You are on page 1of 28

jNIVERSh uk IBRARY URBA' -IAMPAIGIV 4GR»odLTURE
ILLINOIS
I

NOTICE: Return or renew all Library Materials! The Minimum Fee each Lost Book is $50. mutilation. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN L161— O-1096 JUN IGfllCULl 1 2 1°18 . To renew call Telephone Center.00. 333-8400 Theft. for this material is responsible for return to the library from which it was withdrawn on or before the Latest Date stamped below. its The person charging and underlining of books are reasons for disciplinary action and may result in dismissal from the University.

archive.Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from Illinois University of Urbana-Champaign http://www.org/details/botanicalinsecti1296henn .

.

and fungal humans. Acts of 8 and June 30. AR. Microbial and Viral Pesticides. to this publi- *Requests for these publications Fayetteville. and H. 6(2): 117-122. consumers can expect these companies to practice effective quality control. E.. ful strength is their safety. Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid Nematodes: A Handbook S-135: of Techniques.R. Funding to develop this publication was provided in part by a grant from the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR Proj. Biological control of insect pests fungi. Crop Protection is not as unlimited as some Lacey. J. Urbana. 32: 225-251. Tom Sluss. and Lorin Nevling. Evans Biocontrol. Undeen. Experiment Station. Because among nematode products and lack of regulation. Microbial control of black flies and mosquitoes. These products offer a great deal of potenbut their efficacy promotions suggest. (Contains use- nontoxic and nonpathogenic to animals and chapters on bacterial. IP13) and by the Cooperative Extension Service. buyers are urged to be careful consumers. C. some suppliers are likely to market inferior products use of entomopathogens in IPM. Ecological considerations for the Nonetheless. Ann Rev SUMMARY Microbial insecticides offer effective alternatives for the control of Entomol 31: 265-296. tools in Entomopathogens for Use in PestManagement Systems.. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 318. Department of Agriculture. Tom Quick. Joseph Maddox.L. J. Consequently. University of Illinois. Present and future status of microbial control of arthropods. Kaya. No. 1987. Mycogen. tive Series Bulletin 331. 1987. Kevin Steffey and Phil Nixon. of differences accompanied by exaggerated claims. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The following reviewers contributed cation: Miller.D. Ann Rev Entomol Harper. New York.H. Acting Director. 1987.A.K. users must properly identify target pests and plan the most effective application. Richard Agricultural Building. in the absence of extensive regulation. 1988. Fayetteville. viral. (editor). Illinois Natural History Survey. As major producers of entomogenous nematodes gain a reputation for marketing high-quality products. 32 pp. J. (editor). in cooperation with the U. But these same qualities mean that microbial insecticides can be used without undue risks of human injury or environmental damage. but it also means less standardization and less outside regulation of quality. 1914. Cooperative Extension Service. tial. 409-442.W. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work. as they are essentially Marcel Dekker. by entomogenous Ann Rev Entomol 23: Fuxa. Uchtmann. and A. Arkansas Agricultural Fayetteville. microbial insecticides are likely to *Woodring. Illinois 5M-10-89 . 72701. 1982. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Robert Novak. Because most microbial insecticides are effective against only a narrow range of pests and because these insecticides are vulnerable to rapid inactivation in the environment. controlled Although not every pest problem can be pathogens) by the use of a microbial insecticide.12 products containing entomogenous nematodes. garden pests and several important field crop and forest insects. many insect pests. Cooperative Extension Service. SELECTED REFERENCES Ferron.S. University of Arkansas. Their greatest Kurstak. University of Illinois. L. BioSys. these products can be used successfully in place of more toxic insecticides to control many lawn and *McCoy. Abbott Laboratories. Audrey Hodgins. Microbial Agents for Use in Integrated Pest Management Systems. Southern CooperaSouthern Regional Project insect become increasingly important management. P. may be sent to 110 Brian Melin. 1978. Donald L. 1986. Southern Regional Project S-135: Entomopathogens for Use in Pest-Management Systems. 30 pp. University of Illinois at Urbana- May Champaign.

4-5 for a general discussion of insecticide toxicities. Botanicals and soaps act very quickly to stop feeding by pest insects. and practical uses. certain risks and drawbacks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides have become increasingly apparent. Most botanicals and The strengths and weaknesses of botanical insecticides and insecticidal soaps are briefly summarized in this circular. Some synthetic insecticides leave undesirable residues in food. air. Trade names of insecticides have been used for clarity. Some general advantages shared by most of these compounds are: of the • Two classes of insecticides Rapid degradation. and carcinogens. and moisture and are readily broken down by detoxification enzymes. many researchers. Alternatives in Insect Management Botanical Insecticides and Insecticidal Dynthetic insecticides Soaps circular. of insect-borne diseases for more soaps are naturally derived and are relatively safe to use if used properly. Cooperative Extension Service. Soaps and many botanicals may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. like conventional synthetic insecticides. Rapid action. and costs. and the environment. This is very important because rapid breakdown means less persistence in the environment and reduced risks to nontarget organisms. list It is therefore difficult to present a detailed all natives to conventional synthetic insecticides. sometimes referred to as "botanicals. however. insecticide toxicology. and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Botanicals and insecticidal some of these characteristics are the botanical insecticides and the insecticidal soaps. have played an important and Even though botanicals and insecticidal beneficial role in the control of agricultural pests and the reduction than forty years. that exhibit compounds included in this category. is Prepared by Tess Henn and Rick Weinzierl. but reference to trade names does not imply endorsement by the University of Illinois. • Botanical insecticides.- College of Agriculture. Each compound discussed in terms of its is soaps have low to moderate mammalian toxicity. effectiveness. The reader is urged to exercise caution in making purchases or evaluating product information. some insecticides are suspected and different modes of action are As a result. NOTE: The botanicals. Insecticide toxicity is stressed throughout this information in this circular is provided for educational purposes only. • Low mammalian insecticidal toxicity. There are exceptions. water. mode of action. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. they often cause immediate paralysis or cessation of feeding. Low doses of many insecticides are toxic to humans and Advantages of Botanical Insecticides and Insecticidal Soaps Many compounds with diverse chemical structures other animals. classified as botanical insecticides or insecticidal and homeowners are seeking less hazardous alter- soaps. Insecticidal soaps are soaps for their have been selected and formulated Botanical insecticides and insecticidal soaps are promising alternatives for use in insect management. that insecticidal action. they are poisons and Over time. discrimination not intended against any product. soaps degrade rapidly in sunlight." are naturally occurring insecticides derived from plants.fC*. in cooperation with the Illinois Natural History Survey Circular 1296 September 1989 APR UWVEFK 2 5 . farmers. rapidly degradable. environmental impacts. Office of Agricultural Entomology. A8JBCULT'. see pp. however. Each compound must be evaluated in terms of its toxicity. of advantages or disadvantages that apply to The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific (able to kill the pest insect but not other insects or animals). botanicals and insecticidal soaps have advantages and disadvantages and should be judged accordingly. registration requirements is and state also presented. mammalian General information on the history and development of toxicity. Although they may not cause death for hours or days. should be handled with the same caution as synthetic insecticides. However.

creates a need for more precise timing and /or more frequent Rapid degradation. cube resins (rotenone). in by mail order. • • full strength or diluted with carriers such as clays. in East Asia Botanicals with long histories of traditional use include neem in India. Insecticidal soaps toxic to and nicotine sulfate. toxins are useful only when incorporated into a conscientious program of pest and refined by a tions. although desirable from an environmental and human health standpoint. however. Included in this category are management that includes sanitation. Tolerances for residues of some botanicals on food crops have not been established. rotenone. • Cost and availability. • Toxicity. but are not registered for legal sale in Illinois. or bark. and linalool. Plant extracts or resins. sabadilla. Botanicals tend to be more expensive than synthetics. crop rotation. synthetic. contain the potassium salt of oleic acid. should and use of resis- No insecticides. or diatomaceous earth. vegetable oils. and ryania were . a fatty acid found in certain that contain the ticidal fatty acids. These powders made from ground dried They are marketed either Disadvantages of Botanical Insecticides and Insecticidal Soaps The following disadvantages do not preclude the effective use of botanicals or insecticidal soaps. talc. impregnated onto dusts or wettable powders. • or the United States. and pyrethrum Persia (Iran). d-limonene. Crude centuries botanical insecticides have been used for and were known in tribal or traditional Lack of test data. rotenone in and South America. and neem seed extracts or oils. • Low toxicity to plants. In addition to problems of supply. control pose toxicities. but do call attention to certain factors that must be considered when using these insecticides. purified insecticidal These are All toxins used in pest compounds that are isolated some hazard to the user and to the environment. citronella and other essential oils. and some are not as widely available. may • differ from one source or batch to the next. may be some ornamentals. fruits. or neem leaves. are dusts or plant parts that have not been extracted or treated extensively. They are processed into various forms. Data on effectiveness and cultures long before being introduced into Europe long-term (chronic) toxicity are unavailable for some botanicals. the most widely marketed insecticidal soaps. registered Several botanicals are From crops. (See p. Preparations of the crude plant material. cultural control.) the field their rapid degradation their action as and stomach poisons make them What Are Botanical Insecticides and more selective in some instances for plant- Insecticidal Soaps? Botanicals are naturally occurring insecticides derived from plant sources. State registration. nicotine. Although most botanicals have broad spectrum activity in standard laboratory tests. ryania stems. Examples include dusts or wettable powders of cube roots (rotenone). Such extracts or resins are formu- insecticide applications. tant plant varieties. Although the insecticidal soaps and most botanicals are the lesser of many "evils" in terms of general pesticide toxins nonetheless. These are water or Rapid breakdown of botanicals. pyrethrum flowers. sabadilla seeds. distilla- or other processes and are formulated into concentrates. solvent extracts that concentrate the insecticidal components. while pyrethrum. In addition. Most botanicals are not • phytotoxic (toxic to plants). 10 for more on this problem. feeding pest insects and less harmful to beneficial insects. Botanicals in this form include pyrethrins. natural or Insecticidal soaps are specially formulated soaps be used as the sole means of defense against pest insects. lated into liquid concentrates or are • they are Pure chemicals isolated from plants. the late 1800s to the 1940s. botanicals and Protection by the United States Environmental Agency (US EPA) and are available insecticidal soaps were used extensively on certain Soaps and nicotine-based insecticides were important before the turn of the century.• Selectivity. series of extractions. the potency of some botanicals potassium or sodium salts of insecSafer* soaps.

Use of sabadilla and was virtually abandoned. In addition. 4-6. as well as —are readily attacked and insect's compounds that occur naturally in the degraded by these enzymes once inside the system. primarily as a result of 264 another concerns about environmental contamination and pesticide residues in foods. Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. stunned. possess en2ymes that are capable of breaking down a wide variety of toxic substances. was largely From 1945 to the early 1970s. and longer lasting. these synergists increase the effective toxicity of those insecticides in the mid-1940s. the use of rotenone for control of the Colorado potato beetle on Long Island in New York. have little or no inherent insecticidal properties. but then recovers. THE BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES (A general discussion of insecticide toxicity table of LDso values are presented new state certification programs for organic farming allow the use of insecticidal soaps and most botanical insecticides. e. and have very insecticides that are easily Insecticides that are not readily detoxified short residual activity. PyTethrum and Pyrethrins Source. degradation occurs so is rapidly that the insecticide not active long insect is The pyrethrins constitute 0. and the use of synergists (compounds that enhance insecticidal action). ryania. The synergists used in commercial insecticides block a system of enzymes known as the Synergists are dal action With the development of synthetic multifunction oxidases (MFOs). but small-scale organic growers and home gardeners are using them more extensively. and a on pages pp. As a result.S. Certain natural insecticides several other botanicals —pyrethrins in particular. more effective. Pyrethrum is the powdered. Insects. the only botanicals remaining in wide use were pyrethrins (used as household and industrial sprays and aerosols) and nicotine (used in greenhouses and orchards). botanical Refer to those pages and to the glossary of terms. and the is PBO found citrus oil derivatives. by the MFOs are not synergized by these compounds. The most commonly used butoxide (PBO). for further explanations of the toxicological information presented in this section. Most of the world's pyrethrum crop is grown in Kenya. the use of botanicals abandoned in commercial agriculture. (N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide) MGK is botanicals has increased. Both of these come into commercial use because a key pest has become resistant to most classes of synthetic insecticides. p. It is also an effective synergist for rotenone. In a few instances. The synergists themselves are low in toxicity. 16-17. In some cases. many insecticidal soaps are not compounds have low mammalian toxicity (see Table 1. such as the citrus oil derivatives and new formulations of neem also are available or are under development. widely used in conventional commercial agriculture. as well as some synthetic In the past ten or fifteen years. research on botanicals focused on efficacy. synergist in is piperonyl Home gardeners continued to use rotenone on a small ryania scale.3% of dried pyrethrum flowers. interest in pyrethroids and carbamate insecticides. like humans and other animals. and for years these compounds were unavailable in the U. compounds that enhance insecticiby inhibiting certain detoxification enzymes. In addition. They are usually formulated with insecticides in ratios of insecticide). They are extracted from crude pyrethrum dust as a resin that is used crude material. During that time. degraded by the MFOs.popular in the 1930s and early 1940s. The manufacture of various temporarily insecticidal products. Several new insecticides that for years botanical insecticides.g. most products that contain pyrethrins. some organic certification programs do not allow the use of PBO. sabadilla.. pp. 6). The term "pyrethrwm" is the name for the crude flower dust itself. in the enough to kill the insect. dried flower head of the pyrethrum daisy. development of new formulations. and the term "pyrethrins" refers to the six related insecticidal Synergists. consequently. . from is 2:1 to 10:1 (synergist: High cost the major factor limiting Botanicals and more widespread use of synergists. the new synthetic compounds were less expensive. botanical insecticides have synergist that is sometimes used in livestock and animal shelter insecticides.) were unavailable have been reregistered and are being produced and marketed in limited quantities.9-1.

Insecticide toxicity. to kill 50 percent of the is animals An LD^ therefore a "median lethal dose. paints. and other animals. Whether natural or most insecticides can poison animal life. they do not provide a full picture of all of the risks associated with insecticide contact. synthetic insecticides. The risk of many forms of accidental poisoning may be heightened if a pesticide user perceives an insecticide to be harmless and consequently overapplies or misuses it. While most botanicals pose fewer hazards than many synthetic in origin. Insecticides are. To investigate chronic effects. Such a problem can result from the widely held misconception that naturally derived insecticides are basically nontoxic to humans and other animals and are therefore "safe" to use in a careless manner. unformulated insecticidal compounds rather than the diluted. comparison with questions about acute In toxicity. For example. to the effects of a single when active carriers or other ingredients include toxic solvents or solvents that speed the entry of the The acute toxicity of an insecticide is generally described in terms of an LD^. Chronic toxicity refers to the effects of repeated doses or exposures over time. formulated products actually used by consumers. by definition. neurolgical damage and many other forms of injury. this occurs dosage or exposure. Most insecticides attack basic physiological processes such as nerve transmission or cellular respiration. it is important that insecticide users understand the basics of insecticide toxicology. compounds into the body. insecticides are applied and dermal LU& values. questions about the chronic effects of repeated exposures to lower doses of pesticides are much more difficult to answer clearly. Acute toxicity refers of pure. toxic. These effects may include eye injury. insecticides are and solvents. Testing is generally performed on laboratory animals such as mice. Formulation (the process of turning a pure active ingredient into a finished insecticidal product) usually reduces poisoning risks because it involves diluting the active compounds with various carriers and additives.000 mg/kg. humans. XD^ values fail to indicate toxic effects other than death. The most common measures of an insecticide's toxicity to nature of insecticide toxicity and the manner in mammals are its oral can make these compounds particularly hazardous. degreasers. throat and lung irritation. a compound is administered to laboratory animals at a range of doses (usually including the maximum dose that the animal can survive) for an extended . or rabbits. Test animals are to a range of single doses—a certain number of animals at each dose—to determine the insecticide's acute oral or dermal toxic Estimates of an insecticide's acute effects. The toxicity of any chemical is usually evaluated in terms of both acute and chronic effects. The Consequently. an insecticide with an LDW of 60 mg/kg is much more toxic than one with an LD50 of 5. however. their toxicity factor to is still animal testing. In some instances. including cleaning and polishing agents. LD sa values generally indicate the acute toxicity a be considered. the dose required in a test." LDS0 values are usually expressed as milligrams of toxicant per kilogram of body test weight of a animal (mg/kg). For example. While TDM values are useful indicators of toxicity. In addition. human toxicity are derived from this type of rats. are among only a few compounds used which intentionally as poisons. Because of this. formulation may increase poisoning risks. chemical burns. compounds intended to kill insects. processes that are common to insects. exposed guinea pigs.THE TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES Although many household and industrial products. a lower LD SS indicates a more toxic compound.

and human responses. Most are only slightly to moderately toxic. "natural" does not necessarily mean safe or nontoxic. toxicological testing has produced For applicators. are similar to carbaryl and malathion insecticides in acute toxicity. Carbamate. but compounds are The LD50 values presented in Table 1 illustrate the fact that botanical insecticides range from practically nontoxic (such as neem sometimes administered dermally or by injection or inhalation. the persistent product is much more likely to pose expected to encounter. for example. several botanical insecticides can readily poison the careless applicator. fast-acting and some potent carcinogens occur Despite the claims presented in advertising materials. toxins by careless exposure to any of these products. they rarely pose any risk to consumers concerned about harmful residues on foods or other materials. In evaluating the toxicities listed in Table 1. It is important to understand that natural compounds are not inherently less toxic to ones. LD 53 values for some common (cancer-causing agents). limitations. As a result. certain botanical results that help to describe the risks associated with pesticide exposure and that allow some meaningful comparisons of synthetic and botanical insecticides. values. The important concept to remember is that although the environmental safety of botanical insecticides is humans than all synthetic Some of the most deadly. high-dose tests used to identify possible carcinogens may or may not yield results that are relevant for the prediction soap. and synthetic insecticides can pose very similar risks. where a short-lived insecticide (a botanical. A key purpose for chronic toxicity testing is to identify probable Carcinogens or Safer* soap) to very toxic (such as nicotine). applicators may be poisoned Botanicals versus synthetics. The most common means of administering compounds Is in combination with the animal's food. singlecompound tests do not measure the effects real-life human exposures to multiple compounds- of problems associated with persistent residues present a more realistic concern. Users should always wear protective clothing and enhanced by avoid insecticide exposure. tests that measure rodent responses may not always accurately predict orga no phosphate. Yet despite these some risk to persons other than the applicator. incidence of birth defects) might also be conducted during each study. Human exposure to pesticides usually results from careless contact during application or from contacting or eating residues that remain foods. For instance. certainly does not mean non-chemical. Many synthetic insecticides are much more stable. Investigations of reproductive effects (birth rate. on treated materials or Because botanical insecticides and insecticidal soaps break down rapidly in the environment. birth weight. low-level exposures that most humans are are characterized by similar LD#. however. but it is important to recognize that such tests provide only limited information. Acute and chronic toxicity tests give indications of the immediate and long-term effects of human exposure to pesticides. it is important to consider the situations that might lead to pesticide exposures and poisoning. and pyrethroid insecticides are also listed in Table 1 for comparison. a Chronic. some their rapid degradation. ' . In addition. and it naturally. Following chronic exposures over a normal life span/ the test animals are killed and examined for tumor production and other changes in major tissues and organs. Rotenone and ryania. or certain synthetics such as resmethrin) and a more persistent insecticide (certain synthetics such as permethrin or chlorpyrifos) of cancer risks associated with the infrequent. because different species react to insecticides in different ways.period of time.

Table 1 Botanical Insecticides and Insecticidal Soaps A Summary of the Toxicity of Various Insecticides GENERIC NAME (TRADE NAME) Insecticidal (Safer*) CLASS Soap ORAL 16.180 (Demize*) Pyrethrins Botanical 1.800 caution caution caution Resmethrin Linalool Pyrethroid Botanical >2.000* >2.000 caution Pyrethroid 430-4.500 2.500 LDso DERMAL LD - 50 SIGNAL WORD** caution soap Neem Piperonyl butoxide Botanical 13.800 caution Carbamate 850 >4.000 — caution Sabadilla Botanical 4. p.500* 940-3.100 caution Malathion Carbaryl (Sevin*) Organophosphate 885-2.500 danger/ warning Terbufos (Counter*) Organophosphate 2-5 7 danger Toxicity varies greatly depending f on type of solvent used as a carrier See Table 2.200 4.578-8.374 caution (Red Devil*) MGK 264 Synergist 2.500 (PBO) d-Limonene (VIP*) Botanical >5. Botanical 750-1. 17.200-1.500 >1.000 warning/ caution Ryania (Ryan 50*) Permethrin (Pounce*.000 danger/ warning Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban*) warning/ caution Rotenone Nicotine (Black-Leaf 40*) Botanical Botanical 60-1. .800 4.000 caution 50-60 50 danger Carbofuran (Furadan*) Carbamate 8-14 >2.500 N/A caution Synergist >7.000 ~ ~ 3.000 7.000 3.440-3.000 Ambush*) Organophosphate 135-163 2.

various symptoms of poisoning are treated i. effectiveness from pyrethrins. and (less effectively) PBO the effectiveness of pyrethrins is and roaches. and fruits). Pyrethrins are low in mammalian toxicity (see Table 1. etc. Degradation is accelerated under acid or alkaline conditions. these insects After a brief period of paral- sprays. acute toxicity and hazard vary insect control). Pyrethrins are and physiological action of the natural pyrethrins. Others. The in may low in mammalian toxicity and degrade quickly. such as resmethrin (used for household more toxic to mammals by inhalation than by ingestion because inhalation provides a direct route to the bloodstream. 6). headaches. poisoning.indicate that chronic exposure to pyrethrins does not cause genetic mutations or birth defects (see Casida. They are also registered as indoor household pests. Uses: Pyrethrins are contact poisons that have activity.). may recover rather than die. however. p. Indianmeal moth. however. Stages of the pyrethrum daisy. Tests . botanical insecticides. 1973. Pyrethroid insecticides. Formulated products containing pyrethrins are stable in storage for long periods if not diluted. Pyrethrins are used against a broad range of Despite their rapid toxic action. such as cypermethrin (used on cotton. are very allergens that cause these reactions are not present products containing refined pyrethrins. the individually as they occur because there is no way to counteract the source of the poisoning directly. Synergism by PBO is essential for obtaining full lime or soap solutions for application. rotenone and ryania are slower-acting thrins are greatly reduced. Pyrethrins insecticides are extremely fast acting and cause an immediate "knockdown" paralysis in insects. pyrethrins are not readily compounds that They are synthetic are based on the chemical absorbed from the digestive tract.e. and few cases of human poisonings have ever been reported. Pyrethrins exert their toxic effects by disrupting the sodium and potassium ion exchange process in insect nerve fibers and interrupting the normal transmission of nerve impulses. and care must be taken label directions closely when to follow using products fleas. and Hayes. 1982). containing pyrethrins to treat cats for When ingested. almost no residual They break down very and moisture. Pyrethrins are also formulated with rotenone and ryania or copper for general use in gardens. and other nervous disturbances. aerosols.. Mammalian toxicity. more Repeated contact with crude pyrethrum dusts cause skin irritation or allergic reactions. There is no single antidote for acute pyrethrin Treatment of poisoning is symptomatic. Synergized pyrethrins are used in food processing plants and food warehouses to give some control of stored-product pests (flour beetles. diarrhea. Exposure to high doses may cause nausea. the source of natural pyrethrins. are highly susceptible to poisoning added for their rapid compounds to which pyreknockdown effect. most products containing pyrethrins also contain the synergist PBO. vomiting. vegetables. air. Mode of action. Figure 1. but powders made directly from ground pyrethrum flowers may lose up to 20% of their potency in a single year. Cats. and mosquitoes. and for this reason pyrethrins should not be mixed with rapidly in sunlight. and they are rapidly hydrolyzed under the acid conditions of the gut and the alkaline conditions of the liver. flies. but they are more toxic to insects and generally more persistent in the environment. pyrethrins quickly. A few pyrethroids. ysis. To prevent insects from metabolizing pyrethrins and recovering from poisoning. Formulations containing microencapsulated pyrethrins may provide some residual activity for indoor use. are moderately toxic and highly persistent. ants and "bombs" for the control of fleas. Pyrethroids are not structure by pyrethrins. For many of the pyrethroids. many insects are able to metabolize (break down) Products containing synergized pyrethrins (pyrethrins plus PBO) are registered for use on pets and livestock to control fleas. Without various flying insects.

and several other related tropical legumes. Rotenone is commonly 1% dust or a 5% powder (for spraying). rotenone poses roughly the same acute hazard as the commonly available 5% Sevin dust. On a commercial level. plant which . Very high doses may cause convulsions circulatory collapse. pure. and mixed directly with an inert carrier to form an is Rotenone is a broad-spectrum contact and stomach poison that is particularly effective against leaf-feeding beetles and certain caterpillar pests. two commonly used synthetic insecticides (see Table 1. Rotenone is extracted from cube roots in acetone or ether. Rotenone is a powerful inhibitor of cellular respiration. Extraction produces a 2-40% rotenone resin which contains several related but less insecticidal resin compounds known as rotenoids. unformulated rotenone is more toxic than pure carbaryl (Sevin) or malathion. the process that converts nutrient level. used as a carrier for the formulated product. to control this Death occurs several hours to a few days after exposure. copper.8 greatly depending on the kind of solvent that is rotenone to be noncarcinogenic (see Hayes. (piscicide) in It is Rotenone major used on a commercial scale In pest. Treatment of poisoning is symptomatic. muscle tremors. Chronic exposure to rotenone may lead to liver and kidney damage. cells. control. Although rotenone is a cell toxin. causing rapid Figure 2. Rotenone is an insecticidal compound that form of a 1% dust. Although some rodent testing has shown that chronic dietary exposure to rotenone may induce tumor formation.. vomiting. Currently the main commercial source of rotenone is Peruvian Lonchocarpus. the most recent US EPA registration standard considers Sabadilla Source. Rotenone degrades (oxidizes) quickly in air and under warm. Pyrethroids are generally effective at very low concentrations insecticides. cube roots may be dried.S. mammals tion with pyrethrins. The used to make liquid concentrates or to impregnate inert dusts or other carriers. rotenone is more toxic by inhalation than by ingestion. Most rotenone products are made from the complex resin rather than from purified rotenone itself. which often is referred to as cube root. 1982. 1988). effectively synergized by PBO or MGK 264. insecticidal dust. In the Rotenone Source. the Colorado potato beetle has become resistant to most classes of synthetic chemical insecticides. and are used at much lower application rates than most other synthetic and the US EPA report. sunny conditions dust or spray residues on exposed plant surfaces provide some degree of protection for approximately one week. Rotenone is also used extensively in fish management programs. Rotenone is one of the more acutely toxic botanicals. occurs in the roots of Lonchocarpus species in South America. Degradation is greatly accelerated by mixing rotenone with alkaline materials such as soaps or lime. and rapid breathing. Alternatively. Derris species in Asia. Rotenone is extremely toxic to fish. Colorado potato is beetle. adult and larva. rotenone has been used widely in the northeastern United States to control populations of the Colorado potato beetle that have become resistant to most other registered insecticides. detoxify ingested rotenone efficiently via liver enzymes. are registered for general garden and /or sulfur and orchard insect also and disease sold as a sunlight. Mammalian potent Several products containing rotenone in combinatoxicity. Uses. compounds into energy at the cellular its In insects rotenone exerts toxic effects primarily on nerve and muscle cessation of feeding. ryania. powdered. Sabadilla is derived from the ripe seeds of a tropical lily Schoenocaulon officinale. As a matter of comparison. and is often used as a fish poison water management programs. some areas of the U. p. As with pyrethrins. Commercial rotenone was at one time produced from Malaysian Derris. Mode of action. 6). Exposure to high doses may cause nausea. followed by death from respiratory paralysis and Direct contact with rotenone may be irritating to skin and mucous membranes.

and tremors. Ryania has longer residual activity mainly a broad spectrum contact poison. European corn borer. When sabadilla seeds are aged. alkaloids affect nerve cell Ryania is a slow-acting stomach it does not produce rapid knockdown paralysis. toxic to avoid applying active and care must be taken to bees are present. quinine. See p. and respiratory failure. vomiting. a South American shrub. Sabadilla alkaloids can be absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. collards. dusts made from ground seeds. severe nausea.) registered by the US EPA for use walnuts. convulsions. coma. broccoli. Sabadilla is Uses. and are considered on a par with the most toxic synthetic insecticides. Sabadilla.S. the registered botanicals (see Table p. The most active compound in ryania is the alkaloid ryanodine. several insecticidal alkaloids are formed or activated. For vegetable insect control. 10. Purified veratrine alkaloids are quite toxic. it does cause insects to stop feeding soon after ingesting it. and death. Ryania is effectively synergized by PBO and is reported to be most effective in hot weather. cevadine and most active insecticidally. Ryania stem Powdered sabadilla seeds. Sabadilla can be severely irritating to skin and mucous membranes. class of cyclic compounds that contain nitrogen in their ring structures. See p. diarrhea. however. 10 for more information on this problem. bees. The alkaloids degrade rapidly in air and sunlight. corn. 6). potatoes. Ryania is also sold in mixtures containing rotenone and pyrethrins for use on a variety of vegetables and fruits. ripe Ryania speciosa. sometimes followed by convulsions. Ingestion of large doses causes weakness. familiar alkaloids. mental confusion. sabadilla's toxic membrane action. tightness in chest. cucumbers. but is now unavailable commercially and is not registered by the US EPA. In insects. Several sabadilla products available for purchase are not registered in Illinois. respiratory collapse. it honey when than most other botanicals and is therefore useful where the more quickly degrading compounds are ineffective. and peanuts. Sabadilla kills insects of some species immediately. organophosphate insecticides. Caffeine. also its European white hellebore (Veratrum album) contains veratridine in roots. causing nerve function. sabadilla is applied with sugar as an insecticidal bait (stomach poison) for citrus thrips. while others may survive in a state of paralysis for several days before dying. is Sabadilla is registered by the US EPA for use on squash. amounts may cause headaches. . Sabadilla also sometimes known as cevadilla or caustic barley. and has a powerful sneeze-inducing Ingestion of small effect dermal exposure. cramps and reduced circulation. 3-6% of aged. melons. organophosphate poisoning symptoms may include sweating. diarrhea. muscle cramps. coma. citrus. cardiac paralysis. cabbage. deep and slow respiration. It is effective against certain "true bug" pests (Order Hemiptera) such as harlequin bugs and squash bugs that are difficult to control with most other insecticides. Sabadilla is also highly Uses. apples. Purified ryanodine is approximately 700 times more toxic than the crude ground or powdered wood and causes poisoning symptoms similar to those of synthetic when inhaled. Ingestion of very high doses may cause convulsions. and death. Little has been published concerning its exact mode of action in insect systems. and pears for the control of citrus thrips. of action. paralysis and death. Ryania is moderately toxic mammals by ingestion and only slightly toxic by to the least toxic of 1. in the is form of Mammalian toxicity. and strychnine are some of the more The alkaloids in sabadilla are They constitute Ryania Source. for insect control. Hellebore was once commonly used in Europe and the U. known collectively as veratrine or as the veratrine Ryania comes from the woody stems of alkaloids. heated. vomiting.grows in Central and South America. veratridine are the Of these alkaloids. Although MGK Mammalian toxicity. turnips. and codling moth. headache. and have little residual toxicity. active plants. which constitutes approximately 0. In citrus. or treated with alkali. Sabadilla is effectively synergized by PBO or 264. vomiting. evacuation of bowels and bladder. twitching. sabadilla is commonly applied as a contact insecticide in the form of a 20% dust or spray. nicotine. Ryania is not currently registered for sale in Illinois.2% of the dry weight of stem wood. beans. blurred vision. Alkaloids are physiologically compounds that occur naturally in many In chemical terms they are a heterogeneous mustard. Mode Mode loss of of action. poison. wood is combined with carriers to produce a dust or is extracted to produce a liquid concentrate. cocaine. Ryania is on cirrus. but it also has some activity as a stomach poison. (Depending on exposure.

P. They should refuse to ship unregistered products into those states. stating a desire to see the the manufacturer or distributor of the specific not to afford the cost of registering their product products with each state that requires such a step. state agencies are required to enforce the regulations that and manufacturers are not aware of or do not acknowledge these responsibilities. Unfortunately. it is the responsibility of the mail-order distributors to alert customers to the fact that certain products are not registered in the customers' home states. environmentally sound insecticides. . Box 19281. these unregistered botanical products cannot (or at least should not) be found registered for sale on store shelves in Illinois. doing so. Instead. While it is the responsibility of the manufacturers to register their products. Several botanical insecticides. insecticides Natural as well as synthetic many mail-order distributors must be registered by the US EPA before they may be sold and applied legally. consumers can encourage the proper regulation and sale of effective. also must be tested for safety to non- target organisms. Where does this leave the consumer who wishes to purchase a botanical insecticide that is not registered in Illinois? While it may seem that shipping alternative. "natural" pesticides is a harmless practice. both the state and federal levels. existence of complete records of sales at depends upon the and use To register a pesticide in Illinois. IL 62794-9281) and insecticide. Under federal pesticide laws. adequate cover the safe use of EPA-registered pesticides. It fate. the product must pass through several levels of testing for toxicity. also require state registration before a pesticide may be sold and applied legally in that state.10 THE REGISTRATION OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES IN ': ILLINOIS alterna- require that Laws governing pesticide sale and use any product sold to control pests from various distributors of natural or tive pest management supplies in other states. they are available only by mail order By and by refusing to order the product until it is registered. including Illinois. States Environmental Protection must be registered (approved) by the United Agency (US EPA). teratogenicity. manufacturers of botanical companies that have These companies have chosen of Agriculture (Illinois State Fairgrounds. plus a $50 annual fee for each individual product that is registered. and use in Illinois. Consequently. Producers of registration all pesticides —whether synthetic or botanical state registration is must support consumers and This ryania. In order to gain registration. Registration at the state level provides both the records and the funding needed to carry out federally regulation of all pesticides mandated registration enforcement. Springfield. Perhaps the most responsible approach to write to the Illinois for may result from the fact that Department to many of the insecticides are small limited sales. environmental etc. mutagenicity. most notably sabadilla Illinois. the manufacturer must pay an annual fee of $200 for the company. are not registered in programs. Requiring is the only means by which a state can monitor pesticides properly.O. As a result many states. carcinogenicity. They often will ship products illegally without alerting customers to the registration laws.

By law the label on nicotine sulfate insecticides must display the signal words "DANGER POISON" along with the skull and crossbones symbol. Limonene. tive. Other components of essential oils are ketones. including prolonged artificial respiration. Insecticidal formulations generally contain as a fumigant mites. citrus peel fruits. Tobacco teas are sometimes prepared by home gardeners for control of garden pests or for pests of houseplants. excess salivation. an extremely fast-acting nerve toxin. flowers. line and contact poison nicotine sulfate is nicotine in the form of 40% nicotine sulfate and are currently imported in small quantities from India. Essential oils are the volatile compounds responsible most of the tastes rapid penetration of skin and mucous of the essential oils activity. a terpene. membranes and because is of the concentrated form in Nicotine a simple alkaloid derived from which Uses. free nicotine alkaloid Free nicotine it Mode In both insects and mammals. Nicotiana tabacum. and is purified from the oil by steam distillation. Poisoning occurs very rapidly and Citrus Oil Extracts: Limonene and Linalool Source. pletely and degrades comwithin 24 hours. Crude citrus oils and the refined compounds d-limonene (hereafter referred to simply as limonene) and linalool are extracted from orange and other citrus fruit peels. and finally death by respiratory failure and circulatory collapse. Nicotine Source. species. may save a victim of nicotine poisoning.11 KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DANGER POISON PELIGRO Figure 3. Symptoms of nicotine poisoning are extreme nausea. While these teas are not as toxic as nicotine sulfate sprays. and other Nicotiana Nicotine contitutes 2-8% of dried tobacco Nicotine used in greenhouses and gardens to control softthrips. Nicotine has been responsible for numerous serious poisonings and accidental deaths because of is is its and woods. depend on nervous input and only proper function- In insects. Many also have some physiological . and in found in small quantities in over 200 other herbs. Linalool. constitutes about 90% of crude citrus oil. nicotine in pure form toxic to extremely I stomach poisons for control of some Certain roses and other ornamentals may be injured by nicotine sprays. is tobacco. the action of nicotine is fairly selec- certain types of insects are affected. It competes with acetylcholine. the major neurotransmitter. esters. Nicotine is a Class I (extremely toxic) poison. by bonding to acetylcholine receptors at nerve synapses and causing uncontrolled nerve firing. This disruption of normal nerve impulse activ- of action. Despite the fact that smokers is regularly inhale small quantities of nicotine in tobacco smoke. Mammalian toxicity. Ingestion is slightly less hazardous due to the effective readily. and mucous membranes both inhalation and dermal contact may result in death. and scents of plants. vomiting. convulsions. Terpenes and terpene alcohols are among the major components of many plant vola tiles or essential oils. bodied sucking pests such as aphids. for and various alcohols. any nicotine solution that is toxic enough to kill insects is also toxic enough to be harmful to humans. tremors. and only immediate treatment. mental confusion. hazardous because considered a Class Nicotine is particularly is (most penetrates skin. that ing. mammals and it dangerous) poison. evacuation of bowels and bladder. is is liberated. is much more nicotine the sulfate form. Treatment for nicotine symptomatic. is poisoning often fatal. it is used. leaving no toxic residues. aldehydes. leaves. a terpene alcohol. is fast acting Non-alkaline nicotine sulfate sprays liberate the free alkaloid more slowly (over 24-48 hrs) and have limited use as ity results in rapid failure of those body systems for leaf-eating pests. eyes. and When diluted with alkaactive than water or soap solutions. detoxifying action of the liver.

cosmetics. soaps. eyes. They shampoos that do not when used for these purposes because they have low oral and dermal toxicities (see Table 1. eucalyptus. and animals recover fully. topical vasodilator Both compounds are formulated as flea dips also are included in some pet directly claim to have insecticidal properties. 1965). p. p. 16-17) status Limonene and linalool are contact poisons and may also have some fumigant action against Uses. and perfumes. and they are not recommended for use on animals. 6). At higher concentrations. Linalool and limonene evaporate readily from treated surfaces. and citronella. and perfumes. registered for use in controlling all stages of fleas throughout the home. these symptoms are temporary (lasting several hours to several days). and provide no residual control. The central nervous system may also be affected. resulting in additional stimulation of motor nerves. Adult fleas and other insects may recover from knockdown. and while showing promise. Some cats may experience minor tremors and excess salivation for up to one hour after tremors. lack of coordination. These products are relatively new. oils Many essential have GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status. however. unless limonene Linalool is also synergized is synergized by PBO. They are sometimes used as topical counterirritants to relieve or mask pain. The cat flea. Little has been published regarding the Figure 4. Although they are used mainly as flavorings and fragrances in foods.12 Mode of action. Limonene is thought to cause an increase in the spontaneous activity of sensory nerves. Crude citrus peel Many of the essential oils that have low dermal used as repel- oils and products prepared with the crude oils may be more toxic to animals than products containing purified limonene or toxicity may be toxic by ingestion. Massive overstimulation of motor nerves leads to rapid knockdown paralysis. active as a systemic toxin than as a skin irritant. recommended rates. When applied topically. lavender. The citrus oil derivatives. With the exception of pennyroyal. pennyroyal. The modes of action of limonene and linalool in insects are not fully understood. limonene is irritating to skin. Linalool also mode of action of linalool in insects. adult and larva. Linalool is more linalool may be allergenic. these essential . some of them also have insect Both compounds affect the central nervous system. linalool. some questions persist concerning their toxicity. Other Essential Plant Oils: "Herbal" Repellents and Insecticides Essential oils are volatile. limonene and linalool are physiologically active and may be irritating or toxic to mammals. odorous oils derived from plant sources. soaps. it was also shown to promote tumor formation in mouse skin that had been previously sensitized to tumor initiation (see Roe and Fielding. applications of limonene or linalool at repellent or insecticidal properties. excess salivation. and moderate to high doses applied topically to cats and other laboratory animals cause and muscle weakness. Even at the higher doses. Both compounds are most effective when synergized with PBO. limonene and linalool. by PBO. Mammalian were granted toxicity. and convulsions. are registered for use in controlling adult fleas on cats is and dogs. and shampoos. published evaluations of the effectiveness of these combinations are lacking. essential oils The most common lents are the oils of cedar. however. Both limonene are considered safe and Limonene acts as a and a skin sensitizer. They are used mostly on pets and humans to repel fleas and mosquitoes. cosmetics. lack of coordination. Both limonene and linalool (Generally Regarded As Safe the United States GRAS by Food and Drug Administration in 1965. fleas. when applied topically at high concentrations they tend to be irritating to skin and mucous membranes. and mucous membranes. however. Citrus oil extracts have also been combined with insecticidal soap for use as contact poisons against aphids and mites. citrus oils has not Adequate research on the toxicity of crude been conducted. however. and are used extensively as flavorings and scents in foods. Both compounds see terms. This heightened activity sends spurious information to motor nerves and results in twitching.

Foliar made from leaves and bark.13 oils are thought to pose little risk to people or though they should not be used above recomrates. neem are systemic only to a limited and new foliage must be sprayed periodi- cally for adequate protection. Before the development of synthetic repellents. neem product known regarding its efficacy or mammalian Neem Source. usage. and an oil expressed from the seed kernel. Neem is a complex mixture of In India. but in various forms also serves as a repellent. is neem interfering with insect as needed. available in the United States. Neem is also an anti-fungal agent. a information available toxicity. a potent Mammalian toxicity. forms is extremely low toxin that can cause death in humans ingested. pets. neem prevents insects from As a feeding deterrent. although the oils Source. Meliantriol. products include teas and dusts applications of extent. thereby preventing insects from reaching reproductive maturity. extracts from whole fruits. internal doses it may cause and renal failure. It is also contained in some "natural" mosquito repellent lotions." These products should be used moderately and with careful observation of the pet to spot early signs of skin irritation or possible toxic effects. In chemical terms. growth regulator. Hunger may unprotected. or toxin. 6). Neem is not mutagenic according to the Ames Test. and it is difficult to protectant of stored grains repellent and as a broad-spectrum pinpoint the exact modes of action of various In insects. neem is used as a biologically active materials. Neem remain active in the soil for up to 4 weeks. Neem may neem are also active in various ways. effects are beneficial. Susceptibility to regulator. possibly because they ingest it during grooming. opment by conoften mended tain essential oils Some herbal pet products that recommend use daily or "as thought to disrupt normal develhormone production or reception. the various effects of neem differs by species. Margosan-O was registered for control of gypsy moths and greenhouse leaf miners. and deterrents are effective only when applied over wide areas. insecticidal soaps (and . it causes treated areas to nearby crops that are insects to stop feeding. neem has various pharmacological effects. In addition. that grows in arid tropical and subtropical regions on several continents. INSECTICIDAL SOAPS Insecticidal soaps generally are not considered to be botanical insecticides. neem is most it active as a feeding deterrent. seeds. complex chemical that is both a feeding deterrent and a growth regulator. some cats are susceptible to poisoning by topical application of oil of pennyroyal. extracts or preparations. initiating feeding. sterilant. soils. Although the dermal toxicity of pennyroyal is fairly low. oviposi- tion (egg deposition) suppressant. It has been used in India and Asia for centuries for a multitude of practical and medicinal purposes. Oil of pennyroyal contains pulegone. Mode of action. citronella was the most effective Neem is not currently registered by the US EPA. Research has shown that neem has some temic action in plants. a bitter. as Several companies are investigating the develop- Neem products are derived from the neem tree. depending on the type of extract. As a growth from which they are produced may be of plant origin. but that registration is no longer active. irritating to The seed dust. and many other minor components of ment of new neem products for controlling on food crops as well as nonfood crops. salannin. however. there is little scientific Despite its wide For a short while. liver damage. Azadirachta indica. and feeding deterrent for field crops. depending on soil conditions. and in most and mucous mem- At lower low as one tablespoon abortion. insects sys- When applied as a dust to the roots of neem can be taken up by and translocated some species to other parts of the plant. Citronella is sold mainly in the form of candles to be burned outdoors to repel mosquitoes from back yards or other small areas. Neem has mammalian toxicity (see Table 1. neem has anti-ulcer and strong spermicidal properties. The principle active compound in neem is azadirachtin. or seed kernels. and Africa. Asia. force some insects to move from left As a repellent. when branes. may be extremely some people. however. because the tarRepellents get insects are only deterred rather than killed. In humans. or at some point soon after ingesting the food (due to secondary hormonal or physiological (due to the effects of the deterrent substance). Some of these such as lowering blood pressure and reducing inflammation and fever. and there are no commercial neem products Uses. either first "taste" immediately after the presence of deterrent taste factors). at doses as non-irritating to skin p. mosquito repellent available.

whiteflies. insecticidal Some additional insecticidal ri # !%$&*&' Safer Uses. bees. Soaps are effective only against those insects that come into direct contact has dried. In addition. such as adult beetles. the still of action of insecticidal soaps remains Numerous of fatty acids. thrips. Although the action of soaps involves some physical disruption of the insect cuticle (the outer body covering). studies have been conducted to cor- relate insecticidal activity with the physical structure somewhat unclear. the most common currently available soaps enter the insect's respiratory system and cause internal cell damage by breaking down cell membranes or disrupting cell metabolism. or syrphid flies from the toxic action of soaps. Despite many years of use. Inc. but has no serious systemic consequences. Fatty acids are the principle nents of the fats and oils found in plants. Mobility and a hardened cuticle protect the adult forms of most beneficial insects such as lady beetles. . wasps. many uses and are sold as concentrates or ready-to-use sprays. Such insecticide-containing soaps are not included in this discussion of insecticidal soaps. and mites. Soaps are not effective against insects with heavier cuticles. Insectidal soap concentrates Some insecticidal products contain soaps or sham(for poos in combination with organophosphates control of fleas may contain ethanol (up to 30%). however. and they with the spray before it Safer ?*»> "^Sfefe* Figure 5. Safer soaps are formulated for degrade rapidly. additional toxic action is mined in to and be most certain acids insecticidal. Safe*. vomiting is likely the system before most of the alcohol from absorbed into the bloodstream. lacewings. Safer. compoanimals and Mode mode of action.14 all soaps in general) are made from the salts of fatty acids. flies. contain potassium oleate (the immature insects. which causes to clear it is control of lice) or other kinds of insecticides (for intoxication at doses above several ounces. Soaps are used as contact insecticides to control soft-bodied pests such as aphids. Soaps also exert some non-lethal developmental effects on insecticidal soaps. The immature forms of these insects are flightless and soft-bodied. is especially effective. and their additional toxic effects depend on the kinds of insecticides added. present in lesser suspected. soaps are irritating to eyes and mucous membranes and have drying effects on skin. any soap or detergent. Some evidence indicates that high quantities in olive and amounts in other vegetable oils. salt of oleic acid) as the active Mammalian insecticidal toxicity. Safer* soaps. however. 1k Safer Safa- soap products contain compounds such as pyrethrins or citrus oil derivatives. on pets). leafhopper nymphs. Ingestion causes vomiting and general gastric upset. is soaps basically the The mammalian same toxicity of as that of This section refers only to those products active insecticidal ingredient is whose the soap itself. These combination products have a higher toxicity than products containing only soap. is the main producer of insecticidal soaps for use in and around the home as well as in commercial operations. potassium ingredient. Dried residues on plant surfaces are not insecticidal. and may be more susceptible to injury from soaps. oil have been deterOleic acid. highly mobile insects may escape soap spray applications by flying away. scales (crawler stage only). Externally. or grasshoppers.

in addition to their rapid degra- pests of ornamental plants dation. natural or synthetic. nevertheless. and a respirator or dust mask) when applying any pesticide.— 15 Soaps are particularly useful for controlling and houseplants.S. carbaryl. solvents. water. These may include crop rotation. The chemicals are not conservation of beneficial insects. or the use of resistant crop varieties. Users are reminded to always read — avoided the soap or detergent plant surfaces shortly after application. Pyrethrins. Dishwashing liquids and laundry detergents are designed to dissolve grease. linalool. is does not have to be ingested to be effective. shoes and socks.R. detergents from soaps chemically and are sometimes Plant injury more phytotoxic. and permethrin. protective eye wear. In addition to commercial insecticidal soaps. and permethrin. sabadilla. A contact poison either kills insects immediately (as they are touched by the wet spray) and then degrades quickly as with pyrethrins or soaps or has some residual action and kills insects over time (as they come into contact with the poison on plant surfaces) as with the botanical — — — insecticide sabadilla and the synthetic compounds carbaryl (Sevin) others. limonene.: "Generally Regarded As Safe. to note that all all on the leaf surface where a lens effect may botanical insecticides are not safer than synthetic cause burning. they have low mammalian toxicities (high be phytotoxic to some plant species. insecticides simply because they are "natural. On the other hand. it a toxin that kills insects by these are their rapid degradation in the environ- ment and risks their rapid action in insects. toxic! mean Many of them are very homemade Readers are strongly urged not to prepare pesticides from household chemicals. Plants that have pubescent (hairy) leaves may be more susceptible to soap injury than smooth-leafed plants because the hairs tend to hold the soap they solution may LDjo values)." a classification assigned a topic that deserves care- Administration to certain by the Food and Drug compounds that have Many of the insecticides discus- sed in this publication are attractive alternatives to been used traditionally without apparent toxicity or are believed to be low enough in mammalian . insecticidal Commercial soaps are less likely to dissolve plant waxes than household cleaning products. though synthetics because. effective polishes. It is very important. if may is possibly be rinsed from Ryania and rotenone are comparable in acute toxicity to commonly used synthetic insecticides such as malathion. generally considered to be pesticides does not that they are not toxic. and follow pesticide label directions exactly and to wear proper protective clothing (long sleeves and long pants. however. is degradation food. diazinon. Where persistent residues are needed for continuous control. Some "recipes" for pesticides call for cleaning agents. the chronic effects of repeated exposures whether natural or synthetic to any insecticide are not fully understood and are difficult to test realistically. Also. insecticidal soaps fall into this and the category. Nicotine is extremely toxic to mammals by both inhalation and dermal exposure. fuel oils. The safety of botanical insecticides and insecticidal soaps in general ful consideration. beneficial because it Rapid minimizes the posed by unwanted insecticide residues in and the environment in general.A. rubber or neoprene gloves. CAUTION: Although homemade soap sprays may be fairly harmless. or other cultural controls. as well as many G. creating homemade poisons for pest control can be a dangerous practice. botanicals and soaps do not provide adequate protection. In addition. Terms to Understand SUMMARY Botanical insecticides Carcinogen: a substance or agent that produces or incites cancer (malignant tumors) in experimental animals or in humans. and insecticidal soaps share a number of advantages." many common household soaps and detergents insecticidal when applied to plants as a 1-2% are aqueous solution. and they may cause plant injury by dissolving the waxy differ cuticle on leaf surfaces. toxic to plants and other materials that are and many animals (including fact that these encouraged to employ nonchemical control measures whenever possible. Rapid action in insects is advantageous because it serves to minimize the extent of feeding damage. Finally. rapid degradation imposes certain limitations on the use of botanicals. the release or humans). readers are sanitation. Foremost among Contact Poison: contact.

ingredients. wettable powder. the are the LD S0 values most commonly encountered and dermal Although based on toxicity alone. toxicity that certain testing requirements are waived during the pesticide registration process. signal words give an indication of potential hazard (see Table 2. long-sleeved shirt Essential and long pants. flies. Hazard depends on several factors including the inherent toxicity of the active These measurements provide an estimate of how toxic a substance might be to humans. Repellents are usually used to fend off mosquitoes. p. and skin. such as liquid concentrate. Safety goggles and a cartridge respirator are recommended when mixing concentrates or when apply sprays or dusts in greenhouses or other enclosed areas where contact with fumes or airborne particles is likely. etc. Hazard: the risk associated with the use of a formulated pesticide. or risk. most naturally occurring toxicity. ready-to-use spray." the kills words on a pesticide label that dose that animals. carriers.). is sometimes defined as "toxicity exposure. Even though the active ingredients in irritating. Proper protective clothing should be worn whenever mixing concentrates or applying sprays or dusts. protection includes a loose-fitting. ticks. so a lower in rats. rubber boots or sturdy. Signal Words: the LD M : the abbreviation for "median lethal dose." from alighting or feeding.) LDjo indicates a Repellent: more toxic substance. the formulation (the form in which the a volatile substance that keeps insects product is used. When oral dealing with pesticides. 17. they are often allergenic or The inert ingredients (solvents. lungs. LD50 values are usually reported in terms of milligrams of toxicant per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (mg/kg). mice. etc. as they can absorb toxins). Applying pesticides of any sort is serious business requiring insecticides are relatively some degree low in in of protection. 50% of the population of test indicate the toxicity of the active ingredients. closed shoes. Hazard. fleas.) mammalian LDS0 values (measured . and other additives) formulated products also may be irritating to eyes. and rubber gloves (not cloth or leather. and the degree of exposure. rabbits. and gnats (biting pests of humans and other animals).16 Figure 6.

Beasley. USDA. University. M. J. Plants with Pest-Control Properties. Ahmed. low in toxicity but increases the toxicity of the Insecticide. New York. Plants: A USDA Agr Handbook 461. Illinois Natural History Survey. Shirley Handbook 154. 470 pp.D. Grainge.J. M.J. Boca Raton. '89. The Neem Tree. Funding to develop this publication was provided in part by a grant from the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR Project No. 189(8): 905-908. The toxicity of pesticides is often expressed as an Effects of in the cat. ed. 1986. Jacobson. Meister Publishing Company. 299 pp. and J. CRC Press. 178 pp.R. Cooperative Extension Service. Diane MatthewsGehringer. feed products. W.. and S. Safer.17 Table 2 Signal Signal Words Word or Toxicity Category Toxicity Rating Oral LDjo "DANGER" I extremely toxic 0-50 "DANGER-POISON" "WARNING" "CAUTION" "CAUTION" II very toxic 50-500 III moderately toxic slightly toxic or 500-5000 IV practically nontoxic >5000 be a toxin that must be ingested to stomach poison usually has some residual activity. so that the pesticide has longer to act before being 1989. from Review of the Literature. 1982. pesticide with gists act which it is combined. Frederick A W. M. University of Illinois. Plapp. Atkins. Jacobson. Whitney Cranshaw. Necessary Trading Company. is S. Everitt.E. be present in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed or semi-processed food or stration to Hayes. 1975. 329 pp. by inhibiting the detoxification Most synerenzymes of Farm Chemicals Handbook Issue. IP13) and by the Cooperative Extension Service. Beltsville. the degree to which a substance Hooser. John Williams. 138 pp. Texas A & M Rotenone and ryania are active as stomach poisons. McClellan. Academic Pyrethrum: The Natural Press. They are generally not effective against insects that suck plant sap. REFERENCES Synergist: itself in terms of pesticides. Baltimore. In: W. Rodale Research Center. 75th Anniversary the target pest. 1973. Insecticides Jacobson.. I. Toxicity: pp. Most stomach poisons are used against plant-feeding insects or Stomach Poison: effective. 1988. Pesticides derived from plants and other organisms. Vol. New York. Handbook of John Wiley the amount of pesticide residue permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the Food and Drug Admini- Tolerance: and Sons. an J insecticidal dip containing d-limonene Amer Vet Med Assoc 1958. . Donald Kuhlman. Pesticides Studied in Man. so that it remains active until insects have a chance to feed on it.. a material that is Casida. V. 75-111. University of Illinois. Martin Jacobson. Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides. Colorado State University. Plants: A USDA Agr ACKNOWLEDGMENT The following reviewers contributed to this publication: M. degraded in the insect's system. LDjo for the technical material (the pure active ingredient) in laboratory animals.B.I. 1954-1971. Insecticides from Review of the Literature. inherently poisonous (able to cause injury or death). insects that will feed on baits. M. 1989. Inc. Williams and Wilkins. 1941-1953. Hayes.

F. Chronic toxicity of essential oils and certain other products of natural origin. Powers.S.J. RottachUrbana.R. 1970.E. Juss. 1989. I. Ascher. and W. Field. D.). EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. Schmutterer.. linalool: 1985. in cooperation with the U. Mode of action of pyrethroids.S. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. New York.C 116 pp.A. K. Toxicol 27(6): Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work.18 Jacobson.C. F. K. 585 pp. Guidance for the Reregistration of Pesticide Mclndoo. Bull 1201. Plants tested for or reported to possess insecticidal Products Containing Rotenone as the Active Ingredient.. FRG. Marcel Dekker. and D. Acts of 8 and June 30. N. USD A review. Washington. Acting Director.. 3-M-10-89-CP . 1914. nicotinoids. Eschborn. M. 1924. and A. Uchtmann. Crosby. Rembold. May Champaign. and H. 1965. Illinois Egern. Ann Rev Entomol 15: A Vet and Human 257-272. 1982. properties. 1971.. Yamamoto. H. 297 pp. Food and Cosmetic Toxicol 3: 311-324. Toxicological aspects of and rotenoids. Occurring Insecticides. Cooperative Extension Service. Naturally United States Environmental Protection Agency. Department of Agriculture. Donald L.G. Sievers. Roe. University of Illinois at Urbana- 484-486.