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# FINAL EXAM Course : Thermodynamics Course Code : ME091307 Day/date : Tuesday, January 10, 2012 Time : 08.00-09.

45 Conditions : Closed (Open table, summary in folio all pages and dictionary) Lecture : Aguk Zuhdi MF 1. An ideal diesel engine has a comparison ratio 20 and uses air as the working fluid. The state of air at the beginning of the compression process is 95 kPa and 20OC. If the maximum temperature in the cycle is not to exceed 2200OC K, determine: a) the P-V diagram, (10%) b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (20%) c) the mean effective pressure. (10%) Assume constant specific heats for air at room temperature. The Answer: An ideal diesel engine with air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 20. P1= 95 kPa; T1= 20OC T3= 2200OC The P-V diagram, the thermal efficiency and the mean effective pressure are to be determined. Assumptions: 1 The air-standard assumptions are applicable. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. a)

b) Properties: The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 1.005 kJ/kg·K, cv = 0.718 kJ/kg·K, R =0.287 kJ/kg·K, and k = 1.4 (Table A-2). Analysis (a) Process 1-2: isentropic compression.

and the isentropic efficiency of steam turbine is 90 percent. The steam-cycle condenser operates at 20 kPa. Steam flows through the heat exchanger with a pressure 6000 kPa. the block diagram and T-s diagram. the gas turbine isentropic efficiency is 90 percent.Process 2-3: P = constant heat addition. c) 2. The gas steam leaves the heat exchanger at the saturation temperature of the steam flowing through the heat exchanger. and the maximum gas cycle temperature is 1100OC. the compressor isentropic efficiency is 85 percent. Atmospheric air enters the gas turbine at 101 kPa and 20OC. The compressor pressure ratio is 8. Process 3-4: isentropic expansion. and leaves at 320OC. A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle. Determine: a. (20%) .

005 kJ/kg·K and k = 1. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Assumptions : 1 Steady operating conditions exist. a) block diagram & T-s diagram: Combustion chamber 6 7 Gas turbine Comperessor 5 9 3 8 Heat Exchanger 2 Steam turbine 4 Pump 1 Condenser Block Diagram T-s Diagram b) Properties: The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 1. The answer: A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle.4 (Table A-2a). 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable fo Brayton cycle. Analysis Working around the topping cycle gives the following results: . the mass flow rate of air through the air compressor required for this system to produce 100 MW of power. (40%) Use constant specific heats for air at room temperature. The mass flow rate of air for a specified power output is to be determined.b.

A-5.Fixing the states around the bottom steam cycle yields (Tables A-4. A-6): .

the mass flow rate of air is .The net work outputs from each cycle are An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives That is.1010 kg of water. 1 kg of exhaust gases can heat only 0. Then.