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BÁO CÁO TIẾN ĐỘ TIỂU DỰ ÁN B1-11

12 October, 2009

Power generation system by internal combustion engine using bio-gas generated from manure of pig farming
HUYNH THANH CONG, Ph.D.

Faculty of Transportation Engineering
HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
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CONTENT

1. Information of research topic 2. Detail plan 3. Progress of research 4. Others

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1. INFORMATION OF RESEARCH TOPIC
1.1 Faculty of Transportation Engineering, HCMUT 1.2 Research partner: DOST, Binh Duong province 1.3 Applied location: Gia Nam Company ltd. / Others 1.4 Period: 12 months, August 2009 – July 2010 1.5 A graduate thesis and publications will be finished and conducted with this project

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2. DETAIL PLAN – Team members
 LEADER: Assoc. Prof., Dr. Pham Xuan Mai Office: (84-8).38.644.979; CP: 0903.380.402; Email: pmai_2002@yahoo.com  FACULTY MEMBER: Huynh Thanh Cong, Ph.D. Nguyen Dinh Hung, M.SC. Hong Duc Thong, M.SC. Tran Minh Tien, Graduate student (OMK07)  RESEARCH PARTNER – DOST, BINH DUONG PROV. Ngo Van Dinh, Deputy Director of DOST Binh Duong Tran Dinh Hop, Deputy Head of ACST
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Motivation to research
 3E problems: Energy – Ecology – Economy  Demands and needs from Binh Duong province on field of energy save and effective use of energy  Support to provide the technical utilities for air, land, and water pollution from pig/cow/poultry farms  Practical use of experimental results in laboratory

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Current status of energy studies

Energy

- Exhausted crude oil (increased price of fuel) - Air pollution - Energy save
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3E
Ecology Economy

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Potential possibilities
 Hybrid systems: gasoline-electric,…  Bio-fuels: - Biogas, biomass, biodiesel,…  Alternative fuels: - LPG, CNG, H2,…  Fuel-cell, wind energy, solar cell,…
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Characteristics of biogas
 Biogas is a clean and efficient fuel, generated from pig/cow/chicken-manure, human waste or any kind of biological materials derived through anaerobic fermentation process.  The biogas consists of 60% methane (CH4) with rest mainly carbon-di-oxide (CO2) and sulfur hydro (H2S)…  Biogas is a safe fuel for cooking and lighting. Byproduct is usable as high-grade manure.
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Biogas – How is it made?
Biogas can be produced by the anaerobic digesters
- Bio-gas is produced at T = 30 - 37°C [T < 15 °C  No-gas is made] - Manure is supplied to the bio-digester after 30 - 45 days Biogas

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Biogas generated as a function of days

Biogas mass flow, l/days Biogas mass flow, l/days

3 ~ 5 m3

Days Days
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Biogas yield from various feed-stocks

Feedstock

Gas yield per unit mass of feedstock (m3/kg) 0.3-0.7 0.4-0.5 0.1-0.3 0.3-0.5 0.4-0.5 0.4-0.6

Energy yield (MJ/kg) 6-17 8-11 2- 6 6-11 8-11 8-14

Sewage sludge Pig manure Cattle manure Poultry droppings Poultry droppings and paper pulp Grass

* Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ah810e/AH810E13.htm
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Quantities of excreta from various species

Source of waste

Volatile solids yield per animal (kg/day) 0.1 0.6 4.0 2.2

Biogas yield (m3/day) 0.03-0.07 0.24-0.30 0.40-1.2 0.07-1.10

Energy yield (MJ/day) 0.6-1.7 4.8-6.6 8-24 13

Humans
(inc. cooking wastes)

Pigs Cattle Poultry (x100 birds)

* Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ah810e/AH810E13.htm
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Principal operating parameters for farm biogas digesters

Operating temperature Retention time Loading rate (volatile solids) Operating moisture content Specific gas production Feedstock carbon/nitrogen ratio

30-35 C 20-40 days 2-3 kg/m3 per day 85-95% 0.1-0.7 m3/kg per day 20-30

* Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ah810e/AH810E13.htm
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Anaerobic digester with HDPE type

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Anaerobic digester with HDPE type

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Biogas equivalent – Calorific value

but
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Biogas – Composition and properties

 Bio-gas composition: CH4(50-75%), CO2(25-40%) , N2(0-10%), H2S(0-3%), gaseous H2O…  CH4: Octane number ~ 120 / 91-99 (gasoline)  Adiabatic temp.: 2457K / 2270K (gasoline)  Auto-ignition temp.: 813K / ~773K (gasoline)  A/F 17.3:1 / 14.5:1 (gasoline)  leaner mixture
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Current status of biogas use in the world
 International: Germany, India, Japan, China, Thailand,…

Biogas is used as an ecologically friendly and future oriented technology in many countries. Photo: KRIEG
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Current status of biogas use in Vietnam
Domestic (Vietnam) (2003-present): Ha Noi, Thai Nguyen, Hai Duong, Bac Ninh, Lang Son, Hoa Binh, Nghe An, Hue, Binh Dinh, Dak-Lak, Dong Nai, Tien Giang, Binh Duong,…

In Vietnam, however, the capacity of biogas use is not highly effective; mostly for lighting, cooking, fruit warming,… In Binh Duong Prov., big demand to use biogas generated from pig farming.

 Potential capacity for industrial application and transportation
(where the price of conventional fuels becomes more expensive)
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Some studies related to biogas use

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Power generation system using biogas
Manure + water Manure + water Manure + water after fermentation

Piggery

Collecting system

Refinery Inlet system
Manure + water

Digester
Raw biogas

Fertilizer

Refinery system
Clean biogas

Water outlet

Scope of research topic

Power Gen-set

Electric system

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Theoretical and experimental researches in Dept of AE, HCMUT

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Theoretical and experimental researches in Dept of AE, HCMUT

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Theoretical and experimental researches in Dept of AE, HCMUT

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Some pictures of local survey (1)
Because of local demand, a local survey was done at DOST of Binh Duong prov. and Gia Nam farm at May 07, 2009
Biogas digester Distribution of biogas

Output of digester

Storage tanks

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Some pictures of local survey (2)
Distribution problem Storage problem

Filtering problem

Stable output

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Existing problems of local survey

1. Filtering and treating systems of bio-gas 2. Effect of biogas on IC engine when using bio-gas as a fuel 3. Output frequency of power generator 4. Bio-gas storage tanks

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Proposed approaches to the problem
(1) To remove CO2 and the poisonous components in biogas an approach of chemical treatment will be proposed
Raw biogas Fe sludge NaOH Clean biogas Camphor

Activated carbon for H2S absorption

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Schematic of removing CO2 and other poisonous gases
CH4, CO2, H2S, N2,… NaOH

Fe2O3, FeO

Activated carbon for H2S absorption
Camphor

Clean biogas with small CO2, O2, N2,…
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Progress of research

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Total view of power generation system

Generator SI engines

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Control panel of power generation system

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Biogas supply system

Mixer

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Design of proper biogas mixer

Biogas mixer

CFD to develop mixer
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Design of biogas refining system

Pressure sensors and indicators
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Experimental design for engine exam

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Biogas storage system for further application?

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Comparative estimation of electric consumption at Gia Nam company

Item National Electric System (NES) Biogas Electric System (BES) (80 kW x 20h /days x 30 days)

Kw/months VND/kW* 29,500 1,050

VND 30,975,000

Remark 100% NES is replaced effectively by BES

48,000

1,050

50,400,000

*Electric fee paid by company: 1,050 VND/ kW
Source: Report of GIA NAM COMPANY ltd.

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Preparation for publications
 Domestic conference: 01 paper will be presented in Conference of Science & Technology, HCMUT, 21-23 October, 2009.  International conference: 01 (N/A)  Conference: 01 paper with student as 1st author

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11th Conference of Science & Technology

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Expected results

1. Treatment of manure from pig farm is ensure to develop the socioeconomic. Also this is to protect the environmental air, land, water. 2. Binh Duong province has the specific plan (to 2020) to grow up the quantity of farm. This is to promote the local development via use of bio-fuels (waste/free sources of renewable fuels) 3. Proposed model of HDPE is proper to use because of low initial price, simple structure, and free material/resource for digesters. 4. CAST (TTUDTBKH&CN) has planed to contribute to farms/company and to expand the results of research in order to use effectively the bio-fuels for agricultural purposes and rural means.

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