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Mutlu D. CijMERT, H. Nevzat 6ZGijVEN Middle East Technical Universit) Mechanical Engineering Department Ankara 06531 TfiRKiYE



A method for calculating the forced response of a nonlinear sysfem composed of several linear subsystems and nonlinear connecting elements is presented. The linear subsystems may initially be described in terms of theit modal data (modal vectors and n&ml frequenties), or miss, stiffness and damping mottices, or measured/computed FRF data. Nonlinear connection elements with symmetrical chomcteristics may be handled by the method developed. These nonlinearities moy either br of discrete type (springs with cubic or piecewise linear stiflnness, Coulomb friction, cleamnces; etc.) or continuous type (odd polynomial type of physical nonlinearities ezpressable by Finite Element modelling of structures for large oscillations). The effect of nonlinear internal forces is ezpressed as a product of a co&irirnf matrir and interfacial displacements, these forces being expressed by using the describing function method. The diflerential equations of motion of the overall strutlure are convertedinto o set of nonlinear algebraic equations and these equations are solved iteratively by updating the displacement dependent coefficient maitir af each iteration step. The method is compatible with the standard modal analysis procedures. A case sfvdy is presented in order to demonstmte the performance of the method developed.

Unit imaginary number Number of degrees of freedom Excitation frequency Structural damping proportionality constant Dispiacement vector Velocity vector Acceleration vector External forcing vector Displacement amplitude Complex amplitude vector of displacements Modal complex amplitude vector Linear Ina.% matrix Linear viscous damping matrix Linear stifTnes8 matrix Linear structural damping matrix Nonlinearity matrix Mass normal&d modal matrix Linear receptance matrix Pseudo receptance matrix Linear dynamic stiffness matrix Inter-coordinate displacement Nonliiear restoring force element


each of which has been developed for specific types of nonlinearity [2. Coupling of slightly nonlinear structures could also be analysed by such a method. For large st. joints with clearances or rubbing surfaces resuit in a drastic deviation of the system response from that calculated under the linearity assumption. these are often inadequate for the accurate description of some large systems due to the inevitable existence of nonlinearity at most structural joints. although these can readily be extended to account for any number of substructures.iral method for the analysis of coupled nonlinear systems are presented. can be cast into the following form: 140 .1 Coupling of Linear Structures Involving Nonlinear Elements The effort involved in the steady state dynamic response analysis of a large structure can be reduced drastically if the structure is considered as an assembly of simpler components. appearing as the first term on the right hand side of both equations have been partitioned in a similar fashion. Finally. a method for coupling the individual FRF’s for tested structures in order to obtain the FRF of the assembled structure where the coupling iuvolves nonlinearity could be useful.1 Modal Coupling Consider two linear structures A and B. Although such substructuring methods based on linearity assumption are available in the literature [l]. The external forcing vectors. Such a technique would result in large savings in computer space and computational time in structural optimization/modification problems where several alternatives for one of the subsystems or the connections have Tao be considered. A coupling technique to analyse linear systems coupled by nonlinear elements would prove to be useful in such cases.3]. Different types of intentionalnonlinearities such as Coulomb friction and hardening springs are employed in certaiu structural designs for response limiting purposes. the formulations aimed at developing such a pract. the identification of the type of nonlinearity becomes a crucial step.A method applicable to a wide variety of practical nonlinearities would be suitable for the design of such systems. The differential equations of motion for the structures A and B are where the displacement vector for each structure has been partitioned so that the coordinates related to the coupling.1 INTRODUCTION 2 THEORY 2. For instance.1.ructures. The formulations given are for the case of two subsystems. it must &xv the truncation of higher modes which do not contribute appreciably to the system response in the frequency ranges of interest. 2. and proceeding with a liuear analysis for the subsystems. denote the internal nonlinear forces in the coupling region of the assembled structure considered as external forcing on structures A and B when analysed separately. The last terms. A nonlinear coupling analysis method must also be compatible with standard modal analysis procedures so that t. In the next section. denoted by the superscript (“) appear at the end.he method be of any practical importance. Here. by so exciting the systems that nonlinear effects are not evoked. of course. when combined. Using modal transformation for each of the structures by letting ka I = Pal {PAI > (8 (2) 1ZBl = PBI {PSI 1 (4) Equations (1) and (Z). on the other hand. coupled to each other with joining elements having nonlinear characteristics. There seem to be a few frequency domain nonlinear coupling techniques.

given by Here [ZAI = [Rd-‘.1. If the internal forces in the coupling region are considered as external forces on each structure. (21) ( 3 } =-PI{ 2 > (la) 2.2 FRF Coupling For the case where frequency response functions obtained experimentally or by any other method are initially which FPP [Cl = I ‘@$ [+f)T [g] I I I > (18) (6) (7) and 5 { F ’ ) = pp 2 1 = [ [$I (19) J [ff. The complex amplitudes of the interface forces are rrlated to the complex amplitude of the displacements in the coupling region by Bcl = PI WC1 PIpIT (20) [0’. the following can be written: where [A] is the nonlinearity matrix obtained by a qua%-linearization procedure based on a describing funct.] = [[I] + [a’] (iu [C*] + i [H’] + [A’])]-’ [a*] IS the pseudo receptance matrix of the coupled structure for modal coordinates [4]. Note that [A] contains information on the interconnecting elements joining the two structures. the coupled differential equations given by Equation (5) can be reduced [SJ to a set of algebraic equations by the substitution of for each structure to give [-u” [r] + iw [C-I + i[H’] + [W] + [A*]] {pot) = {F*} (13) (14) (15) [ZA] and [Z. (9) The response level dependent quasilinear ‘pseudo re ceptance’ matrix [0] of the nonlinear structure can be obtained f r o m where the structural damping matrix for each structure has been separated into proportional and nonpropor. [-%I = [LIBl-l.wbere t.g] are the dynamic stiffness matrices for structures A and B respectively. one gets (22) and (23).& [44] 1%) [g] .5]. [A] can he partitioned into four submatrices as follows: After s”me manipulations. an alternative procedure for analysing coupled linear structures with nonlinear joining elemats can be formulated as follows: Consider the structures A and B again.l= [ and WI = [ cl+ i. and using equation 1 (17) where {F) = IhI IX) [‘cl = [ [ ‘$’ & ] + [A’]] (26) (27) 141 . (24) (25) CombiningEquations (16) (17).ion formulation [4. 1 (8) G Nl cl+ im) [&I I . whether these be modelled as linear or nonlinear.ional parts.

since only a few vibration modes are ex. that the accuracy of modal superposition is dependent on the natural frequencies of each structure. Furthermore. [8] that such a truncation mayprove to be very effective when incorporated with the quasi-linear approach. with reduces to m. initially. can be be exploited in order to obtain drastic reductions in the found in Ref. on the other hand. aud hence only a few modal coordinates. the term “modes” refers to the modes of the linear undamped part of the overall cow pled system. gives the complex amplitude vector of displacements for the coupled structure C. [9]. which in turn depends on the unknown response vector {X} [4]. the frequency of excitation.and denotes the forcing vector on the coupled structure C. For general nonliiear systems.3 Modal Truncation strative problem considered. .Consider the two linear SDOF systems shown in Figcited for harmonic forcing. though. the total degree of freedom. however.Pd%x. If only m modes are kept in the analysis. [e] depends on the nonlinearity matrix [A]. and this property can method. Comparison of the results has demonstrated that the method developed has a high The response of a linear system can be expressed as a accuracy. this approach may not always be applicable since the vibration modes may not be easy to define. The accuracy of the results obtained has been verified by using the Newmark-Beta method in solving the simple demon2. hL1 (32) PC1 = k-’ (30) where the subscript t refers to the modes kept. The system parameters are as follows: 142 . the performance of the method dc veloped is evaluated by a case study. If. the order of the matrices to be dealt. the response may be approximated as W)“. the pseudo receptance matrix for the coupled structure C can be obtained from can be well approximated by using a highly truncated modal series. In many cases.2 Numerical Solution The pseudo receptance matrix [@I given by Equations (20) and (30) may be used to determine the response {X} of the coupled structure from {Xl = WC1 IFI (31) where. excluded here due to space limitations. m being much less than n. Hence it may not be possible to determine beforehand the minimum number of modes to be included for an acceptable approximation of the re sponse. modal truncation may be used. especially for large structures. A detailed justification of the accuracy of the summation of its natural modes. computational work involved in the analysis of a Linear structure.. In the following. or may not even exist at all. The inversions required at each iteration. It is well worth noting. thereby obtaining savings iu computational time and avoiding ill-conditioned matrices. the receptance matrices for the structures A and B are available. giveft by Equations (21) and (30) can be bypassed by using Ozgiiven’s method (71. provided that sufficient care is taken. The value of m determined by a linear analysis may give a good starting point. the response ure 1. For structures that can be analysed by the above mentioned quasi-linear approach however. the nature and distribution of the nonlinearities as well as the configuration and amplitude of forcing. It has been demonstrated in Ref. If Equation (32) is used for each structure instead of Equations (3) and (4) for the transformation into the modal domain. instead of the full n degrees of freedom are used. The coupled set of nonlinear algebraic equations given by Equation (31) can be solved iteratively at discrete frequency points of interest by updating the nonlinearity matrix [A] at each iteration. 3 CASE STUDY In this section. 2. through Equations (21) and (27).

103. the method offers the important advantage of combining dynamic descriptions of various kinds.)T = (13. all in rad/s. little increase occnrs in numerical integration. The first one.0. 143 . WA. apart. The second method has been developed for predicting the quasilinear receptance matrix of a nonlinear structuw cons&&g of several linear subsystems coupled by nonlinear elements of the above cited form. Although many substructuring methods based on the linearity assumption are available. Not? the shifty in the lowest two natural frequencies and that the eet given by Equation (34) was not calculated directly by any means. especially ing the programs. can be clearly observed. i.o couple the two systems via coordinates 3 and 6.02 ‘The natural frequencies of each substructure are evaluat. Hence. 2 and have also been investigated.174. It has been verified that the pre the second one. The increasing effect of nonlinearity can be observed in The computational time requirements for the methods Figure 4. where the nonlinearity is more effective. ~122. there are only a limzted number of proposed methods for nonlinear coupling analysis.23. The in the frequency response for cubic stiffness. In t.ode FB=lN.~~oddnonlinearityth~t doesmtproduoe a (Y36 > 1.7.. 2 rad/s investigated by developing computer programs for each below that of the linear system. single valued. 1..e. to the case where the above.2 Tad/s. It has been shown that typical xe around the second resonance. the analysis of large complex structures for which time domain numerical integration procedures are either too costly or infeasible. Note the substantial de.73. The subsystems are to be described by their individual FRF matrices which may either be experimentally obtained or computed using the mathematical modelof each substructure. Hence most of the common types of nonlinearities inherent in structural joints such as polynomial or piecewise linear types of stiffnesses.he natural frequencies of t.he individual natural frequencies of the two z k3 z ks = kri = lOOOON/m r)* = l. bias term in the describing function codEdents. two semi-analytical frequency domain techniques for forced harmonic response analysis of coupled nonlinear MDOF structures have been developed. an extra reduction in the computational time nonlinear force njb in Equation (33) becomes negative 'Tobe p~edse.3. Harmonic external forcing whs applied on coordinatp 3.em is at about 21. Figure 2 shows a comparison of the linear and nonlinear response X3 of the bhird coordinate to forcing of magnit.6. by comparing their Consider Figure 3.formulation.2 rad/s. hence the nonlinear frequency response behaviour pertinent to certain types spring between coordinates 3 and 6 is activated over a of nonlinearities. yIBl =12. The large peak in the curve for F3=4N corresponds from the gross reduction in EVP solution time explained to a case of snap-through. can be used for =173.5.hh from t. us. symmetrical nonlinearity’.0] (34) start. the second resonance peak The applicability of the methods developed has been of the nonlinear syst..ed a s w. in which ze as well a~ Fs is plot results to “accurate” time domain results obtained by ted for F3=lN. gr a m s yield results of high accuracy. a typical behaviour for cubic dieted by the methods developed.5 x 10G$. can be PI+ jump in TS at 21. Preliminary linear runs over a broad frequency range demonstrat. clearances and Coulomb friction can be analysed. As can be seen. and performing several case studies by uscrease in amplitude around both resonances.he linear undamped part of t. As a case study. the method was able to capfwe t. most of which have been developed for specific types of nonlinearities. tin1 ~72. This presents another powerful aspect of the method presented. (33) was oscd t. a softening cubic stiffness with force displacement relationship nj* = 500~~~ . a Modal Coupling method. in which FS is plotted for Fsz0.” = 0.7. the figures can be deduced from the frequency response information calculated with the nonlinearity excluded. such as jumps and m&iple solutions relatively broad frequency interval in this range. ~17. Irish =lu2. For the first t~hat..9.he overall system given by (u. The proposed m&hod can deal with any odd.8.2. As can be seen. The method also presents an advantage over existing frequency domain techniques that do not involve substructuring because it reduces the total time needed for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) solution of a large structure drastically by concentrating on the individual eigenvalue problems of its substructures. stiffness type of nonlinearity. 4N.5.8.4 x lO+n).5.2.

As for the second method. actually the nonlinearity matrix may termining the new eigenvalues of a modified structure not be restricted to the coupling coordinates.the methods has been tested numerically.can be obtained by employing modal truncation. In. For very large systems having only a the point. in order t. they may be used in conjunction with many calculated directly.problems. Hovewer.. it can be used at most for REFERENCES slightly nonlinear substructures. Such techto the substructures to be expressed in a similar way to niques may be incorporated with the present method. the forcing level qumcy Domain Componeni Mode Synthesis Melhon t. for.Coulomb damping. the methods are compatible with standard modal analysis new natural frequencies of the coupled system are not procedures. This will be discussed in a forthcoming paper [9]. The details of this extension can be may constitute an area for potential research. utilizes no EVP solution. since these methods also ternal forces acting on the linear parts of each structure. where the non. the interface forces. the undamped natural frequencies of the modification/optimization problems.o ear substructures. However. with large savings overall structure are different from those of the subin computer space and computation time. Hence. say. Note that. Hence the same comcept of modes to nonliiear systems. the linear undamped modes of the linear sub. It is known that the because the problem of detection. Although the first method is perfectly methods is worth noting. go below) the limit at which nonstructures are utilized. in the methods presented. theoretically speaking. the cornthe type. the by using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the original matrix formulation enables the nonlinear forces internal structure are available in the lit. and hence the computational time is determined forces on each substructure in the methods presented. 141. Ta matrix will be calculated must not exceed (or. In this case. well established routines such a4 commercial finite el. the internal nonlinear although it is not clear whether the overall iteration forces as well as the coupling forces will be viewed as ex.The convergence rate of the modal coupling formulation ement analysis packages upon implementation of the could be further increased by using the nat. be evaluated without solvAlthough the formulations were made for a case of lin. its application to real structures us.given for localized nonlinearit. nor are they used by any means. i.he used in practical applications.. When two substructures are connected in The methods developed can be used in structural design this fashion.he overall~tructure for which the pseudo receptance ads. the higher ones being discarded.ural frequenprocedures formulated herein.time will decrease in this case. linear effects become nonnegligible. strength and kxation of the nonlinearity. Since it is not straightforward to extend the con.R. Although the accuracy of suitable for purely analytical studies involving nonlin. level and frequency of excitation as well as small number of coupling related coordinates. linear effects due to large amplitude vibrations can be taken into account as being ‘continuous nonlinearities’ [lo]. especially in this case.A final remark on the practical applicability of the linear systems.put&canal time can be further reduced by using au vestigating the possibility of determining the minimum extension of the procedures mentioned Ii’] in order to number of modes to be used for a prescribed accuracy avoid inversion. R.rices of each structure. It must be noted that ‘linear springs’ in the coupling region are also considered as external ond method. Combined Experimental Analytical Modeling 144 . Thus. the methods are also capable of analysing structures formed by assemblingnon.erature [ll].ies. [A] as well. this the overall EVP of the structure. the worthiness of putational effort is spent for distributed and localized the approximation depends on several factors such as nonlinearities. Since the structures. on the other hand. require iterative solutions. In this case. A Review of Time Domain and Fwmat. Methods for deear subsystems. identification and 1~ available linear receptance coupling methods are quite cation of nonlinearities becomes an important problem sensitive to measurement errors. no special treatment has been sults.In the methods presented.e. Therefore. The see found in Ref. provided that the nonlinear effects are not evoked while measuring the FRF [l] Craig Jr. the number of modes kept should be selected carefully in order not to impair the accuracy of the re. their results must be ing discrete nonlinear elements is not straightforward compared to experimental ones. cies of the overall structure as a starting point. the method can successfully be the second method needs to be tested for accuracy by used to determine the frequency response of structures using experimental data before applying it to practical modelled by the finite element method. These new natural frequencies must. they are considered in the nonlinearity matrix by the iteration time.

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