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Shiromal Fernando (1) and Eng. Dilina Hettiarachchi (2) Abstract: FRP Strengthening has been developed worldwide as a mean of strengthening and retrofitting concrete structures throughout past few decades. The ever increasing loads on structures and change of use demands higher load carrying capacities. The use of FRP strengthening methods has enabled the use of existing structures thus saving millions, valuable material and valuable time will otherwise be spending on demolition and reconstruction. However lack of design guidance has been a critical issue in this area. The authors have carried-out a design and implementation of FRP strengthening of an existing two storey building to accommodate two more floors and a light weight roof. This paper discusses the design method, testing carried out and practical implications in FRP strengthening of concrete columns. Keywords: FRP, Strengthening 1. INTRODUCTION The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures is a topic of ever increasing popularity. The change of use of the structures, load increment and bad design and construction practices require remedial measures. The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) to strengthen the concrete structures is rapidly gaining appeal under these circumstances. FRP has many advantages over conventional strengthening methods such as light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, ease of handling and application, lack of requirement for heavy lifting and handling equipment and corrosion resistance, etc. The lack of design guidance and standards can be stated as the major problem encountered by practicing engineers using FRP to strengthen the structures. The case study, noted in this paper discusses the method of testing used to identify the increment of the load carrying capacity of the FRP bonded concrete elements and how the design and construction was carried out.
(1) (2) Director/ Chief Structural Engineer – Design Consortium Limited Structural Engineer – Design Consortium Limited

2. TYPES & PROPERTIES OF FRP The main types used are carbon (CFRP), glass (GFRP) and aramid (AFRP). The typical properties of the FRP materials are given in the Table 1.
Table1: Typical FRP Properties(1)
Elastic Modulus (GPa) CFRP (laminate) CFRP (sheet) GFRP (sheet) AFRP (sheet) 165 - 215 240 - 640 65 - 75 120 Ultimate Strain (%) Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 2500 -3000 2650 - 3800 2400 2900

1.3 - 1.4 0.6 - 1.6 4.3 - 4.5 2.5

The governing factor for the design of FRP is the allowable strain at the ultimate limit state. It can be seen from the Table 1 that the strain capacity is ranging from 0.6% to 4.5% and thus it is of great importance for the design to select correct material to the correct application. The CFRP can be stated as the best option in terms of durability and capacity while it is the most expensive material. In usual practice CFRP sheets are used for shear and axial strengthening while CFRP laminates are used for flexural strengthening.


However there are several national guidelines available for this and what is concentrated in this paper is ACI 440. A similar approach is used to define characteristic strength of FRP.e. In practical applications prior to and during strengthening. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS As FRP strengthening is a fairly new system compared to conventional systems. but the acceptable failure rate may be reduced to 1%.  Resistance to environmental effects.8fy while the service stress of the FRP laminates are limited to 0.  Filling ability.3. In limit state design.2R-02. Several failure modes under flexure are identified by ACI 440. vandalism or other causes. These limits are imposed to guard against collapse of the structure should bond or other failure of the FRP system occur due to fire. In fact no country has yet developed a design code for FRP composite systems. primers putties.55ffu for GFRP. As the service moment is typically larger than the cracking moment. is used in calculation of flexural strength of the composite section.2R-02: Guide for the Design and Strengthening of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures.85. Apart from this an overall strength reduction factor of φ = 0.25S DL + 0.(2) The ACI 440. self weight and part of live load of the structure is likely to exist. A strength reduction factor for the flexural contribution of FRP alone. the calculation will be based on a cracked section. The effect of pre-loading is significant and detrimental if the element fails by concrete crushing and should be investigated in the design calculations.8 is used to account for possible slip between FRP membrane and the concrete surface. Service stress for the steel reinforcement used are limited to a value of 0. limiting the concrete strain. Characteristic strength usually is taken as the value below which not more than 5% of test results rest.  Development of appropriate mechanical properties for the FRP composite. CONSTITUENT MATERIALS There are several constituent materials used with FRP fibres available commercially such as resins. AFRP and CFRP respectively where ffu is design ultimate tensile strength .  Workability.2R-02 recommends a limit for the strengthening. ψf = 0.30ffu and 0.  Pot life consistent with the application. design guidance is lacking.  Compatibility and adhesion to concrete substrate and FRP composite system. saturants and adhesives.. To name a few.003. It is necessary for those constituent materials to have the following characteristics. The design method is based on limit state philosophy in compliance with most of the design codes used. limiting the stress and strain levels in FRP and limiting the number of FRP layers used can be noted. the variability in material properties is taken into account by assuming a characteristic strength. (3) (φRn) existing ≥ (1.0.20ffu. and limitations to prevent these are given in the report itself.85SLL) new (1) φ Rn SDL SLL – Strength reduction factor –Nominal strength of a member – Dead load effects – Live load effects The FRP composite system for flexure is designed so that the ultimate strain at the extreme concrete compression fibre is 0. i. -2- The ACI committee recommends that the existing strength of the structure be sufficient to resist a level of load as described by Equation (1). 4. Therefore the effect of the pre loading has to be considered in the structural analysis strengthening of the member.

of FRP. through axial tension stresses. The flexural capacity was increased using MBrace CFK 150/2000 carbon fibre laminates and axial capacity was increased using MBrace CF 240 430gsm carbon fibre sheets. These stresses are shown in Figure 1. Efficiency factor also depends on the radius of the edge chamfer of a rectangular section. Overall strength reduction factor of φ= 0. The axial strengthening is also done using FRP sheet wrapping. The existing building which was 30 years old needed to be assessed in order to check the suitability of carrying the additional load. κa. 5. . This apparent compressive strength depends on an efficiency factor. Efficiency factor is 1. it was not possible to increase the size of the column to accommodate excess load carrying capacity. 15 number of 150mm diameter. Two incompatible results were excluded and the outcome is shown graphically in Figure 2. (2) The calculation of strength enhancement is based on a modified compressive strength of the confined concrete.0 for circular sections and reduces drastically for rectangular sections with the increase of aspect ratio. The building was a two story building with one basement and the client required to add two additional floors. This efficiency factor accounts for the geometry of the structure. Colombo 03. University of Moratuwa.8 is also used. However this can also be used for tensile strengthening provided that stresses can be transferred to the substrate from FRP satisfactorily. confine the lateral expansion of the axially loaded member thus enhancing the axial loading capacity. CASE STUDY An FRP strengthening was done under the supervision of Design Consortium Limited for the Proposed Queensway Building Project at R A De Mel Road. The service stresses are obtained using cracked section properties and the method is described in ACI 440.     3 reference cylinders 3 cylinders with a single CFRP sheet 4 cylinders with two CFRP sheets 5 cylinders with two CFRP sheets and 3 CFRP laminates (combine wrap) Figure 1: Triaxial State of Stress in FRP The axial strengthening is more or less used for compression members where the use of confinement can be used. 300mm high standard cylinders were cast to carry out the testing and categorized as follows. Due to the restrictions to the column sizes imposed by the intended use of first floor. stresses can be concentrated at the edges of the section thus reducing the area of concrete effectively confined. The structural evaluation revealed that. This chamfering is of great importance to the increment of load carrying capacity as if not done properly -3- The testing was carried out in the laboratories of Department of Civil Engineering. The shear strengthening is done using FRP sheets by wrapping the element partially or fully. Prior to carrying out the strengthening. five ground floor to first floor columns were required strengthening. it was important to find out the actual increment of load carrying capacity through testing. A strength reduction factor of ψf is used for the shear strength enhancement from FRP alone and ψf = 0.95 is used for fully wrapped sections.85 is used for partially wrapped sections while ψf = 0. The FRP sheets. Thus it was decided to carryout FRP strengthening.2R-02.

The Figure 3 shows the failure pattern of a test specimen. the concrete could not be handled with ease thus the concrete surface was rectified with an epoxy putty to get the corner chamfer and to make the substrate to a suitable condition to apply FRP materials. As the purpose of the CFRP sheet was to confine the concrete. As the building was 30 years old. it is very importance to make sure there are no air bubbles between the substrate and the sheet. The epoxy resin (saturant) was used to apply the CFRP sheets to the substrate. An overlap of 150mm in the circumferential direction was provided to the CFRP sheet while an overlap of 25mm was provided in the longitudinal direction. A primer was applied to the prepared surface and the FRP laminates were applied using an epoxy adhesive. Two CFRP laminates were used on each face of the column and two CFRP sheets were wrapped around the entire length of the column. An intermediate step in application is shown in Figure 4. 82.6%. The failure however was a brittle failure in nature and gave no initial warnings before failure occur. The substrate was then filled with epoxy putty again to make an even surface.6%. the capacity was enhanced by 32. It was required to provide temporary supports to the FRP laminates until the adhesives hardened. The strength increments of actual columns were significantly lower basically due to the shape and aspect ratio. Further it was evident that the resin is capable of keeping layers of FRP jackets together as the . This was done by temporarily covering the area surrounding the column while providing enough working space. Figure 3: Failure Mode The failure occurred by splitting of FRP jacket and even after the failure the concrete substrate was attached to the FRP jacket which implied the capability of epoxy resin to make FRP and concrete to act as a composite material. 80 failure was due to splitting of FRP jacket as opposed to the de-lamination of FRP sheets. This increment was achieved with a corner chamfer of 30mm radius. The flexural capacity increment was quite significant with 54% while the compressive capacity increment was only a mere 6. One of the practical problems encountered was to get the corner chamfer. This -4- Capacity (N/mm2) 70 60 50 40 30 0 1 2 3 4 Reference Double Wrap Single Wrap Combined Wrap Total Wrap Figure 2: Test Results The reduction of strength in the combine wrap with respect to the double wrap could be due to the poor bonding of FRP sheets in the total wrap due to FRP laminates which makes the section to deviate from its original circular shape irrespective of the epoxy filling around the laminates.On average.9% for single wrap. As the site was situated adjacent to a congested road. it was very important to take special precautions to prevent dust mixing with the saturant. double wrap and combine wrap respectively.3% and 73.

It is believed that FRP is now going through the same process as pre-stressed concrete in 60’s and 70’s. 6. 7. (2) Dr. CONCLUSIONS As it is important to increase the load carrying capacity of the existing structures to match the increasing loads. However it is important to identify understand the uniqueness of the martial and its applications as the installation procedure play a vital role on the amount of increment in the capacity. In the Sri Lankan context. However it should be noted that the rolling should only be done in one direction as otherwise the fibres in the sheet might be damaged. The finished column is shown in Figure 5. it was evident that there is a significant increase in the increment of load. The smaller containers meant smaller contact area and smaller amount meant the application can be done quickly. However this problem was quickly arrested with labourers gaining experience. The primers and resins were mixed in halves and in smaller containers to avoid the premature hardening. REFERENCES (1) Rob Irwin and Amar Rahman: FRP Strengthening of Concrete Structures – Design Constrains and Practical Effects on Construction Detailing. it is required to look at the prevailing climatic conditions and local conditions prior to application to make sure the strengthening is done with minimum losses and maximum gains. Sujeeva Setunge et. A part of the connecting beams were also strengthened to maintain the continuity as shown in Figure 5. a certain portion of a column was found to be delaminated from the CFRP sheets. Figure 5: Finished Column before applying plaster (3) American Concrete Institute: ACI 440.2R-02 – Guide for Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures. Figure 4: Application of CFRP Sheets Due to hot climatic conditions and inadequate skills of labourers. Thus it is important to recognize this rapidly growing technology. sand was sprayed in order to provide with the required key to subsequent plastering. primers and resins were hardened prematurely and wasted. By the testing carried out. It was rectified removing the entire section of the rapping and reapplying the sheets as per the previously noted method. After strengthening was carried User Friendly Guide for Rehabilitation or Strengthening of Bridge Structures Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. the use of FRP is a convenient option. Finally on top of final saturant coating is applied.was achieved by using a rubber roller during the application of CFRP sheets. -5- .