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The report discusses the role of Drive Test and 3G frequency planning in today’s world of Telecommunications. Drive test involves setting up a call to the best carrier and driving along the roads. While driving, the radio parameters and air interference signal data are collected as a log file. This study demonstrates to verify whether the network meets the given requirements, on the basis of which network was designed, to verify whether the parameters and configurations are defined correctly or not, and, to investigate network problems related to poor quality, signal level, interference etc. In 3g frequency planning we come to know how only one frequency is planned in the network. We sought to demonstrate the steps to be taken-up to fulfill the objectives of using drive test tools and frequency planning tools which are summarized as the collection of Data and extraction of relevant information from it, analysis of the extracted data and suggesting changes in the network configuration based on the analysis.It also demonstrates the optimization of the network,to check the performance of the network, just after it is made operational and to get the best possible quality of service which includes suggesting changes in the defined parameters & configurations on the basis of drive test data analysis.


I Consider it a privilege to express a few words of gratitude and respect to all who guided and inspired me in successful completion of this project. I also extend my particular thanks to our Director S.Gagandeep Singh, HR manager Ms.Rajwinder kaur and Ms.Apeksha who helped me in personality development. I am overwhelmed with pleasure to express my gratitude towards Mr. Kapil Bhutani(Assistant Director) for granting this project and guiding me in each and every step when i need his help. I would like to thank Ms. Aarti, Ms. Abhilasha and Mr. Sandeep Kamboj(trainers) to guide me and help me with new ideas. It is my sincere duty to do my best, so as to recognise as one of the successful professional, which i always strive to be. This brings along and fame to my beloved institute, the AMRITSAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,AMRITSAR. I would like to thank professor Dr. Vijay kumar Banga (HOD ECE) for his valuable suggestions and guidance during this training. His dedication and opinion were useful not only for completion of training but also for the professional life ahead of me. I am thankful to Dr. S.K.Aggarwal, principal (ACET Amritsar) for making arrangements of training. I am thankful to Mr. Gaurav soni, Associate professor (ECE) and all the faculty members of ECE department for positive and co-operative response with time, energy and valuable suggestions, they gave me to fulfil the task. There is no love like that of parents. I pay my most sincere regards to my parents who deserved very special word of appreciation for their invaluable support, encouragement and painstaking effort, without which this goal would have been more difficult. I express my thanks to my co-member who helped me in completing this project successfully. With thanks to all, Name- Anjana Sharma Branch-ECE Semester-7th Roll no.-90030409638

Cover page 1 2. Acknowledgement 3 4. Table of contents 4 5. Conclusion 110 8. List of tables 5 6. Chapters 6-7 7.TABLE OF CONTENTS S. Abstract 2 3. References 111 4 .no Topic Page no. 1.


3 : MSC (Main Switching Centre) : SS7 (Signaling System no.7) Chapter 3 : TRANSMISSION 3.3 : PM ( Performance management) : CM (Configuration management) 6 .5 : Introduction : Architecture : Channels and call flow : Identifiers and call flow : Protocols and call flow Chapter 2 : SWITCHING 2.1 1.1 : NSS (Network Station Subsystem) 2.1 : AM (Alarm management) 4.2 2.4 1.2 4.2 : Modulation Chapter 4 : OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT 4.CHAPTERS Chapter 1 : GSM FUNDAMENTALS 1.2 1.1 : Multiplexing 3.3 1.

2 : 3G planning 6.5 : GPRS (General packet radio service) : EDGE (Enhance data for GSM evolution) : VOIP (Voice over internet protocol) : LTE (Long term evolution) Chapter 6 : 3G PLANNING AND DRIVE TEST 6.3 : Drive test 7 .4 5.3 5.1 : RF survey 6.2 5.Chapter 5 : TECHNOLOGIES 5.1 : CDMA (Code division multiple access) 5.


thirty two operators in 22 countries adopted the GSM standard. and by 2001.1--GSM FUNDAMENTALS 1. For DCS – 1800. Each physical channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number. the first deployment started. there are two sub bands of 75 MHz in the 1710 – 1785 MHz and 1805 – 1880 MHz ranges. GSM system frequencies include two bands at 900 MHZ and 1800 MHz commonly referred to as the GSM 900 and DCS 1800 systems. and in 1987 a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed. we will see this concept in detailed in “ channel concepts” later in this module). 1. the task force was formed.1. The main purpose of the group was to develop a 2G standard to resolve the roaming problem in the six existing different 1G analog systems in Europe. ETSI included GSM in its domain. In 1991. For the primary band in the GSM 900 system. close to 150 countries had adopted GSM for cellular adaptation.1. In 1986. 124 radio carriers have been defined and assigned in two sub-bands of 25 MHz each in the 890 – 915 MHz and 935-960 MHz ranges with channel width of 200 kHz (these sub-bands are always referred as downlink as well as uplink respectively.2 Frequency Bands This GSM system is a frequency and time division system. 9 . By the year 1993.1.1 Brief History The Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) standard for 2G pan European digital cellular with international roaming. and in 1992. In 1989. Each carrier (a total channel width of 200 KHz) is divided into frames of 8 time slots. the specification of the standard was completed.

telex. and videotext. . speech calls.3 GSM Services To study any system.1. which the system supports or provides. other data services such as fax and voicebandmodems were defined as overlay services on top of the analog voice service. They are (a) Teleservices. the lower layers and the frame format of the standard should specify how these transmission would be implemented over the air-interface 10 . Analog cellular systems were developed for a single application that is voice and in a manner similar to analog access to PSTN. GSM is an integrated voice-data service that provides a number of services beyond cellular telephone. (a) Teleservices It provide communication between two end user applications according to a standard protocol. emergency. it is very important to know the services. Traditional bearer services include a variety of asynchronous and synchronous data access to PSTN/ISDN and packet switched public data network. short messages. group 3 facsimile.1. These services are telephony. (b) Bearer services It provide capabilities to transmit information among user network interfaces. These services are divided into three major categories. To implement bearer services. (b) Bearer services and (c) supplementary services. The upper most layer of the protocol stack of the standard should be specified so that it could communicate with protocols used in these applications.

11 . calls are forwarded without any condition that is the MS will be treated as a passive device. The conditions are when the MS is not reachable. The subscriber can answer. Barring of outgoing calls:This function makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls.(a) Supplementary services GSM supports a wide range of supplementary (complementary and is not mandatory) services. reject or ignore the incoming call. This functionality is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit switched connection. Advice of Charge (AoC):This service provides the mobile subscriber with an estimate of the call charges. call hold. closed user group. operator determined call barring etc. Advice of charge. Call hold: This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablish the call. While unconditional call forwarding is active. calling line identification. The important supplementary services are:- Call forwarding:Gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to another number (either to the same network or even other network) with conditional or unconditional. multiple communication (like conferencing. call barring. There are two types of Aoc information: one provides the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes. connected line identification. That is the subscriber can establish multiple conversations at a time. These services are call forwarding. up to five ongoing calls can be included in one conversation). Call waiting:This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming call during a conversation. call waiting. if it is busy or if there is no reply. Multiparty service:This service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation. These are not stand-alone services but they are services that supplement a bearer or teleservice. These services belong to both telephony as well as data services. These services are considered as revenue generating features.

The BSC interferes with the mobile switching centre. the BTS provides the direct communication with the mobile phones. Fig 1 : GSM Architecture 12 .1. There may be a small number of base stations then linked to the base station controller. Of the units within the cellular network. Often the BTS antenna towers also support a small microwave dish antenna used for the link to the BSC.2 GSM ARCHITECTURE An overall cellular network contains a number of different elements from the base transceiver station (BTS) itself with its antenna back through a base station controller(BSC) and a mobile switching centre(MSC) to the location registers(HLR and VLR) and the link to the public switched telephone network(PSTN). The links between the BTS and BSC may use either land lines or even microwave links. The BSC is often collocated with a BTS. This units acts as a small centre to route calls to the required base station. This makes more widespread choices about the routing of calls and interferes to the landline PSTN as well as the HLR and VLR. and it also makes some decision about which of the base station is best suited to a particular call.

SIMPLE ARCHITECTURE SWITCHING CENTRE AUC HLR GMSC MSC/VLR EIR A interface BASE STATION CENTRE BSC A.bis interface um interface MS Fig 2: Simple Architecture of GSM 13 .

3 GSM CHANNELS AND CALL FLOW There are two types of GSM channels Physical channels Logical channels GSM uses a variety of channels in which the data is carried . 1.3. Each channel has a dedicated C0 channel. In the interface between the base station and the BSC. The physical channels are determined by the time slot where as the logical channels are determined by the information carried in the physical channels. Signalling that is also transported across the air interface is carried by links having 0 as the service access point identifier SAPI address. Most logical channels for signalling across the air interface are carried by LAPDm..25 Normal burst Fig 3 : Channel structure Physical channels In the air interface . frequency channel C0 and time slots TS0 and TS1 on that channel constitute the physical channels. 14 .1 Channel structure Tail bits data bits training sequence data bits tail bits guard bits 3 57 bits 1 26 1 57 3 8. Control channels Control channels are divided into three classes. these are separated into physical and logical channels. based on how and when they are used: broadcast channels(BCH). which in turn use PCM channels. all signalling are carried out by LAPD links.1. common control channels(CCCH) and dedicated control channels(DCCH).

A paging channel(PCH) is used by the network to call terminals. COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS Class CCCH channels are used for access to the network. DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS Class DCCH channels are used for signalling between a mobile and the network before and during a call. They are unidirectional and used jointly by all mobiles. A frequency correction channel (FCCH) carries frequency correction information. 15 . A broadcast control channel carries cell specific information. An access granted channel(AGCH) is used by the network to allocate a dedicated control channel.LOGICAL CHANNELS 9 CONTROL CHANNELS 2 TRAFFIC CHANNELS BCH CCH DCCH full rate TCH half rate TCH FCCH SCH BCCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH PCH RACH AGCH Fig 4 : Channel tree BROADCAST CHANNELS Class BCH channels continuously send information about cell and network parameters to the mobiles. A synchronisation channel(SCH) carries frame synchronisation information. A random access channel (RACH) is used by a mobile to answer paging calls. These channels are also common to all mobiles.

These are defined using a 26-TDMA frames.e before traffic channel has been allocated. CHANNEL NO. Length of frame is 120ms. A slow associated control channel(SACCH) is a locating channel that the mobile uses to continuously report received signal strength. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CHANNEL COMBINATION TIMESLOT FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH SDCCH+CBCH SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8 PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F Traffic channels This channel is used to carry speech and data traffic. Half rate TCHs are not yet implemented. Half rate TCHs doubles the capacity. TCHs are divided as full rate and half rate TCHs. 16 . A fast associated control channel is only available in conversation state.A stand alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is used for signalling during the setup phase i. TCHs for uplink and downlink are separated.

4. It is assigned by VLR. It is a kind of serial number.4. It is allocated by equipment manufacturer.4. Besides phone numbers and subscriber and equipment identifiers. they are needed for the management of subscriber mobility and for addressing of all the remaining network elements. 1.4 GSM IDENTIFIERS AND CALL FLOW GSM distinguishes explicity between user and equipment and deals with them separately. 1.3 digits MOBILE NETWORK CODE(MNC). FINAL ASSEMBLY CODE (FAC)-6 digits SERIAL NUMBER (SN)-6 digits SPARE (SP)-1 digit IMEI=TAC+FAC+SNR+SP 1.2 INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY (IMSI) Each registered user is uniquely identified by IMSI.2 digits MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (MSIN). several other identifiers have been defined.max 10 digits 1.3 MOBILE SUBSCRIBER ISDN NUMBER (MSISDN) The real telephone number of a mobile station is the mobile subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN). 17 . MOBILE COUNTRY CODE (MCC).1. It is stored in subscriber identity module (SIM). There are following parts of an IMEI: TYPE APPROVAL CODE (TAC)-6 digits centrally assigned.4 MOBILE STATION ROAMING NUMBER (MSRN) This number is a temporary location dependent ISDN number.4.1 INTERNATIONAL MOBILE STATION EQUIPMENT IDENTITY (IMEI): IMEI uniquely identifies a mobile station internationally.

6 TEMPORARY MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY (TMSI) The VLR which is responsible for the current location of the subscriber can assign TMSI which has only local significance in the area handled by the VLR. 18 . LOCATION AREA IDENTITY (LAI) Each LA of an PLMN has its own identifier. CELL IDENTIFIER (CI) With in an LA the individual cells are uniquely identified with a cell identifier (CI).

19 .Link access protocol for D channel The signalling protocols in GSM is structured into three general layers depending on the interfaces. CM MM RR LAPDm BTSM Physical TDMA RR BTSM LAPD LAPDm LAPD MS BTS Fig 5 : GSM protocols The network is divided into three layers Layer 1: physical layer Layer 2: data layer Layer 3: upper layer BSC BSSMAP RR CM MM BSSMAP SCCP MTP-3 MTP-2 MTP-1 MSC CM. LAYER1: the physical layer which uses the channel structure over the air interface(radio transmission).1.5 GSM PROTOCOLS AND CALL FLOW The layered model of the GSM architecture integrates and links the peer to peer communications between two different resource LAPDm.configuration management MM-mobility management RR.

MM) PD—protocol discriminator-identifies type of messages MT—message type-identifies messages IE—information elements-address of destination and source IEI—IE identifier –address of destination and source 1.CM.2 LAPDm protocol This protocol is used for frame numbering. Address field (8 bits) Control field (8 bits) Length indicator (8 bits) LI Information bits (variable) IB Fill in bits (variable) AF CF FB Address field used to carry the service access point indicator. sequential order of which protocol is linked(RR. Fill in bits indicates extra bits required. Length indicator indicates length of the frame except fill in bits.LAYER2: data link layer provides error free communication between adjacent entities (BTSBSC) based on the ISDNs LAPD protocol for the radio and a-bis interface and on SS7s message transfer protocol for the other layer interfaces.5.5. synchronisation. 20 . Control field manages request response messages. LAYER3: networking or messaging layer-this layer is responsible for call related management. 1.1 FRAME FORMAT FOR LAYER-3 TI PD MT IE IEI TI—transaction identifier.

PICTURE OF BASE TRANSEIVER SECTION Fig 6: Base Transreceiver section 21 .


Temporary numbers are generated by this. the various registers in NSS are: GMSC—Gateway MSC VLR—Visitor location register HLR—Home location register EIR—Equipment identity register AUC—Authentication centre HLR-. VLR—it is a temporary data base.1-. AUC/EIR—it is associated with HLR. MSC communicates with HLR to get data for subscribers on call. 23 . It deals with fraud management.2.NETWORK SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM. It provides current location of the subscriber to provide new LAI. It has permanent subscriber data bases.MSC has all subscriber data bases stored in HLR. Fig 7: Network Switching Subsystem These are the data bases which are storing devices ( flip flops) . Authentication is the process by which the sim is verified.

2.1.2 MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE 24 .1 REGISTERS IN NSS MSC/VLR area Location area cell Vvvvvvv VLR VLR—HLR MSC MSC Roaming part PLMN area GSM area Fig 8: Registers in NSS 2.

These MSCs will then be the Gateway MSC for many of the calls they handle. call location.1 Explanation The Mobile Switching Center or MSC is the primary service delivery node for GSM.2 Mobile Switching Centre Server (MSS) The Mobile Switching Centre Server or MSC Server is a soft switch variant of Mobile Switching Centre. however. The Visited MSC is the MSC where a customer is currently located.2. All mobile to mobile calls and PSTN to mobile calls are routed through a GMSC. A Gateway MSC is the MSC that determines which visited MSC the subscriber who is being called is currently located. The VLR associated with this MSC will have the subscriber's data in it. which provides circuit-switched calling. There are various different names for MSCs in different contexts which reflects their complex role in the network.2. some manufacturers design dedicated high capacity MSCs which do not have any BSSes connected to them. authentication. Only at the MSC is this re-coded into an "analogue" signal . These include registration. mobility management. The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection. all of these terms though could refer to the same MSC. It also interfaces with the Public Switched Telephone Network. In the GSM mobile phone system. in contrast with earlier analogue services. The MSC acts like a normal switching node within a PSTN or ISDN. The term is only valid in the context of one call since any MSC may provide both the gateway function and the Visited MSC function. and GSM 25 . 2. but also provides additional functionality to enable the requirements of a mobile user to be supported. The Target MSC is the MSC toward which a Handover should take place. inter MSC handovers and call routing to a mobile subscriber. responsible for handling voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls. handles mobility and hand-over requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time pre-paid account monitoring. FAX and circuit switched data).The Anchor MSC is the MSC from which a handover has been initiated. but doing different things at different times. fax and data information is sent directly digitally encoded to the MSC. 2.The main element within the core network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the mobile switching centre (MSC).

which guarantees more optimal placement of network elements within the network. 2. The UTRAN which handles the radio communication with 3G mobile phones. 3. MSC Server functionality enables split between control (signalling) and user plane (bearer in network element called as Media Gateway). Carrying out handovers from this MSC to another. Connecting outgoing calls to other mobile subscribers or the PSTN. The VLR for determining where other mobile subscribers are located.3 INTEGRATION OF BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) 26 .services to the mobile phones roaming within the area that it serves. 4. The Base Station Subsystem which handles the radio communication with 2G and 2. Tasks of the MSC include 1. Arranging handovers from BSC to BSC. 2.2. Other GSM Core Network Elements connected to the MSC The MSC connects to the following elements: 1. 3.5G mobile phones. Delivering calls to subscribers as they arrive based on information from the VLR . 4. Delivering SMSs from subscribers to the SMSC and vice versa. 5. The HLR for obtaining data about the SIM and MSISDN 2. Fig 9: Antenna 27 .Antenna 1/2 Clamp 7/16 Din Connector 1/2 Jumper Tower Top Amplifier 7/8“ Cable 7/8“ Cable Grounding Machine house 1/2“ Jumper EMP Grounding clip Grounding bar Cabinet The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

Fig 10: Microwave Antenna 28 .

Fig 11 :Feeder and Jumper Cables 29 .

Fig 12 : Mount. Mechnical Tilt and GSM antenna 30 .

Fig 13 : Electrical Tilt 31 .

) during site installation is done by different vendors (NOKIA. so we have to built an tower of (30mts -18mts) 12 meters.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF BASE STATION GSM Antenna System AC BTS Cabin/Shelter/Room Mains BTS Power Panel DC MW Power Battery Supply Abis MINILINK Backup Unit Fig 14 : Base station BASE STATION LAYOUT All the hardware installation (Tower. Antennas. Zeppelin etc). When they complete their job. It includes right height. firstly the right place for the site is planned by the planning department. The site is installed mainly on top of the building so that the total height may be achieved by subtracting the height of the building from the total height from where the antenna is to be installed i. DG.When a new site is to be installed. if we have planned to mount an antenna at a height of 30 meters and the height of the building selected is 18 meters. the O&M Engineer comes and checks whether the installations are done 32 . 2.2. Kirloskar. TX and RX frequency of the microwave antenna. BTS.e. Shelter AC.

Fig 15 : Shelter 33 . A site mainly consists of following: (a). As the shelter is at a height of one and a half feet. we use 3 to 4 stairs for getting into the shelter conveniently. he starts his job of integrating the site .Shelter (b). we use four cemented base which is raised from ground to a height approximately one and a halffeet with two metal rails running over this base. The shelter is mounted over this by metal nails.properly or not. The Back side of the shelter has an AC exhaust fans mounted over by two metal nails. He checks the jumpers coming from antennas very carefully.DC Generator(DG) (c)Tower (including antenna) (a)Shelter : For the shelter. After he is completely satisfied.

The thickness is such that it can withhold the weight of the antenna. 240 V.(b) Diesel Generator : It is one of the important components used in a site. it stops automatically. the GSM and the microwave antenna are installed on top of the tower using moulds. It is painted by orange and white color as it the standard for any antenna using microwave frequency. then further connected by the jumper to the antenna. in that case it starts automatically and when the mains are ok.e. 10 KVA or 15KVA or 25KVA Fig 16: DC Generator (c)Tower For constructing the tower. firstly a concrete square wall of 3 -4 feet is made. The jumper cables are connected from top of BTS &hen connected to the feeder cable which is routed through the cable tray on to the top of the tower. There are basically two types of towers : 34 . The two antennas i. The specifications of the DG are : AC generator: 50Hz 1500 RPM. It is used in case of power breakdown.

Ground Based towers.Roof Top(RT) towers . Fig 17: Ground Base Tower 35 . The main advantage of Roof Tower (RT) tower is that it reduces the height of the tower and therefore not only reduces the material required for constructing the tower but automatically saves the time required to erect a tower as well as reduces the cost required for construction. .

Fig 18: Roof Top Tower 36 .

DATA—this layer contains data.1 : SS7 ARCHITECTURE SSP SCP STP SSP SCP This signalling is required for communication between NSS elements.3.2 OPEN SYSTEM INTERFACE (OSI) MODEL 7.3. it has a disadvantage that there is a delay. This is used for call initialisation. There are two types of signalling: Channel Associated Signaling ( CAS) Common Channel Signaling ( CCS) In CAS voice and signalling are on same frequency. In CCS there are separate channels for traffic and signalling so there is no is faster as compared to CAS. APPLICATION 6. 2. 37 . call routing and termination.NETWORK 2.PHYSICAL PHYSICAL—this layer is a physical connection LAN etc. Media may be wired or wireless.3 SIGNALING SYSTEM NO.TRANSPORT 3.7 2. DATA 1.2. SESSION 4. PRESENTATION 5.

ISUP—it defines the protocol used to set up. SESSION—it assembles data. 2. equipment identification and roaming. TCAP—Transaction capability application part—this is used for authentication.NETWORK—it contains IP addresses or logical address TRANSPORT—this layer make packets. SCCP—Signaling connection control part—it is used for protocol conversion. PRESENTATION—hiding data.3. manage and release trunk circuits that carry voice and data between calling and called party.3 SS7 STACK TUP TCAP ISUP SCCP MTP level 3 MTP level 2 MTP level 1 TUP—Telephone user part—there is a protocol conversion in International calling. STP STP SSP SSP Aa A 38 ISUP Fig 19: SS7 Call flow B .


Maximum frequency of voice signal=4.000 Hz=4 KHz Sampling frequency=8 khz 8*8=64 khz voice signal=Eo signal SDH and PDH are standardised multiplexing protocols.MULTIPLEXING In wireless cross talk is the severe form of interference..1--. High frequency carrier is used to reduce antenna height.3. Communication should always be synchronised and it is possible with the help of Universal time coordinate. PRC—Primary reference clock SSU—subsystem unit UTC PRC MSC SSU SSC SSU SSU SSU SSU BTS BTS BTS BTS Fig 20: Universal Time Clock 40 .

4 mbps 10 gbps 40 gbps SDH STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 SDH CAPACITY 21 E1 63 E1 252 E1 1008 E1 4032 E1 16128 E1 41 .048 mbps 8.1 PRIMARY MULTIPLEXING TS0 8 bits 8 bits (1) (2) Fig: Frame format 32 time slots 32 E0=E1 1-synchronisation 1-signaling 30. SDH is used in ATMs Bit rate 51 mbps 155 mbps 622 mbps 2.1.368 mbps 139.448 mbps 34.voice PDH—plesiochronous digital hierarchy SDH—synchronous digital hierarchy 8 bits (31) Signal E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 Digital bit rate 64 kbps 2.264 mbps Channels 1 32 E0 4 E1 16 E1 64 E1 PDH is almost synchronised but PDH is perfectly synchronised.3.

this is 200 khz.MODULATION It is a form of change process where we change the input information into a suitable format for the transmission into a suitable format for the transmission medium. The GSM uses GAUSSIAN minimum shift keying(GMSK) modulation method. 42 .3. The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. In GSM.833 K symbols per second. TRANSMISSION RATE The total symbol rate for GSM at 1 bit per symbol in GMSK produces 270. CHANNEL SPACING This indicates separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. SPEECH CODING This system uses linear predictive coding. DUPLEX DISTANCE The duplex distance is 80 Mhz. We also changed the information by demodulating the signal at the receiving end.2-. a method must be devised to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible. The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the total 25 Mhz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 khz bandwidth. GSM chose a combination of TDMA/FDMA as its method. ACCESS METHODS Because radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users.


It also downloads the software and configuration information received from the BSC or the MMI to other processors. It stores SW as well as downloads SW to the other units. Frequency hopping control The frequency hopping control processor controls the frequency hopping functions of the BTS by calculating the frequency hopping algorithm and controls the transceivers through a specific parallel bus. The TRX can basically be thought of in terms of two functional parts: the base band part and the radio part.1: OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT 4. The functions of the TRX can be divided into two categories: O&M and telecommunication control. One of the most important functions relative to O&M is to download the software and configuration information received from the main O&M processor to its slave processors (DSPs). which do not have a processor of their own.1. It is the main interface for local O&M and controls and supervises the other units as well as delivers all status information to the BSC by means of the O&M signallinglink . Transceiver (TRX) The TRX can also contain a varying number of plug-in units depending on the type of BTS. The radio part can also be split into a transmitter part(Tx) and a receiver part(Rx). An example of external alarm might be an intruder alarm or a smoke detector. The Rx part may also be configured to support antenna diversity . which is supported by all of the BTS products. which it manages. 44 .4. which can be used to monitor environmental conditions at the BTS site as well as monitor the state of units.1—ALARM MANAGEMENT Operation and maintenance The O&M processor controls and supervises the operation of all BTS units alone or in cooperation with other processors. External alarms and controls External alarms and controls are programmable interfaces to other devices in the BTS .

we can apply many of the functions examined in the previous section directly to the TRX. TT outage report.1. Air-interface measurement. speech coding being performed in the transcoder.1. TX power control. 4.1. 4. TRX software is also designed to handle a number of signalling scenarios including call setup and release.. Apart from digitising and source coding. we could also mention channel equalisation. adaptive frame alignment. all of these are in fact performed in the TRX.1.In terms of telecommunication control.2MAKING THE REPORTS There are three types of reports. Dump report gives previous status of one site. Relative to the other functions of the TRX.1 ESCALATION OF ALARMS Forwarding of alarms by communication with the field engineers. E1 report and Dump report. handovers. 45 . It is important to remember that in the uplink direction the mobile will perform the same functions as well as digitising and speech coding. E1 report gives the alarm of unavailable E1 which is a major alarm. RACH channel detection and measurements as TRX functions.

2—CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT This is done by back office and front office officers.4. lat long and other parameters into individual BTSs. 46 .3—PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT It is used for testing and tracing voice and data. BTS—BSC configuration Carrier parameters Access parameters Forward power overload parameter Neighbour cell list Ip address of all BTS is configured in BSC this is called commissioning and configuration is setting power level . It access the basic parameters of the network. Carrier parameters are data and voice. 4. Access parameters are related to power and user.



5.1—CDMA 2000
CDMA, code division multiple access, is a multiple access scheme used by many 3G cellular technologies, and other forms of wireless technology. It uses a process called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum where spreading codes are used to spread a signal out over a given bandwidth and then reconstructing the data in the receiver by using the same spreading code. By supplying different spreading codes to different users , several users are able to utilises the same frequency without mutual interference.

The advantage of using CDMA over TDMA and FDMA is that it enables a greater number of users to be supported. The improvement in efficiency is hard to define as it depends on many factors including size of cells and the level of interference between cells and several other factors.

IS95 specification summary Parameter Multiple access scheme Channel bandwidth Data rate Details CDMA 1.25 Mhz 14.4 kbps-IS95A 115 kbps-IS-95B 5.1.1 CODES IN CDMA There are two types of codes used in CDMA Walsh codes PN codes WALSH CODES: these are 32 in number and are used in forward link. It is 64 sequence long. Each code is orthogonal to all other walsh codes. Orthogonal means that it is possible to recognise and therefore extract a particular walsh code from a mixture of other walsh codes which are filtered out. Orthogonal means good correlation and autocorrelation properties.


PN (PSEUDO NOISE) CODES : these codes are named as pseudo noise because it only looks like noise but they are not noise. These are used in reverse link. Very long two short sequences I and Q . LONG PN CODE: they are 32768 chips long . these are generated by applying a mask, based on its 32 bit to 42 bit long code generated which was synchronised with the CDMA system. SHORT PN CODE: these are generated by tapped sift registers.these codes are practically orthogonal.

Type of How many sequence


Special properties

Forward link Reverse link function function



64 chips

Mutually orthogonal

User identity Orthogonal with in cell modulation signal


32768 chips

Orthogonal Distinguish Quadrature with itself at cells and spreading any time sectors shift Near Data Distinguish orthogonal is scrambling to users shifted avoid strings of 0s and 1s


2^42 chips

Fig: Codes Table


It is responsible for conversion between IP backbone and BSS protocols. BG—Border Gateway—it connects two PLMN networks.5. This technology enables much higher data rates to be conveyed over a cellular network. mobility management. CG—Charging Gateway—call detail records are generated by SGSNs. but the need for higher data rates spawned new developments to enable data to be transferred at much higher rates. authentication of GPRS users. This makes more efficient use of available capacity. DNS—Domain Name Server--it converts IP names to IP networks. This is because most data transfer occurs in what is termed as “bursty “ fashion. The key element of GPRS technology is that it uses packet switched rather than circuit switched. It performs functions as: Routing of data to the relevant GGSN.2—GPRS (GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE) GSM was the most successful second generation cellular technology. SGSN—Serving GPRS Support node: it is the MSC of the GPRS network. It allocates dynamic and static IP addresses to the mobiles. FIREWALL—it protects the IP network against external networks. 50 . GGSN—Gateway GPRS Support node--it acts as a router to the external network. The first system to make an impact on market was GPRS. It provides interfaces to external IP network.

3 EDGE (ENHANCED DATA FOR GSM EVOLUTION) EDGE is an evolution to the GSM mobile cellular phone system . GSM EDGE cellular technology is an upgrade to the existing GSM/GPRS networks. It then enables a three fold increase in the speed at which data can be transferred by adopting a new form of modulation.5 G system. it enables data to send over a GSM TDMA system at speeds up to 384 kbps. This evolution can provide data rates of up to 384 kbps. GSM uses a form of modulation known as Guassian Minimum Shift Keying modulation but EDGE evolution changes the modulation to 8PSK and there by enabling a significant increase in data rate to be achieved. The cost of upgradation to the network is relatively less. EDGE evolution is intended to built on the enhancements provided by the addition of GPRS where packet switching is applied to the network. EDGE SPECIFICATION HIGHLIGHTS Parameter Multiple access technology Duplex technique Channel spacing Modulation Slots per channel Frame duration Latency Fig EDGE specifications Details FDMA/TDMA FDD 200 khz GMSK/8PSK 8 4. This makes it a particularly attractive option proving virtually 3G data rates for a small upgrade to an existing GPRS network.5. It is necessary to have a hand set that is EDGE compatible. and can often be implemented as a software upgrade to the existing GSM/GPRS networks.615 ms Below 100 ms 51 . It is basically a 2. and this means that it offers a significantly higher data rates than GPRS.

the process occurs as encoding. Audio is transmitted using RTP which is used for transmitting voice. Both of these protocols differ in architecture and implementation. RTP message is encapsulated in a UDP datagram which is used for transport that is further encapsulated in IP datagram for transmission. VOIP can simply defined as the use of IP networks namely LAN and WAN. The process of establishing and terminating a call is called signalling. Voice requires about 10. Audio is encoded using a well known standard such as pulse code modulation.000 to 1.e mapping addresses of IPs to phone numbers.. Voip performs the basic functions as signalling i. playload cannot be stopped to wait for the transmitted packet.00. media and voip gateways and IP networks.With the help of this it is possible to call over PSTN network.UDP is used for transport because in lower head audio must be played as it arrives. End point devices such as phones.5. transmission and playback. A DATAGRAM is a postcard that has destination address.000 bits per second. database services i. return address and amount of text. to carry voice. The whole network is based on protocol layering structure. It is a IP based network. The various components of VOIP are: Servers: for processing IP calls and manage interaction etc. call connect and disconnect and CODEC operations for encapsulating voice into data packets. There is a involvement of CODEC and DATAGRAM.e controlling information. 52 . SIP and H323 are the protocols used for VOIP.4 VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP) For voice over internet protocol one should have skype or instant messanger installed.

it involves MIMO technology which allows spatial multiplexing which allows to transmit different streams of data simultaneously on the same resource by exploiting the spatial dimension of the radio channel. Multiplexing techniques used in this are: OFDM—Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing SCFDMA—Single carrier frequency division multiple access.5. FEATURES OF LTE Band Duplex techniques Multiple access Modulation Carrier bandwidth Data rate GSM and UMTS bands FDD/TDD OFDMA/TDMA—downlink SCFDMA/TDMA—uplink Adaptive modulation BPSK—64QAM BPSK for signalling only 1. moving the mobile world from legacy.5 LONG TERM EVOLUTION It is the first cellular technology which provide VOIP. In this voice is totally IP based. It is a complete step change. Its main is to develop voice centric networks to full IP connectivity.4 mhz—20mhz 100mbps—500 mbps Due to Doppler shifts data rates varies at higher speeds. 53 .


its analysis and rectification. To identify network problem. TO plan frequency in 3G network. 55 .AIM—1. 2.

6. 3. 6. 2. 5.2 RF SURVEY SITE SURVEY AND SELECTION: RF survey is done so as to find the best site location keeping in mind civil criteria and commercial viability. These parameters are: Frequency planning Site planning Parameter planning The various steps followed during a planning process are: 1.1 NETWORK REQUIREMENT STUDY: this study is done to check the basic requirement of the network in an area.1 RF PLANNING The first step in establishing network is to plan three basic parameters. 6. PRE PLANNING: this planning is done to plan coverage and capacity in the network.1.1. 4. Network requirement study Pre planning Site survey and selection Frequency planning BSS parameter planning Detailed planning 6. 56 .

5. 4. 2. 7. 3. Obstacles High tension line Power grid Water tank Railway lines Vegetation Water bodies Height of the building should be calculated as: H=G+3N G= ground floor N=no. 6.PROCEDURE FOR THE SURVEY: Preliminary radio network design Define the search ring for the nominal point Go to the nominal point Enter the building and go to the top roof Take photographs of the clutter as asked by the vendor Take notes and describe the nominal point Result Major things to be noted: 1. Of floors in that building 57 .

A) PURPOSE: RF site survey is a process of identifying GSM cell site location by visiting the predicted place and conducting a search within the specified area for the suitability in terms of RF coverage. the planning tool performs nominal network coverage plan based on the capacity.6. antenna type and base station nominal Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in accordance with the design requirements. The nominal coverage plan includes the ideal location of each site.1. if needed)  Structural Stability study for site implementation  Liaison through Real Estate Agency for commercial deal with the owner the site building. During initial planning stages. access and various other factors governing the implementation of the site as per design.1 INTRODUCTION This is a general-purpose document on Methods and Procedures of RF Site Survey of a GSM network. tasks include:  Site visits  Identification of candidate sites and options based on specified criteria. the antenna height.2. and coverage/service contours for each site. in-car and in-building Ensuring specified commercially sensitive areas to attain in-building coverage Antenna orientation and tilt Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) plan The next step is to conduct an RF site survey which amounts to cell site searches using the search data derived for the sites identified in the nominal cell plan. The planning tool produces detailed predictions for those cell sites that form the basis of a coherent cell design. 58 . The finalization of a site from candidate sites (say 3) needs the following processes:  Transmission feasibility study ( Line-of-Sight for Microwave. equipment type. digital geographical map information etc. Before final acceptance. This includes:     Coverage for on-street. The cell site acquisition encompasses a site evaluation process.

Name of City.2. Measuring tape 59 . Morphology type (Rural or Urban). Magnetic compass 3. Antenna type.1. Coverage Objective. site Above Ground Level (AGL) (m). Binocular 4. tools required are listed below: 1. Predicted latitude & longitude. 6. Location area map 6.2 TOOLS REQUIRED: For the RF site survey. Antenna orientation(Deg). A format with title 'Search Ring Form' is attached.B) REQUIREMENT INPUT: Before the RF site survey is conducted. GPS 2. Camera 5. the inputs required are as follows: Search Ring/Area It includes Site ID.

6.3 REPORT PREPARATION: Survey Report It includes detailed As-planned and surveyed Location. Take the photographs in the direction of the proposed antenna azimuth for coverage objective (maximum three sectors). 8. If nothing is available then look for an open accessible land suitable from architectural point of view. acquisition. Note down the latitude and longitude with the help of GPS 7. 25 meters height (depending on the site AGL). Latitude. This report is filled with relevant details and sent for the site 60 . 2. Select 3 candidate locations with no obstruction and better accessibility as close to the predicted location as possible. 3. Identify the north using Magnetic compass. go to the rooftop of building/ or top of the tower. candidate2 & candidate3 ). 9. AGL. identifying the best candidate as candidate1. 6. Take photographs of Panoramic view in every 30-degree direction starting with north. Visit the Search area as per predicted location co-ordinates using GPS and Location area map. Longitude. Look for the buildings of min.1. (G+6) height or tower of min. 4. Building Height and objective for all the candidate sites (candidate1.C) PROCEDURE CANDIDATE SITES SELECTION: 1. This search is conducted within the search ring of 100 meters radius with predicted location in the center. For each candidate. Azimuth. 5. next as candidate2 and finally the 3rd as candidate3.

The planning tool predicts the location but does not specify the type of land.6. These types of sites are called Ground based sites. So. like on Highways. the site selection process is a little different from the procedure mentioned above. For final site selection.1. 61 . the job of the site acquisition team is to acquire the land from the appropriate owner.4 SPECIAL CASE: In some cases. during RF site survey. the tower structure is suggested on the open land and the height of tower depends on the coverage requirements.

62 .

Search Ring Form Site ID: ____________ Site Name: _____________ Site Details City: _______________ Morphology Type: ____________________ Spheroid: _________________ Co-ordinates: (GPS) deg min sec Latitude: ______ _______ ________ N Longitude: ______ _______ ________ E Site AGL (m): ________ Antenna Orientation (Deg) Sector1 Sector2 Sector3 Antenna Type: _________________ 63 .

Coverage Objectives: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Comments: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Name & signature of RF coordinator: _______________________________ Date: _______________ 64 .

65 .

Search Ring Form Site ID: A-100 Site Name: katani 3b2 Site Details City: chandigarh Morphology Type: Dense Urban Spheroid: WGS-72 (WGS stands for World Geodetic System which is a standard used for map reference data) Co-ordinates: (GPS) deg min sec Latitude: 19 01 44.62 N Longitude: 72 53 57.20 E Site AGL (m): 20 Antenna Orientation (Deg) Sector1 40 Sector2 130 Sector3 320 Antenna Type: Cross Polarized Coverage Objectives: 66 .

Comments: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Name & signature of RF coordinator: \ Date: 02.11.02 67 .To cover RCF Town area.

Picture of surveys Fig 21: TOWER 68 .

6.1 : 2G frequency planning Planning of frequency in 2G network is done in such a way that there is no cochannel interference and adjacent channel interference. (1-1) Adjacent channel interference Interference where the frequency is adjacent to each other. To measure Rx level we use broadcast channel and also to measure interference there is a use of broadcast channel. 0 1 BCCH+SCH+FCCH SDCCH 2 SDCCH/8 3 4 BCCH+CBCH CBCH 5 PDCH 6 FDCH 7 TCH For broadcast only one time slot is required. broadcast channel has information of a cell and channel estimation.2. Co-channel interference Interference when there is same frequency between two different cells. (1-2) Planning of two frequencies broadcast channel and traffic channel .2 FREQUENCY PLANNING 6. 3 sector site can be planned as: 3*9 A B C A1 (1) B1 (2) C1 (3) A2 (4) B2 (5) C2 (6) A3 (7) B3 (8) C3 (9) 69 .

Synthesizer frequency hoping BASEBAND FREQUENCY HOPING: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BCCH TCH “ “ “ “ “ “ TCH “ “ “ “ “ “ “ TCH “ “ “ “ “ “ “ Number of cards is directly proportional to hopping. BCCH frequency never hopps. 70 . Baseband frequency hoping 2. Here the hopp between different frequencies depends on the number of carriers present in that particular cell.TRAFFIC CHANEL PLANNING TCH planning should be done in such a way that there is frequency hopping S1 S2 S3 BCCH 4 2 TCH 1 7 13 TCH 3 9 15 TCH 5 11 17 Types of frequency hoping: 1. Here frequency hopping is done by switching the information frame of one call from one transreceiver to another with in a cell. Hoping occurs by shifting a single cell between different TRX of the same sector for every burst.

No. This frequency hopping is preferred over baseband hoping due to the fact that for hoping to be really effective in case of baseband hoping. 71 . Of frequencies hopping on one TRX card. In this technique a unique parameter needed to be defined.SYNTHESIZER FREQUENCY HOPPING CARD 1 BCCH CARD 2 TCH 2 3 4 5 6 7 In this hopping at a time only at one frequency. This list contains a number of frequencies within which the TRX present in this sector would help.

It will enable a host of rich multimedia services such as video calling. you can now send and receive video content too — provided you have a 3G-enabled handset or USB data card and are in 3G coverage areas. This basically means that in addition to the earlier audio. Network Monitoring & troubleshooting “. video on demand. To sort out these problems in 3G network. and the option of wireless access for applications . Increasingly those users will want services that are not offered today.Through this project.2. 6.2.Project Overview This project is about “3G planning.2. such as your cellular phone or a data card. 3G networks operate on technology called High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSPA). and provide a richer experience for existing services such as mobile internet. A detailed discussion has been done to study the problems in 3G network and how to troubleshoot them. mobile TV and MMS.2 What Is Third Generation (3G) 3G Internet or Third Generation Internet Technology is the fastest mode of data communication today. Basically a radio communications technology that will create a "bit pipe" for providing mobile access to internet-based services. using the Internet or Intranets.1 Needs and Benefits of 3G By the year 2000 we will have between 600 – 800 million mobile phone users around the world. I have mentioned some troubleshooting techniques and solutions. graphics. such as accessing a LAN.7 Mbps) and downlink (up to 28 Mbps). It is a wireless technology and can be used anywhere and everywhere. 3G improves the data transfer over the 3G device. The data transfer rates for third generation mobile telecommunications is much more than 2G or 2.conferencing and sending and receiving high quality pictures ie data 72 . 3G is the next generation mobile technology offering higher speeds on both uplink (up to 5.5 in use. Introduction 6. I have tried to explain some of the common problems faced by 3G such as call drops and handover failures. and text. Data is transmitted many times faster than earlier 2G networks. video .

because with 3G you are constantly online and only pay for the informationyoureceive.suchasvideoandphotography. Salient Features: Physical Layer: The radio access consists of Wide band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). WCDMA supports both Frequency Divisoin Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes of operation. The standard was designed for world-wide use and supports compatibility for both packet-switched and circuit-switched data transmission.2.2. 73 . Because third-generation packet based networks will allow users to be online all the time the potential for new applications is vast.communications. Users will be charged on how much data they transmit . 144 kbps for satellite and rural outdoor environments.2 Features of UMTS The Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) standard was developed by the ThirdGeneration Partnership Project (3GPP). Packet-based data provides several advantages over the existing circuit-switched techniques used for carrying mobile voice. It evolved from the Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications to provide support for enhanced features such as high data rates and packet data transfer capabilities. Data rates: UMTS supports different data rates. not on how much time they are connected to the network. It allows higher call volumes and support for multimedia data applications. 6. 384 kbps for urban outdoor and 2048 kbps for indoor and low range outdoor environments.

and the establishment of RLC connections.3 Evolution of 3G A look at the evolutionary path from 2G to 3G shows the likely migration path for service providers of each major format. Security: UMTS incorporates improved security features in the form of five security groups:  Network access security provides secure access to users to 3G services. error notification. Network domain security features take care of security in the core network and protect the network against attacked from the wired interface. Application domain security features enable the secure exchange of messages between the user and provider domains. The W-CDMA system looks like it will receive the most subscribers as operation is started in the IMT-2000 band. The SR3 (Spread Rate 3) multicarrier standard appears to be dead. The first version of this is Data Only (DO). The IS-136 operators do not have a direct evolution path to 3G.2. Future versions of this will be capable of data and voice (1x EV-DV). User domain security features consist of mechanisms that enable secure access to MNs. The delivery of higher data rates for the current IS-95 community will be met with 1x Evolution (1xEV).Radio Link Control: The radio link control (RLC) part of the data link layer takes care of issues such as acknowledged and unacknowledged data transfer. 74 . Instead.2. QoS settings. they will transition to GSM and GPRS. It is designed to protect attacks on the radio access link.     Visibility and configurability security allows for the configuration of security features by a user on the device 6. transparency.

75 .Aspects 2G 2. was for a while adopted as a way for IS-136 operators to offer data services to existing subscribers. originally envisaged as a high data rate. evolutionary path for GSM.5G 3G Fig 22: Migration path to 3G EDGE. This now looks less certain to happen but it is still expected that EDGE will be implemented to complement data services in 2G and combined 2G/3G networks.

8Ghz(PCS band) Use GMSK for GSM &64-any orthogonal modulation for Optimized for specific operating environment The same as 2G Use of common global frequency band 1885-2025MHz & 2210 -2200 MHz Digital modulation Commonality for different operating environment Quality of services(QOS) GPRS is the same like GSM. 2.Frequency band They operate at multiple frequency bands.EDGE that can operates at 384kbps Use both circuit & packet switching Types switching of Use only switching circuit Use both circuit & packet switching fig: shows aspects of 2G. Improved QOS compared to 2G but still didn’t meet the market requirements Data services Good for voice but limited in data application. EDGE use(8-PSK) The same as 2G plus internet access. telnet).51.800900MHz(cellular band) & in 1.streaming class used for (video on demand)interactive class used for(e. less than 32kbps Good for voice but improved in data services by using GPRS that can operates at 172kbps.g. voice call).5G and 3G 76 .g. Use QPSK Maximizing the commonality optimizing of radio interface for multiple operatingenvironment 4 classes of QOS conversational class used for (e.and background class used for (downloading) Perfect for voice support many data services from at least 144kbps in mobility till 2Mbps indoor Limited quality of services due to presence of blocking and limited capacity.

77 .

2. Radio Access Network UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) Core Network (CN) Figure 22: Architecture of UMTS 78 . UMTS also covers the following:.6. Separation of access technology. The infrastructure should be designed so that technology changes and evolution can be adapted to the network without causing uncertainties in the existing services using the current network structure.2.    User Equipment (UE). The structure of a 3G network can be modelled in many ways. Being a complete network system. transport technology.4 UMTS Architecture: The main idea behind 3G is to prepare a universal infrastructure able to carry existing and also future services. service technology (connection control) and user applications from each other can handle this very demanding requirement.

This tool provides information about the BCCH frequency in the network. Neighbor cell information helps during handover.TOOL USED FOR PLANNING MAP INFO TOOL Mapinfo is a site planning and optimization tool. Map info can be used to do the following tasks :     BCCH frequency in network Create site Cell information Edit neighbour database Fig 23: MAP Info tool Check BCCH frequency 79 . Neighboring cell frequency information and interference can also be check with the help of this tool.

5 : Create site Fig 24: Cell information 80 .Figure 1.

Fig 25:Neighbour databases 81 .

UMTS will deliver broadband voice and data (video etc) traffic to mobile users. Radio access network (UTRAN) . It handles protocol exchanges between Iu. the 3G had been introduced. and the Radio Network Controller via the Iub interface. UMTS is one of the major technologies for realizing the third generation mobile communications. 82 .Third generation mobile networking is the latest technology in the wireless world. It had been modified in such a way that the data can be send through any path and hence this data will be received in less time as compared to that of voice calls Network Elements Involved in Packet Call Processing The mobile radio system consists of two basic subsystems. SGSN and GGSN network elements).includes call control and mobility management ( realized through MSC. It is involved in handover decisions. Iur and Iub interfaces and is responsible for centralized operation and maintenance of the entire RNS (RNC and Node B’s). It is not necessary to create a new dedicated path for sending the data. The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching . which are based on RF signal quality measurements..  RNC Radio Network Controller (RNC) enables Radio Resource Management by UTRAN. What is Packet Switching? This is actually done by supplying various addressed packets. In 3G Wide Brand Wireless Network is used with which the clarity increases and gives the perfection similar to that of a real conversation. which will be interconnected to have the conversation.includes radio functions such as radio resource management (realized through Node-B and RNC network elements) Core Network (CN) .Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching. Components in UTRAN:  Node B Node B (also called the Base Station Controller or Radio Base Station) provides the gateway interface between the handset/RF interface.5G. Defined by 3GPP .To overcome the shortcomings of 2G and 2.

which leads to the creation of a GMM Context. provide support for mobile terminated IP sessions (Push services). The HLR is accessible from the SGSN via the Gr interface and from the GGSN via the Gc interface. But in MT.The SGSN monitors user’s location and performs security functions and access control. 83 . the MS initates the Session creation.Components in CN: SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) as a network element is meant to handle PS domain call control. Mobile Originated (MO) and Mobile Terminated (MT). This is done by performing an Attach Procedure initiated by GMM. A Session can be defined as a transaction initiated by the MS or an external PDN for exchanging data packets between them. The Call Origination can be of two types. Packet Call Processing Call Initiation The pre-requisite for any Packet Data transfer is a creation of a session. the MS can establish a session for data transfer. A PS Signalling connection is also established between the MS and the SGSN during this procedure. user data screening/security and charging. Once the Attach Procedure is done. For a session to be created. It also does the allocation of dynamic addresses to MS. International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) and Cell Identity. the presence of MS must be known to the network. HLR Home Location Register (HLR) contains packet domain subscription data and routeing information. the GGSN on receiving PDU’s from external PDNs notify the MS to start the Session Creation Procedure. GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) contains routeing information for packet-switched (PS) attached users and provides interworking with external PS networks such as the packet data network (PDN). In MO.The GMM Context contains details like International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI). An example for a session could be an FTP or a Telnet session. data transfer and mobility management .



network capacity.3 DRIVE TEST Drive testing is the most common and maybe the best way to analyse network performance by means of coverage evaluation. system availability.6. then the network is said to be optimized. it provides huge perspective to the service provider about what’s happening with a subscriber point of view. The collected data is then processed offline to find out the deviation from the prediction as per the interpretation of past processing result configuration changes are proposed in the network. Although it gives idea only on downlink side of the process. DRIVE TEST ACTION POST PROCESSING DATA ANALYSIS 86 . The process of collecting air interface data from the already build network. network retainability and call quality. Further drive test is to be performed so as to check the modify status After a few changes the build network is brought near to the prediction.

Post Processing The RF data is collected is compared with the planned data by the way post processing tool.Drive Test Drive test is performed with the aim of collecting measurement data o f a network as a function of location. Data Analysis The changes are recommended in the network according to the problems Action The actions are performed in the network. Fig 25: TEMS 87 .

etc/ • • List of problematic cells identified and drive tested thoroughly to analyze the problem. . Problem Drive Testing • Problems reported by statistical analysis. Routes regularly drive tested and problems further analyzed and solved. Data collection and analysis done simultaneously. Drive test routes to include all the major roads.Requirements for Drive Testing • • • Network Problem Identification OMC Statistics Customer feedback Types of Drive Test Types of Drive Test with respect to work to be done in Drive Test: • • • Routine drive test Problem specific drive test Cell coverage analysis drive test Routine Drive Test • • • • Network is monitored on a regular basis. etc. etc. Frequency Plan change. May require removing interfering carrier. Cell Coverage Analysis Drive Test • Usually carried out for new planned sites in the network. customer care centre . Power Change to Node B. routine drive testing. Neighbor addition. important locations. • 88 New cells to come on air are thoroughly drive tested to determine their server and coverage areas.

6.3.Updating in existing network Benchmarking Drive Test. 6.Multiple Operator Drive Test Frequency Scanning Drive Test-To check the performance of various frequencies at a particular location • • Extensive Drive Test.3.2 Drive Test Equipments Data collected to find and analyze problems in the network Vehicle Laptop with drive test software and GPS connection capability Drive Test Tools TEMS PROBE AGILENT AIRCOM 89 .Initial network setup Green Field Drive Test-For new network acceptance test drive SWAP Drive Test.1 Types of Drive Tests with respect to Area covered: • • • • • CW Drive Test.For new networks prelaunching drive test.• Optimization to be carried out for any major deviation from the initially planned design.Drive in each sector Single Cell Functionality Test.

Drive test to be carried out preferably during peak traffic hours. 6.3. they should be prioritized when conducting the coverage drive test unless a new site is commissioned into service for specific objective. Calls to be made preferably mobile to a fixed number. at least 1000 calls required for good statistical confidence.Drive Test Kit TEMS SOFTWARE DONGLE KEY TEMS HANDSET GPS CABLES BUFFO CABLES UPS DATA CABLES TEST SIM 6.4 Routes Primary routes Includes all major routes and highways . 90 . Call duration to be equal to the average call duration for the network For a typical metro city.3 General Considerations • • • • • Routes chosen to be representative of the part of the network under study.3.

6.Secondary routes Includes all the streets.3. It also determines the call setup time. close to site unless the clutter is so important Also make short calls to check the MOC and MOT. Try to drive on as many roads.6 Drive Test Applications Coverage Optimization Network Troubleshooting Interference Monitoring Competitive analyses Golden Rules for Drive Test Do not drive away from the site.3. subdivisions and compounds which ever accessible. Miscellaneous routes Inbuilding and special locations like shopping malls and tourist places. Long calls are important for checking the handover and other network parameters 91 .5 Drive Test Checklist RF Parameters Signal Strength Signal Quality Speech Quality Location of Subscriber etc. Do cover all the sectors of a given site. 6.

Now the mobile connected is in ideal mode. Now we can export it in the desire format to make the report. Report all shorts of problems. Drive on the route covering cell and neighbouring cell. we will be able to collect RF parameters of the radio network.Weather conditions are to be noted. 5. 92 . 2. 4. Connect all devices to the software. 3. Define COMP ports for all the equipments. Proper connection should be check time to time. Open TEMS and attach all equipments. the radio parameters will show the parameters of the ideal mode. 7. Main focus should on GPS position. Procedure for Drive Test Following steps are to be performed during Drive Test: 1. start with dongle key. Log file is recorded. 6. Click on the record button of the toolbar to record the Log File. by doing so.

neighbor’s relations and channel usage on the map. Map window Fig 26: MAP Window 93 . Serving cell and handover indication on the map.Cell file Drawing of cells. Presentation of cell data on the info table on the map window.

Fig 27: Events occurs when playing log files on MAP window 94 .

Fig 28: Shows different parameters windows and log file Data Collecting During Drive Test 95 .

LAC and Time Slot Rx level for serving and neighboring cells Rx quality for serving cell BSIC and BCCH for serving cell Timing Advance Tx power level Layer 3 messages GPS positioning data Time Stamp Events which occur during Drive Test Call Drops Setup Failures HO Failures HO Success Drive Test Benefits and Limitations 96 . BCCH.Cell id including BSIC.

you can check TCH performance to judge whether the call drop is just a common phenomenon or it is an individual phenomenon. After that. 97 .Benefits: Replicates subscriber conditions (QoS perspective) Able to provide comparative performance between different operators Focus on specific parameter set or geographical region Call Drop When the call drop rate of the RNC overall performance is found abnormal. you can judge whether the high call drop rate occurs in several cells or in all the cells.

Many kind of mobile phones indicate the strength of signal which most of them use set of bars which various heights to display it. Since the user mobility and radio propagation is uncertain. call drop always exists in a mobile network.If the uplink and downlink quality deteriorates to a level that cannot hold normal conversation. the conversation will be disconnected. This is defined as call drop. Fig 29:Call Drop 98 .Mobile phone signal is depend on the connection strength between your mobile phone to your mobile operator network.

99 .

Fig 30: 3G drive test 100 .

3. analyse.It offers the ability to collect. 101 .6. and post-process the network data used for network-monitoring.3 is a air-interface test tool .0.7 Tools Following tools used in project: TEMS MAP INFO TEMS TEMS (Test Equipment for Mobile System) investigation 9. troubleshooting and optimization according to the needs and requirements.

email. L2/L3 messages. capacity. and outdoor measurements Post-process multiple log files Functionalities: Data collection: Support equipments from all major vendors across multiple technologies Collect RF data. SMS. accessibility.Usage: Tune and optimize networks Perform fault-tracing and troubleshooting Verify true terminal behaviour with phone based measurements Verify cell coverage. Ping. FTP. HTTP.) 102 . etc. MMS etc. Troubleshoot the network Perform indoor. pedestrian. IP info: Test CS/PS services (voice/video telephony.

video streaming and video telephony (SQI/VSQI/VTQI) Post-processing: 1. simultaneous analysis of multiple log files Reporting: Generate HTML reports on summarized results Generate KPI reports. 103 .000 IEs and 150 events can be presented Replay of log files.Include service quality algorithms for voice.

6.3.8 Services In UMTS Various services available in UMTS are:

Voice Video telephony Messaging Mobile email Browsing Downloading (of applications) Streaming Gaming Mobile broadband for laptop and netbook connectivity Social networking Mobile TV Location-based services Machine-to-machine communications

6.3.9 Comparison of 2G and 3G Mobile Networks

Although there are many similarities between 2G and 3G wireless networks(and many of the 2G and 3G components are shared or connected through interworking functions),there are also many differences between the two technologies.


Second Generation Wireless Technology
The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signalling. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). GSM systems, first implemented in 1991, are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200kHz each. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight timeslots. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band. While GSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant 2G wireless technologies, CDMA technology is recognized as providing clearer voice quality with less background noise, fewer dropped calls, enhanced security, greater reliability and greater network capacity. The Second Generation (2G) wireless networks mentioned above are also mostly based on circuit-switched technology. 2G wireless networks are digital and expand the range of applications to more advanced voice services, such as Called Line Identification. 2G wireless technology can handle some data capabilities such as fax and short message service at the data rate of up to 9.6 kbps, but it is not suitable for web browsing and multimedia applications.

Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks
3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technology is its ability to unify existing cellular standards, such as CDMA, GSM, and TDMA, under one umbrella. To overcome the shortcomings of 2G and 2.5G, the 3G had been introduced. In 3G Wide Brand Wireless Network is used with which the clarity increases and gives the perfection similar to that of a real conversation UMTS networks are introducing a completely new, high bit-rate radio technology— Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)— for wide area use. Nevertheless,


the core network part of the UMTS system is firmly founded on the successful GSM network, which has evolved from the circuit-switched voice network into a global platform for mobile packet data services like short messaging, mobile Web browsing and mobile email access.

Fig 31: 3G antenna


the radio portion and other areas of the two networks. BSSAP. SGSN. 107 .2140. LAPDm. SNDCP. RLC. GMSC. GGSN. RNSAP. MTP3B. SCCP. BSSAP. Q. HLR/AuC/EIR MSC/VLR. MAP. MTP 1 GMM/SM. M3UA. CM.ISUP. RR. CDMA.BSSAP. EDGE W-CDMA. BSC. SCCP.1(UNI+ NNI). PDCP. SSCOP ATM.MTP 2. Q.2630. NS.NBAP. MTP 3. MS BTS.NS. HLR/AuC/EIR. MTP 2.Q. MTP 3. SCCP. MTP 3. ISUP. GTP-U. MM. MAC. FR. BSC. MTP 2. MTP 2. SNDCP. CGF 3G MSC/VLR (with added interworking andtranscoding). Q. SCTP.MM.BSSAP. M3UA.SCCP.FR. TDM. CM. TCAP. BSSAP+.GMM/SM/SMS.MTP 2.RR.Following Table compares the differences between the core network. CDMA TDMA. MAP. HLR/AuC/EIR. BSSAP. MS Radio Access FDMA. BSSGP.GTP. IP transport TDM transport BTS. CGF Core Network MM.2130. SCCP. MAP.TCAP. MTP 3. SSCOP. CDMA2000. RANAP.CM. MTP3B.BSSGP.RRC. MTP 1 GMM/SM/SMS. RLC. LLC. MS Node B.1 (NNI).GGSN. Feature 2G 2G+ 3G MSC/VLR. MTP 1 GMM/SM.2140. Q. GMSC. 3G-SGSN. LAPD. MTP 1 MAC. TCAP.2630. SCTP. Frame transport Relay MTP 1.MTP 3. LLC. ISUP. IWC-136 MM. GMSC. RANAP.GTP. CM. TDMA. SCCP. RNC.

6 Kbps Up to 2Mbps Up to 115Kbps (GPRS) Data Rates Up to 384 Kbps (EDGE) Advanced voice. not global Roaming Restricted.CIP Voice only terminals New type of terminal Dual mode TDMA and CDMA Voice dataterminals and New type of terminal Multiple modes Voice. EIR. multimedia Restricted. Short Applications Message Service (SMS) SMS. VLR. VLR. EIR. Internet Internet. VLR. AuC Enhanced HLR.6 Kbps Up to (HSCSD) 57. AuC Databases HLR. multimedia mgmt Handsets WAP. no multimedia support HLR.AuC Up to 9. EIR. data and video terminals WAP. not global Global 108 .

Drive test kit is hard to connect. GPS signals lost where ever there is high tension cable and rainy season. 109 .PROBLEMS FACED DURING PROJECT GPS connection lost sometimes.

interview skills. presentations skills of technical and non technical topics. They helped in aptitude preparation. They provide us all relevant knowledge of the latest technologies. group discussions . Each trainer provide the training in a best way. 110 .CONCLUSION The basic and to the point conclusion is that the training provided is good. In addition to the teaching they helped us in improving personality skills.

Mobility and Services 3. www. UMTS Networks. Architecture and Realization of Mobile Networks Beyond UMTS” 2. “Evolution of 3G network . www.REFERENCES 111 . Gottfried Punz . Training manual 5. www.The 4.Architecture.

112 .