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# Physics

Waves and Oscillations

M.M.Fazeel B.Sc M.Sc PGDE

1. A student plans to carry out an experiment using a sonometer to determine the frequency (f) of a tuning fork.
(a)

Where should he place the sounded tuning fork in order to obtain resonance?
. ………………………………………………………………………………………..........................

(b)

What procedure must he follow in order to obtain the fundamental resonance length?
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(c)

The student measured the fundamental resonance lengths (l) corresponding to different tensions of the
sonometer wire using different weights (Mg). Write down an expression relating M, l, f and the mass per unit
length m of the sonometer wire.
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(d)

i.

Which of his experimental ‘l’ values is considered to have the highest accuracy?
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ii.

Give the reason.
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(e)

In this experiment the graph plotted by the student is shown in the figure.

10 1.4 8.100 0.10 1.Sc PGDE i. A mass is placed in the scale pan and the system is allowed to oscillate vertically by stretching the spring and then releasing it.………………………………………… 02.Fazeel B. two suitable points on the graph.500 Time for 5 oscillation (s) 5.5 6. Find the gradient of the graph. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… . where is a constant. (kg) 0.200 0.3 Hence the Period (s) 1. find the frequency of the tuning fork.50 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (f) If the value of m is 8x10-4. Mark with arrows. ii.Physics Waves and Oscillations M. The periodic time for small vertical oscillations is given by the expression.65 (a) Is the above number of oscillations sufficient? Give reasons for your answer.Sc M.30 1.4 5.400 0.5 7. In order to verify the above expression a student has measured the period for five oscillations for different values of The table shows the readings taken by the student. A spiral spring of mass is hung vertically from the top end and a light scale pan is fastened to the lower end of the spring.M.300 0. which you would use to find its gradient. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………….

. axis axis ……………..…………………………………………………………………………………… …………. (iii) Hence calculate the constant (you may take 10).Sc PGDE (b) (i) Re-arrange the above expression to draw a suitable graph in order to verify it. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. and write down the corresponding co-ordinates on the graph. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ..M. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….Sc M. (ii) To draw a suitable graph tabulate the above readings. (c) (i) Mark on the graph with arrows the two points which you would use in order to find the gradient of the graph.. (iii) Draw a suitable graph on the grid provided below..Fazeel B. (ii) What is the gradient of the graph? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….Physics Waves and Oscillations M..……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… …………………………………………………….

Sc M. a tuning fork of frequency (f) 512 Hz and a tall vessel containing water.Fazeel B. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . An experimental arrangement has to be set up to determine the speed (V) of sound in air by the method of resonance.Physics Waves and Oscillations M. (a) Draw a diagram to illustrate the experimental set up. (b) State the correct procedure that you would follow in this experiment to obtain the resonance states of the air column properly.Sc PGDE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… (d) (i) What is the intercept of the graph? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. (ii) Hence find the mass of the spring.M. You are provided with a uniform glass tube open at both ends.

neglect the end correction of the tube. (i) Use the values given in part (f) above to find the speed of sound in air ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… .Physics (c) Waves and Oscillations M. (d) Write down a general expression for the resonance length (ℓ) in terms of the wavelength (λ) of the sound wave and an integer n (n = 1. …).. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (f) The first two resonance length of such an experiment are found to be 15 cm and 48 cm respectively. 3. f and n write down a suitable expression to find speed (V) of sound in air using a graphical method.M.Fazeel B.. (h) Rewrite the expression in part (e) to accommodate the end correction (Є) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. (g) What is the type of wave present inside the tube at resonance. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Draw the wave patterns for the above two modes of vibration in the figures shown below. (e) Using quantities ℓ.Sc M. travelling or standing? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Sc PGDE What are the two readings that you would take to find a resonance length of the air column? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. V. 5.

. (ii) Instead of the ear. If it is known that the set of tuning forks has the frequencies. 384 Hz. 420 Hz and 320Hz. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. briefly describe how you would obtain a resonance length corresponding to the fundamental tone.Fazeel B. and around . 512 H2. and a set tuning forks ( found in your laboratory (see figure). (a) Waves and Oscillations M. Sketch below the expected variation of with in. a sound measuring instrument is kept close to the open end of the tube to record the intensity levels ( ) of the sound when (shown in the above figure) is varying in order to obtain (i). .Sc M.Physics 4. The piston can be moved smoothly inside the glass tube.Sc PGDE To study the resonance phenomenon in sound you are asked to use a glass tube with a piston ( ). 256 Hz.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. what is the frequency of the tuning fork ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) (i) For a given tuning fork..M. . All the tuning forks are made of the same material and prongs have the same area of cross section.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

. (i) In order to use a graphical method to find the velocity of sound in air.M. Find the corresponding intensity of sound given that the threshold of audibility is 10-12 W m-2.Sc M. ……. . which tuning fork from the above set is most desirable to use first. the wire vibrates at the fundamental frequency. (a) (i) When is plucked in the middle of BC. 05. Draw the wave pattern of the wire produced between B and C in the figure shown below. the expected variation of with corresponding to the first overtone.…………………………………………………………………………………………………….Fazeel B. The pulley P is smooth. The sonometer shown in the diagram consists of two stretched thin metal wires end of is attached to the shown. is kept under tension by fixing to the nails R and S.……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) There in another important physical quantity that you should record during the experiment in order to report your result meaningfully. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Physics (iii) Waves and Oscillations M. (d) In ( ) it was observed that the value of for one instant was 60 dB.. What is this physical quantity? …….Sc PGDE What is the corresponding resonance length for the first overtone in terms of correction is negligible. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Suppose now you wish to find the velocity of sound in air using all the tuning forks in the above set. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….) ? (Assume that the end …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (iv) (c) Sketch also on the same diagram above.

write down an expression for the fundamental ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. If the length between X and Y is changed to 20.2 cm. The length XY corresponding to the fundamental frequency of vibration of in resonance with the fundamental frequency of Suggest an experimental procedure to be followed in order to obtain . find the new fundamental frequency of W2. (ii) If M = 4 kg..M.Sc M. .……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. m and . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (iv) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Now if both wires are vibrated simultaneously with each of their fundamental frequency. what is the beat frequency obtained.5 cm. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . write down the relationship between the wavelength transverse wave and of the …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (iv) If T is the tension and m is the mass per unit length of frequency in terms of T. (b) (i) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. m = 4 x 10-3 kg m-1 and = 12.Sc PGDE How is a stationary wave of this nature formed? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (iii) If is the distance between B and C.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (iii) The value obtained for in (b) (i) is 20. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 cm.Physics (ii) Waves and Oscillations M.Fazeel B. what is the fundamental frequency of vibration of W2.

and the frequency n of the tuning fork. An experimental set-up used in the laboratory to determine the speed of sound in air by resonating air columns is shown in the in the figure. (two lines) is . If the room temperature is increased .5cm. equal to or less than 35cm. (C ) (1) Rewrite the expression in (b) interims of ᶴ speed of sound in air V . (2) If you are provided with several tuning forks of know frequencies and asked to determine V by plotting a graph state the quantities that you would plot Independent variable : ………………………………………………………………………… Dependent variable : ………………………………………………………………………… (d). ? Give reason for your answer.) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. explain whether it is possible to find another position of the tube in water where resonance is produced with the same turning fork..Physics Waves and Oscillations M. would you expect ᶴ to be greater than. with a certain tuning fork the value of ᶴ was observed to be 3. (neglect the end correction of the tube...M.Sc M. writ down the relationship between ᶴ and λ.Sc PGDE 06.Fazeel B. If the length of the tube 75cm. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) If the corresponding length of the air column measured in (a) is ᶴ and the wavelength of sound waves in air is λ . (a) Briefly describe the procedure that you would adopt to obtain the fundamental note of vibration of the air column with this set-up. (two lines) (e).. (one lines) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Fazeel B.Sc M. (3 lines) . (two lines ) (g). would you expect the same value for as measured in (C ) (2) ? Explain the answer.M. For alcohol calculation has to be introduce only to the open end to the tube and not to the closed end. If alcohol is used instead of water in this experiment.Physics Waves and Oscillations M. Explain why.Sc PGDE (f).