container to another. 8 gallon. WOW! One of the things I wished the V-vessel had was a bigger mouth opening so I could actually stick my arm in it for cleaning.5 gallon.

Funnel Funnels come in all shapes and sizes – get one with a large mouth to make pouring easy. Large Pot For brewing wort in. It’s really handy to have one with a spigot on it. Hydrometer Used for testing the specific gravity of the wort. I also have a nylon barbed fitting which threads into the ball valve on the outside to add tubing for racking the wort. Some people use nylon stockings for this purpose. Here is a close up of hydrometer scale. See page 5 for sizes.Other Brewing Equipment There are several other things you need for brewing besides a fermenting vessel! I will mention some of them here: Bottle Brush Used to scrub out beer bottles. Maybe be reused until they self destruct. Musslin bags or Cheese Cloth Used for addig grains or hops to the wort. 17 . Aluminum pots are acceptable. All-Grain Equipment Mash Tun Made from a 10 Gallon Rubbermaid cooler . This is easy to make by adding a ½” brass ball valve.$30 Replace spigot Added nylon threaded “T” Added nylon threaded barb fittings at ends of “T” Added Stainless Steel braid to barbed fittings Added Stainless steel hose clamps to hold braid on Tubing for the end of the spigot Turkey Fryer Kit If your stove is not commercial grade you will need a turkey cooker and propane tank to cook wort over about 3 gallons. gasket and a nutted nipple. Stainless steel is best.

made from mashing the grains then boiling the liquid into a concentrated syrup. You usually have to buy at least one can of UME and one can of HME per batch of extract beer. HLME’s or beer mixes. Belgian Aromatic. Belgian Biscuit Malt. German Karaffe Malt. They usually come in Extra Light. Different temperatures and combinations of air or lack of it produce different styles of grains. and develops the flavors in beer. Canadian Honey Malt. Unhopped liquid Malt Extracts . Victory (Biscuit) Malt. Light. are LME’s which have hops added and sometimes other grains for flavor. Pale. Cara-Pils® or Dextrin Malt. wheat or rye. LME’s come in two forms Unhopped and Hopped. This process harnesses natural enzymes – a process that releases fermentable sugars. Malts Beer is a malted beverage – so let’s take a minute to talk a bit about what malts are. 18 . Some companes refer to this form as UME’s or ULME’s. Because there is little difference between “Extract Brewing” and “Extract with Steeped Grain Brewing” I will add the specialty grain ingredients here. Chocolate Malt. Scottish Peat Smoked Malt. Amber. Malts come in three basic forms: Malted Grains Malted grain is made from barley. They control the color. Belgian Caravienne . Black Patent Malt. Dark and Wheat.Basic Brewing Ingredients To get a better idea of what you will use to brew beer I think now is a good time to talk about some of the ingredients. They come in every style of beer that can be made. German Rauch (Smoked) Malt.are a concentrate made from a base malt grain with no other flavors or hops added. Specialty Grains Specialty grains are grains which do not have to be mashed. Belgian Caramunich. Belgian Special B. It is then kiln dried using hot air. Liquid Malt Extracts Known as LME’s . Hopped liquid Malt Extracts – also called HME’s. Roasted Barley Malt. body and flavor of our beer. It is soaked until it sprouts then it is drained and dried. LME’s usually come in cans or plastic jars if purchased in bulk. Malted grains come in over a hundred varieties.All Crystal Malts. Special Roast are specialty grains. The starches have been converted to sugars in the kilning process so they can be steeped in a bag like a tea.

German Spalt. and Hersbrucker varieties to name a few. Come in two forms: Leaf hops and palletized hops. Come in Extra Light. ale and lager. DME’s weighs less.75. There are two main types of yeast. 19 . Dry yeast is more limited in styles but I’ve had great luck with several dry yeast brands and inconsistent results with the expensive liquid yeasts. Galena.Dry Malt Extracts Known as DME’s a dry malt powder or spray. Magnum. Liberty. lasts longer and is easier to handle. Cyrstal. Dark. Cluster. Northern Brewer. while lager yeasts work best at temperatures of 50°. Hops Hops are actually a flower. The liquid yeasts come in any variety of beer styles and is said to be superior by the brewing experts. Saaz. Sterling. Columbus. Same as LME’s but in powdered form. Rice. barley and wheat. Wheat. They average between $5 and $7.25 and Nottingham Ale yeast $1. green in color with yellow lupulin glands down between the petals. Centennial. Ale yeasts like the warmer temperatures between 60-70°F. Amarillo. Target. Willamette. Chinook. Hops come in Cascade. Bullion. Hallertaur. Tettnanger. Light. It always works perfectly no matter what the brew or temperature whether I am making ale or lager! Other good dry yeast is Coopers Ale Yeast $1. Challenger. Hops are used for preserving the beer and the essential oils also add flavor and aroma to balance the sweetness of the malt. Eroica. Horizon. Extra Dark. Amber. and Barley and Rice. Yeast The yeast cells consume simple sugars and produce a bi-product of carbon dioxide and alcohol. Fuggles. One of the best yeasts I’ve ever used is the “Superior Dry Lager” yeast which sells for around $1. Mount Hood. Kent Goldings. Nugget.25. Olympic. Brewers Gold. Perle.65°F even as low as 40°F. Styrian Goldings. Yeast also come in two forms Liquid and dry.

It will bob up and down in the sample. It is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or shot to make it float upright.0044 0.0021 0.6 100.0008 -0.6 55.6 109. Hydrometer Temperature Corrections Example: The temperature of our wort is: 100 °F.8 62. Hydrometers usually contain a paper scale inside the stem.8 44.4 120.2 95 96.0093 0.0032 0.2 How To Use a Hydrometer 1.0058 0.0009 0.0008 -0.0009 -0.0002 0.0008 -0.046.0007 -0.0004 -0.0089 0.4 84.0029 0.2 86 87.0008 -0.6 73.8 89.0035 0.8 116. so that the specific gravity (or density) can be read directly in grams per cubic centimeter.2 50 51. the Delta G value from the chart is .6 118.0073 0.0007 -0.0077 0. T °C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Delta G -0. Assure that the hydrometer is not in contact with the sides of the cylinder and take the reading.006 add that number to the original reading of 1. Round this number off to the same number of decimal places or .4 57. The liquid is poured into a tall jar.0097 0.8 71.0061.4 39.8 107. Note temperature of the wort sample.8 80.0054 0.6 37.8 35. 4.0005 0.0009 -0. 2.2 59 60.4 48.0016 0.8 53.0009 -0.0047 0. The point where the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. The original gravity will be higher because of the sugar in it.6 91.8 98.0007 0.040.0001 0 0. Note that the sample may overflow from the cylinder.6 64.0006 -0.2 41 42.0013 0.4 66.0069 0.0106 T °F 77 78. The final gravity will be lower because most of the sugars have fermented out and been converted to alcohol! 20 . your specific gravity reading (SG) Is 1. We need to correct for temperature by using the chart on the right.40 Your corrected specific gravity reading would be 1.6 46.0085 0.6 82. Put the hydrometer with the bulb end down. Take reading here On the lower part of the liquid.2 104 105. and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely.4 93.4 102.0065 0.2 113 114.4 111.2 T °C 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Delta G 0. 3.0102 0.0005 -0.0026 0.0011 0.0041 0.2 68 69.0003 -0.0081 0.0038 0.0061 0.0007 -0.4 75.0003 0.Hydrometer Readings What is a hydrometer? According to Wikipedia: A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids.0018 T °F 32 33.0023 0.0051 0. Fill the glass cylinder with a wort sample.

Eight ounce bag will make 20 gallons of sanitizing solution (one tablespoon per gallon of water). Lacks the odor normally associated with iodine based sanitizers. the bottles. One Step Oxygen based with a favorable cleaning powder and sanitizes on contact. One eight ounce tub will make 20 gallons of sanitizing solution (one tablespoon per gallon of water). the spoons you use stir. No rinsing required. Environmentally friendly. Requires 2 minute contact time. Note: if you have iodine sensitivities or allergies or are sensitive or allergic to shellfish (which is generally an indication of an iodine sensitivity or allergy) do not use iodine based sanitizers! 21 . A rinse with cool water is required. mix and measure with. the hydrometer. Iodine base sanitizers can cause stains. There are many types of sanitizer available just be sure to use them according to the directions provided on the label of the sanitizer you are using . Requires 2 minute contact time. Great for bottling. or any time a rinse is impractical. Star San An excellent no-rinse sanitizer. the thermometer. Ideal if on well water or if rinsing is not desired. Great for bottling. I have an old pretzel container I keep full of sanitizer and after using anything I rinse it in the sink and throw it back in the sanitizer jug. Iodine base sanitizers can cause stains. the stove top anything that is used to make or that comes in contact with your brew or brew equipment! It will be handy to have a plate or something sanitized to lay your tools down on and keep a small container of sanitizer available for use as you go along. C-Brite A no rinse sanitizer in an easy to use pack that is sufficient for producing a 2 gallons of sanitizing solution. Iodophor An excellent no-rinse sanitizer. the counter top. the caps.The Pre-Brewing Steps Sanitizers Wash and sanitize everything before you start! What is everything? The kegs. Here is an alphabetical list of what’s available: B-Brite It removes unwanted contaminates on contact and will not transfer contamination. I use One Step sanitizer all of the time it’s easy to use goes a long way is inexpensive and doe not contain iodine so there is no staining. the covers. The most popular sanitizer among brewpubs & microbreweries. or any time a rinse is impractical.

Water Preparation If you have chlorinated water. I really love to brew! Sometimes To save time I will boil the water I will be using on the day before I brew if I plan on brewing a 5 gallon all-grain brew during the work week. boil the water you are going to use in your brewing. I’ve tried bottled. Should read from 0 to 220ºF Collect all your ingredients and lets get brewing! 22 . this is will help get rid of the of the chlorine taste. bottled water or filtered water when brewing. Some people don’t pre-boil their water – it’s not required. The metal clip to attaches to the lip of the kettle. filtered and tap water. Dial Thermometer Monitor the temperature of you wort. As long as I boil the water before I brew I don’t taste a difference when using tap water in the final product. Many people will only use well water.

Transfer wort to your fermenter of choice being careful to leave as much of the sediment and trub behind as you can.90°F aerate the wort by stirring up quickly or using a wire whisk. 2.Brewing Your First Extract Beer Okay … Everything’s cleaned. 7. Take a hydrometer reading if you have one and record this number correcting for temperature. Once the extracts are dissolved turn the heat back on to boil the wort for 30 minutes. NOTE: Once wort begins to foam (Hot Break) watch carefully to prevent boiling over! If it looks like it’s going to boil over turn off heat briefly or blow on the foam. Stir frequently. Never pour this back into the beer. Make notes on your readings and what you’ve tasted for later. Turn off the heat – cool down to 70° . What size batch are you brewing? Select the pot size according to the batch size you will be brewing from the table below. In about 24 hours you should see bubbling in the airlock. or a snow bank stirring constantly or if you have one use a wort chiller. 10. Yeast needs oxygen in the wort before it’s added. Drink the wort from the hydrometer test tube. Pot Sizes (in quarts) Batch Size in Gallons Minimum Pot Size 1 2. for a 2. When the temperature is down to 70° . When there are plenty of bubbles in the wort add the yeast now stir gently you don’t want to add air to the wort once the yeast has been added. Place 3 gallons of water in a pot turn on the heat. 3. Place Air lock on ferementer (if there is one) 11. 9.90°F as quickly as possible by placing pot in a sink or tub filled with cold water.5 gallon batch just reduce the ingredients by half. Boil 2 gallons of water set it aside and let it cool to room temperature covered. Let it sit for 10 minutes. 1. It will be really sweet! 8. Place fermenter in a place where it will be out of the sunlight and undisturbed for several days to a few weeks depending on the recipe. sanitized and gathered up for your first extract brewing session way to go! These instruction will work no matter which fermenter type you choose. 6. When the water begins to boil turn off the heat and add all extracts and stir well to dissolve .you don’t want it to stick to the bottom – this mixture is called Wort.5 4 10 3 5 12 20 5.5 24 6 10 24 40 Brewing an All Extract Wort For our example we will produce a 5 gallon batch of beer. Clean up! 23 . 4. 5. Keep an eye on the temperatures! 12.

Once the extracts are dissolved turn the heat back on to boil the wort. When the temperature is down to 70° . Place fermenter in a place where it will be out of the sunlight and undisturbed for several days to a few weeks depending on the recipe. 8. Remove grains 5. Drink the wort from the hydrometer test tube. Never pour this back into the beer. Boil Bittering hops for 55 minutes. Keep an eye on the temperatures! 15. Clean up! 24 . 1. Yeast needs oxygen in the wort before it’s added. NOTE: Once wort begins to foam (Hot Break) watch carefully to prevent boiling over! If it looks like it’s going to boil over turn off heat briefly or blow on the foam. 7. If you have aroma or finishing hops add for the last 5 minutes of the boil. When the water begins to boil turn off the heat and add all extracts and stir well to dissolve . Let it sit for 10 minutes. or a snow bank stirring constantly. It will be really sweet! 13. In about 24 hours you should see bubbling in the airlock. Stir frequently.90°F as quickly as possible by placing pot in a sink or tub filled with cold water. Do not let water get above 170°F before removing grains or it will leave an off taste in your beer! 4. for a 2. 2. Place 3 gallons of water in a pot turn on the heat.Brewing Extract with Steeped Grains and Hops For our example we will produce a 5 gallon batch of beer.you don’t want it to stick to the bottom – this mixture is called Wort. Transfer wort to your fermenter of choice being careful to leave as much of the sediment and trub behind as you can. 12. 10. 9. Boil 2 gallons of water set it aside and let it cool to room temperature covered. 13. Make notes on your readings and what you’ve tasted for later.5 gallon batch just reduce the ingredients by half. If you have one use a wort chiller. Take a hydrometer reading if you have one and record this number correcting for temperature. Turn off the heat – cool down to 70° .90°F aerate the wort by stirring up quickly or whip it using a wire whisk. 11. 6. When there are plenty of bubbles in the wort add the yeast now stir gently you don’t want to add air to the wort once the yeast has been added. Place Air lock on ferementer (if there is one) 14. If you have bittering hops place them in a clean muslin bag tie a knot in it and add them now. 3. Place grains in the muslin bag tie a knot in it and steep the grains swirling them around until the temperature reaches 165°F.

My second batch of beer was a Coopers Brew Master Select kit with “steeped grains. 25 . Then I found Mr.Brewing Your First All-Grain Beer All-Grain.and for that reason I did not start brewing for many years after I got the urge to try. You’ve probably read dozens of texts on the subject only to find it still remains shrouded in mystery. To make it easy on your back place the boiling pot (HLT) on the stove with tubing attached long enough to go into the Mash Tun. place the Mash tun on a high chair or stool with tubing long enough to reach the bottom of the collection pot and a collection pot for the Mash tun on a chair or the floor. The term sends shivers down the spines of those who are unaware of how simple it really is. It should look something like this if possible: HLT Let’s Get Started! Stove Mash Tun Stool Pot Chair The Mash 1. Bring about 4 gallons of water up to about 160°F NOTE: Lets say we have a total of 8 pounds of grain we need about 1 ½ quarts of water per pound of grain to put into the Mash Tun with the grain so that’s 12 quarts of water (the 4 gallons from step 1). Pour a few gallons of hot tap water into you Mash Tun to warm it up and let it sit with the lid on for about 5 minutes then dump it and put the lid back on. Place all of the crushed grains into the Mash Tun. 2. 3. If your like me when I first got started all the information available spoke of this wizardry and how difficult it is . Beer.so get out all you equipment wash and sanitize everything! If you don’t have a grain mill order your grain pre-crushed.” I just followed the recipe everything was in the kit! Okay let’s get rid of the fear – this is easy. a bit more time consuming but easy! Here we go! This will be for 5 gallons of beer assuming a few different grains and hops . which introduced me to extract brewing in small batches.

NOTE: Now the Mashing is done and all the sugars (extracts) are collected. That’s normal! This is called the first runnings. If you don’t have a hydrometer just look to see that it’s really light compared to the earlier runnings. 3. 2. This water will have a lot of grain particles in it. The rest is just extract brewing. The temperature in the grain bed should be about 150°F. 10. 26 . This should take about an hour to complete – so just a trickle will do! NOTE: As the water passes through the grains it takes with it the sugars which will become the wort.010 and 1. This may take only be once or could take 3 or 4 tries. The more water that passes through the lighter the color of the run off. 5. NOTE: Place a saucer or colander over the grain bed to keep from stirring up the grains. Once all the water has passed through the grain checkthe specific gravity of the final runoff . Slowly add the water to the grains to cover them by about an inch and stir them up to make sure they aren’t stuck together and let them sit covered for one hour.4. Back To Extract Brewing 1. Boil Bittering hops for 55 minutes. If you have aroma or finishing hops add for the last 5 minutes of the boil. Bring the wort to a boil. You will lose about a gallon during the boil.It should be between 1. Again slowly pour this back into the Mash Tun. Pour another 2 quarts of water out from the Mash tun into the collection pot. 9. If you don’t have 5 gallons add water to bringit up to 5 gallons. 8. You should have collected about 6 gallons of extract. 7. Slowly pout this back into the Mash Tun. Once the Mash water runs fairly free of particles open the spigot a tiny bit to let the mash water slowly drip into the collection pot … at the same time slowly open the spigot of the HLT and let it run into the Mash Tun. 6. This should be cleaner than the first. This is called the Mash.000. After an hour run about 2 quarts of water out of the Mash Tun into the collection pot. If you have bittering hops place them in a clean muslin bag tie a knot in it and add them now. Add about 4 more gallons of water to the HLT and bring this temperature up to about 170° F. Continue to pour a few quarts Mash water at a time into the collection pot until it runs clear.

Take a hydrometer reading if you have one and record this number correcting for temperature. 8. If you have one use a wort chiller.4. Clean up! Now that wasn’t to hard was it? 27 . Turn off the heat – cool down to 70° . It will be really sweet! 7. Drink the wort from the hydrometer test tube.90°F as quickly as possible by placing pot in a sink or tub filled with cold water. Never pour this back into the beer. Keep an eye on the temperatures! 11. or a snow bank stirring constantly.90°F aerate the wort by stirring up quickly or whip it using a wire whisk. Place Air lock on ferementer (if there is one) 10. Make notes on your readings and what you’ve tasted for later. Yeast needs oxygen in the wort before it’s added. Place fermenter in a place where it will be out of the sunlight and undisturbed for several days to a few weeks depending on the recipe. Let it sit for 10 minutes. In about 24 hours you should see bubbling in the airlock. When the temperature is down to 70° . 9. When there are plenty of bubbles in the wort add the yeast now stir gently you don’t want to add air to the wort once the yeast has been added. 6. 5. Transfer wort to your fermenter of choice being careful to leave as much of the sediment and trub behind as you can.

– F.).G. That’s why in one state the same brand of beer maybe be higher or lower in alcohol content or not available at all. That stinks but that’s the law.Calculating % Alcohol So why do we want to know this? Who cares anyway? We can use these numbers to caculate how much alcohol is in our beer! Most states regulate how much alcohol is allowed to be present in the beer within it’s boarders.) when we finished brewing. % Alcohol by Volume To calculate the percentage of alcohol by volume we take our original gravity and subtract our final gravity. multiply that by 105. the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) and the percentage of alcohol by weight (ABW).333 x 100 % Alcohol by Weight To calculate the percentage of alcohol by weight we take our original gravity and subtract our final gravity.) x 1. however these laws do not apply to Homebrewed beer! Yippie! Here are two basic methods for calculating % alcohol in beer.G.333.). – F.G.G. Then just before we bottle we take another reading the final gravity (F. Calculating % Alcohol by Weight (%ABW) (O. Some people call this the terminal gravity (T.) x 105 28 . then multiply that by 100. We need to retrieve the note we made of the original gravity (O. multiple that by 1.G. Calculating % Alcohol by Volume (%ABV) (O.G.G.

As long as something is happening in there it’s still working. You can use PET bottles with re-useable plastic caps or glass crown top bottles with a capper. but not plastic caps used for PET bottles. I don’t have a Hydrometer If the air lock hasn’t bubbled up more than once every few minutes you could taste it. maybe two. What do I need to Bottle my Beer? Well first you need bottles and lots of them! Before bottling collect the number of bottles and caps you will need (see chart on page 5) . type in the ingredients and it will calculate it for you. When the cap is hot it seals better. I know a guy that had a good batch of brew that forgot it for over a month! I wouldn’t push it though. Wash thoroughly and scrub with a bottle brush. Note: Recipes that have a lot of fermentables or fruit can take up to a month so be patient. If it’s really sweet wait a few more days. I have a Hydrometer! If you have a hydrometer you can take a specific gravity reading and compare it to the recipe readings. If the airlock is happily bubbling away let it sit for a few more days.tastybrew. After about a week.com/calculators/ Use this to determine your final gravity. you won’t see anyor very few bubbles in the airlock. I have some beer bottled in PET bottles that have been bottled over a year and they are fine. I’ve heard several people claim that PET bottles won’t keep long because they leak air and your beer will loose carbonation. Does it taste really sweet? Compare the flavors from the day you brewed it until now. Hot caps seal better! 29 . http://www. Just watch it.Preparing to Bottle Your Beer How do you know when the beer is ready to bottle? There are a few ways depending on whether or not you have a hydrometer. then sanitize them. If it taste about right but flat (don’t panic it’s not carbonated yet) it’s probably ready to bottle. Turn the heat off first before adding PET bottle caps so you don’t melt them. your beer will be ready to bottle. The beer will nearly stop fermenting. depending on your recipe. Place metal caps in boiling water. The alcohol acts like a preservative so don’t worry if you gone over by a few days. If it is not listed you can go to this website. Most recipes will list the original gravity and the final gravity that was achieved when the recipe was designed.

I evaluate it’s color. They can also be purchased in brown colored bottles like the one on the right. I don’t usually leave my beer in the sun do you? Some people claim clear and green glass bottles leave a funny taste in your beer. The old style bottle that require a bottle opener are crown tops. For glass bottles you need a capper and lots of caps. yeast remnants etc. clarity. a plastic resin and a form of polyester. I bottle at least two beers from every batch in clear glass bottles so I can evaluate what I have. You can not re-use these with a hand capper. Metal Bottle Caps – come in bags either by the pound or the gross. Basically any bottle that at one time held a carbonated beverage can be washed.homebrewit. I use the one on the left.20 a gross from Quality Wine and Ale I think they are cute! http://www.What is a PET Bottle? PET stands for polyethylene terephthalate. See photo on right. It’s called a universal capper and costs about $12. sanitized and re-used along with the caps. You can get them from a recycler or your local beverage store or get your friends to save them for you. many of our beers today come in twist off caps. I buy these at $1. I’ve never found this to be true. which is better for you beer because it blocks UV light which can ruin your beer.com/aisle/2060 Okay I’ve got my bottles and caps washed and sanitized what next? Well priming the beer of course! 30 . These I save in brown paper lined boxes and drink it on it’s anniversary date a year after I brewed it. If you think it was good a few weeks after you brewed it let one sit a year! What’s a Crown Top Bottle? Unfortunately.

The most accurate way to calculate your priming sugar is to use a nomograph. taking care not to stir it up to much. 12 oz. remove it from the heat and then dissolve the corn sugar in the water. NOTE: If you are using a brew bucket to transfer the beer from a carboy to the brew bucket don’t prime until you are ready to rack the beer from the brew bucket to the bottles. The place where the line crosses the sugar line is how much sugar you need to prime 5 gallons of that specific beer. Some sugars like table sugar are inconsistent and can cause off flavors in your beer. To do this follow the instructions below: Boil the water. and the volumes of CO2 required for that style of beer. DME can be used as well but it’s more expensive and why not save that for another batch of beer? What is priming? Priming is just adding more sugar to the beer so the yeast will eat it and create CO2 that it will carbonate the beer based on the table below: Corn Sugar for 5 Gallons = 13 1/2 Tablespoons Bottle Size 7 oz. We can do this with just about any sugar but corn sugar is about the best.35 Teaspoon 3/4 Teaspoon each 2 1/2 Teaspoons each 1 Teaspoon each 1 1/2 Tablespoons each 1 1/2 Teaspoons each Like everything else there is more than one way to do this. Once this sugar mixture has cooled add it to the fermenter and stir slowly using a sanitized spoon.Priming the Beer Before you can bottle you need to prime the beer. 1 liter/quart 16 oz. This method is much more accurate because it 31 . Bottle Priming To bottle prime you scoop the appropriate amount of sugar into each and every bottle then pour in the beer into the bottle and swish it around a bit. Priming Sugar . Bulk Priming To bulk prime you simply measure out the total corn sugar required to prime all of the beer (see chart above) then and 2/3 cups of boiling water priming the whole batch of beer at at one time. Cover the pot and let the sugar syrup cool to room temperature. A nomograph eliminates the need to do any calculations you just draw a line or place a straightedge or ruler on the mark for the temperature of your beer. 2 liter 22 oz.

5 32 .4.8 Fruit Lambic 3. Stout 1.2.4. so the colder the beer the better.). Please note: Temperatures are listed in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and sugar is measured in ounces (oz.4 .7 . At lower temperatures.2.0 Porter.0 .7 Lambic 2.2.7 American Ales & Lagers 2.2.4 European Lagers 2. and the style of the beer you have brewed.2 . Volumes of CO2 Required According To Beer Style Beer Style Volumes CO2 British-Style Ales 1.takes into consideration the temperature.5 German Wheat Beer 3.9 .3 Belgian Ales 1.2.5 . the beer can dissolve more CO2.2.3 .2 .

For some beers it is suggested that you condition for up to a month so check the recipes instructions on this. When your ready push the bottle filler into the bottom of the bottle and fill. Put the brew bucket on the table and the bottles on the chair. Release the clamp on the hose and transfer the beer into the bucket keeping the tubing submerged to prevent splashing. Set the cap on top of the bottle but don’t cap it yet.It’s Bottling Time! Bottling Your Beer Once again you will need to transfer your beer . In general. How you do this depends on the type of fermenter you have. sanitized racking cane. Racking From A Fermenter With A Spigot If your fermenter has a spigot it’s easy. If you let it sit a until you fill all of the bottles it will create CO2 and expel any air out of the bottle keeping your beer fresher longer. put the bucket on a chair below the carboy and put the tubing in the bucket. If you let it sit a until you fill all of the bottles it will create CO2 and expel any air out of the bottle keeping your beer fresher longer. When you release the pressur on the bottle filler it will stop the flow of beer. tubing. This time we will rack into bottles. Just put a bit sanitized tubing on the spigot run the tubing to the bottom of the bottle open the spigot and fill up the bottle trying not to get any air in. the longer you condition the beer better it tastes. Racking From a Carboy If you are using a carboy you will need a clean. You place the racking cane in the carboy and place it up on the table. Add the bottle filler to the racking cane and close the clamp. Bottle Conditioning Once all the beer is bottled you need to crimp the caps and let it sit in a cool place out of sunlight to condition for a week to 10 days. Set the cap on top of the bottle but don’t cap it yet. Chilling and Drinking After the necessary conditioning period put your beer in the refrigerator for a few days to a week and enjoy! Congratulations -You’ve made you first homebrewed beer! Now wasn’t that simple? 33 . bottle filler and brew bucket.this is known as racking.

what it’s used for and a brief description of it’s use. It combines all the specifics of the beer style and includes commercial example of that style to help you decide what you may want to brew. the minimum and maximum temperature for use.Appendix I’ve added a few handy reference tables to aid you in your brewing. Reading these charts can sometimes be confusing. Let me explain what these tables can do for you and why I added them. the type and form it comes in.. Beer Style Statistics With Commercial Examples There are many different styles given to a beer that describes its overall character and origin. grain. Flavors & Finings This table will help you determine the type. the maximum amount you should use per batch of beer. what form in comes in. Maybe you like a particular brand of beer but you don’t know the style – this table is for you. what beers it should be used in.e. Hops This table will help you determine the type of Hop. Clink . (I. Spices. Extracts & Sugars This table will help you determine the type of malt. the flocculation and attenuation which should be achieved. when to add it and for how long. where the malt originates from. Yeast Statistics This table will help you determine the Brand Name with item number. the average specific gravity it will attain. quantity per 5 gallon batch of beer. Grains. emergency substitutions if you run out and a description of it’s flavors. what it’s used for (Aroma or bittering). whether or not it must be mashed (no means you can steep it) . the percent of alpha acids which may be obtained. LME or DME). and a brief description of what it should be used for. Ahhhhh 34 . the potential color contribution to your beer.

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