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Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper); 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic)

Ismail Kasikci Short Circuits in Power Systems

3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) Short Circuits in Power Systems A Practical Guide to IEC 60 909 Ismail Kasikci . KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper).Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

Weinheim. Ismail Kasikci Ahornstrasse 55 69469 Weinheim Germany & This book was carefully produced. procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. used in this book. Composition Kühn & Weyh. microfilm. ISBN 3-527-30482-7 . Nevertheless. illustrations.: applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. trademarks. Freiburg Printing Strauss Offsetdruck GmbH. or any other means ± nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publisher. etc. authors. Library of Congress Card No. Heppenheim cover image: upper right image courtesy Siemens PTD. are not to be considered unprotected by law. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements. 2002 All rights reserved (including those of translation in other languages). Germany. data. printed in the Federal Republic of Germany printed on acid-free paper.Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909. 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) Dr. Wiley-VCH Verlag-GmbH. and publisher do not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors. even when not specifically marked as such. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Registered names. Mörlenbach Bookbinding Litges & Dopf Buchbinderei GmbH. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form ± by photoprinting. Die Deutsche Bibliothek ± CIP Cataloguing-inPublication Data: A catalogue record for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek.

Electrical systems must therefore be designed so that neither persons nor equipment are endangered. Part 3 explains the significance. type of wiring etc. The dimensioning. This book is comprised of the following sections: Part 1 describes the most important terms and definitions. IEC 60 909 is internationally recognized and used. The rapid development in all areas of technology is also reflected in the improvement and elaboration of the regulations. Every system installed must not only be suitable for normal operation. back-up protection. teaching at the VDE. controlling protective measures and stability against short circuits in the selection of equipment. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper). thus permitting a summary of the standard in the simplest and most understandable way possible. purpose and creation of IEC 60 909. Short circuit current calculation is a prerequisite for the correct dimensioning of operational electrical equipment. This standard will be discussed in the present book on the basis of fundamental principles and technical references. and the resulting current carrying capacity of conductors and cables will also not be dealt with here. 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) V Foreword This book is the result of many years of professional activity in the area of power supply. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. in particular in regard to IEC 60 909. the importance of calculating short circuit currents has also increased accordingly. including recent changes to these. With increasing power of the installation. such as frequency. Part 2 is an overview of the IEC 60 909 standards. Solutions to the problems of selectivity.Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909. The reduction factors. protective equipment and voltage drops in electrical systems will not be dealt with in this book. but must also be designed in consideration of fault conditions and must remain undamaged following operation under normal conditions and also following a fault condition. cost effectiveness and safety of these systems depends to a great extent on being able to control short circuit currents. Every planner of electrical systems is obligated today to calculate the single-pole or three-pole short circuit current before and after the project management phase. . Part 4 deals with the network design of supply networks. together with relevant processes and types of short circuits. temperatures other than the normal operating temperature. as well as at the Technical academy in Esslingen and at the Master Trade School in Heidelberg.

In the appendices two software programs are introduced to carry out simplified short circuit calculations (appended to this book as a CD ROM). with time-current characteristics. Part 6 describes the systems (network types) in the low voltage network IEC 60 354 Part 30 with the cut-off conditions. tables. Part 11 is devoted to the calculation of short circuit types. The method of symmetrical components is therefore described here. A large number of diagrams and tables required for calculation simplify the application of the IEC 60 909 standard as well as the calculation of short circuit currents and therefore shorten the time necessary to carry out the planning of electrical systems. Part 12 discusses the contribution of high and low voltage motors to the short circuit current. developed by Siemens as an aid in the calculation of short circuit currents and in the selection of circuit breakers.VI Foreword Part 5 gives an overview of the network types for low and medium voltage. Müller of the University of Applied Sciences for Technique and Economics Berlin for critically reviewing the manuscript and for valuable suggestions. With the exception of the three-pole short circuit current. power substation transformers and distribution transformers. I am especially indebted to Professor B. I also wish to thank Siemens AG for their friendly support in the compilation of data and diagrams for switchgear. with this book. The calculation of these currents is not possible in the positive-sequence system. Part 13 deals with the subject of mechanical and thermal stresses in operational equipment as the result of short circuit currents. diagrams and characteristic curves. Part 14 gives an overview of the design values for short circuit current strength. Part 18 represents a large number of examples taken from practice which enhance the understanding of the theoretical foundations. . all other fault currents are unsymmetrical. as well as for permission to include the program KUBS plus. Part 8 discusses the impedances of three-phase operational equipment along with relevant data. Part 15 is devoted to the most important overcurrent protection devices. Part 7 illustrates the types of neutral point treatment in three-phase networks. Part 10 is concerned with the method of symmetrical components. Part 16 gives a brief overview of the procedure for calculating short circuit currents in DC systems. Part 9 presents the impedance corrections for generators. and Elektra Soft for the calculation tools for electrical engineering. Part 17 gives a list of programs for the calculation of short circuit currents.

Maike Petersen. Finally. I dedicate this book to my family. Furthermore. Hans-Jochen Schnitt and Michael Baer for their excellent cooperation and their support in the publication of this book. without the support of my wife this book could never have been written. My heartiest appreciation is due to Eva E. In recognition of all the weekends and evenings I sat at the computer. I welcome every suggestion.Foreword VII At this point I would also like to express my gratitude to all those colleagues who supported me with their ideas. Ismail Kasikci . criticism and idea regarding the use of this book from those who read the book. Wille. Anette Eckerle. suggestions and corrections. criticism.

2 1.4.2 6.1 4.1 5. 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) IX Contents Foreword V XIII 1 4 Symbols and Indices 1 1. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper).5 2 3 4 4.4.3 1.1 1. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909.4 4.2 6 6.3 1.2 1.2 4.4.4 1.1 1.5 5 5.3 4.1 6.3 Terms and Definitions Time behavior of the short circuit current 3 Short circuit path in the positive-sequence system Classification of short circuit types 5 Methods of short circuit calculation 7 Equivalent voltage source 7 Superposition method 9 Transient calculation 10 Calculating with reference variables 10 General Information About IEC 60 909 11 The Significance of IEC 60 909 13 Supply Networks 17 Calculation variables for supply networks 17 Lines supplied from a single source 17 Radial networks 18 Ring networks 18 Meshed networks 19 Network Types for the Calculation of Short Circuit Currents 21 Low voltage network types 21 Medium voltage network types 23 Systems up to 1 kV 29 31 TN systems 29 Calculation of fault currents TT systems 34 .

1 11.3 11.2 11 11.3 8 8.1 9.X Contents 6.3 8.2 7.2 11.5 11.4 8.8 9 9.1 12.1 8.7 12 12.7 8.3.6 11.1 7.2 8.1 8.4 11.6 8.2 8.5 8.4 6.3 10 10.3.2 12.5 IT systems 35 Transformation of the network types described to equivalent circuit diagrams 36 Neutral Point Treatment in Three-phase Networks 39 7 7.1 10.3: Networks with isolated free neutral point 42 Networks with grounding compensation 43 Networks with low impedance neutral point treatment Impedances of Three-phase Operational Equipment 47 44 Network feed-ins 47 Synchronous machines 49 Transformers 51 Short circuit current on the secondary side 52 Voltage regulating transformers 57 Cables and overhead lines 58 Short circuit current limiting 70 Asynchronous machines 71 Consideration of capacitors and non-rotating loads 72 Consideration of static converters 73 Impedance Corrections 75 Correction factor KG for generators 76 Correction factor KKW for power plant block 77 Correction factor KT for transformers with two and three windings The Method of Symmetrical Components Symmetrical components 82 81 85 79 Impedances of symmetrical components Calculation of Short Circuit Currents 91 Three-pole short circuits 91 Two-pole short circuits with contact to ground 93 Two-pole short circuit without contact to ground 93 Single-pole short circuits to ground 94 Peak short circuit current ip 97 Symmetrical breaking current Ia 99 Steady state short circuit current Ik 102 Motors in three-phase Networks 105 Short circuits at the terminals of asynchronous motors 105 Motor groups supplied from transformers with two windings 107 Motor groups supplied from transformers with different nominal voltages 107 .2 9.

17 Example 1: Radial network 153 Example 2: Proof of protective measures 155 Example 3: Connection box to service panel 158 Example 4: Transformers in parallel 159 Example 5: Connection of a motor 160 Example 6: Calculation for a load circuit 162 Example 7: Calculation for an industrial system 164 Example 8: Calculation of three-pole short circuit current and peak short circuit current 166 Example 9: Meshed network 168 Example 10: Supply to a factory 171 Example 11: Calculation with impedance corrections 172 Example 12: Connection of a transformer through an external network and a generator 176 Example 13: Motors in parallel and their contributions to the short circuit current 177 Example 14: Proof of the stability of low voltage systems 180 Example 15: Proof of the stability of medium and high voltage systems 182 Example 16: Calculation for short circuit currents with impedance corrections 193 Example 17: Calculation with per-unit magnitudes 195 .4 16.2 15 16 16.14 18.Contents XI 13 13.15 18.5 17 18 18.1 14.8 Mechanical and Thermal Short Circuit Strength 111 Mechanical short circuit current strength 111 Thermal short circuit current strength 112 Limitation of short circuit currents 120 Calculations for Short Circuit Strength 127 Short circuit strength for medium voltage switchgear 127 Short circuit strength for low voltage switchgear 128 Equipment for Overcurrent Protection Short Circuit Currents in DC Systems 131 143 Resistances of line sections 145 Current converters 146 Batteries 147 Capacitors 148 DC motors 149 Programs for the Calculation of Short Circuit Currents 151 Examples: Calculation of Short Circuit Currents 153 18.11 18.3 18.16 18.2 16.9 18.1 18.3 14 14.4 18.13 18.10 18.6 18.1 13.7 18.2 18.1 16.5 18.2 13.3 16.12 18.

XII Contents Appendices Calculation Tools for Electrical Engineering 1 2 The Elaplan program 199 251 197 The KUBS plus Program Index 261 .

a2 b c C E EB E² f h L¢ Ia Ian Ib Ik I² k I²1 k I²2 k I²3 k I²2E k I²EE k Ima In ip Ir IrM Isc Icm Icu Ith K Initial value of DC aperiodic component Cross-section of conductor Center-to-center distance between conductors Rotational operators Width of rectangular conductor Voltage factor Capacitance Internal voltage of voltage source. 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) XIII Symbols and Indices A A a a. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909. source voltage No-load voltage of battery Subtransient voltage of synchronous machine Frequency Height of conductor Distributed inductance Cut-off current Starting current Operating current Steady state short circuit current Initial symmetrical short circuit current Single-pole short circuit current Two-pole short circuit current Three-pole short circuit current Two-pole short circuit with contact to ground Double ground fault Rated short circuit making current Nominal current of protective equipment Peak short circuit current Rated current Magnetic setting current Rated short circuit breaking current Rated short circuit making current Rated short circuit breaking current Rated short-time current Correction factor . KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper).

absolute or relative value Resistance Resistance of conductor Resistance per unit length Resistance of battery conductor Resistance of saturated choke coil Resistance of coupling branch Resistance of battery coupling branch Resistance of capacitor Total resistance of capacitor Resistance of a capacitor conductor Resistance of conductor in converter arm Resistance of DC motor Resistance of DC motor conductor Resistance of DC motor coupling branch Apparent power. conductor radius.XIV Symbols and Indices LB LBBr LBL LC LCBr LCL LCY LDL LM LMBr LML Ls LY m Mr n p p P PkrT PT Q r R Rl R¢ RBL Rs RY RBY RC RCBr RCL RDL RM RML RMY S S² k t Tk tp UNB UrM uRr Inductance of battery Total inductance of battery Inductance of a battery conductor Inductance of capacitor Total inductance of capacitor Inductance of a capacitor conductor Inductance of coupling branch for capacitor Inductance of conductor in converter arm Inductance of DC motor Total inductance of DC motor Inductance of a DC motor conductor Inductance of saturated choke coil Inductance of coupling branch Decaying DC aperiodic component Rated-load torque of motor Decaying AC component Pole-pair of asynchronous motor Ratio Ik/Ip Effective power Transformer winding losses Transformation ratio of transformer Idle power Resistance. cross-section Initial symmetrical short circuit power Time Duration of short circuit Time until onset of peak short circuit current Nominal voltage of battery Rated voltage of DC motor Rated value for resistive voltage drop in % .

B. : AC AMZ ASM C D d.c. e.Symbols and Indices XV ukr Zk X x² d Z Z1 Z2 Z0 j e l k l0 k g r d W Rated value for short circuit voltage in % Short circuit impedance of network Reactance Subtransient reactance of synchronous motor Impedance Positive-sequence impedance Negative-sequence impedance Zero-sequence impedance Phase angle Coefficient of grounding Factor for calculation of symmetrical breaking current Factor for calculation of steady state short circuit current Absolute permeability in vacuum Withstand ratio Efficiency of AC motor Specific resistance Decay coefficient. ground fault factor Angular velocity Indices a A. C B Br a. bus bar Battery Battery branch AC current Maximum current-dependent time relay Asynchronous machine Capacitor Converter DC current Ground Short circuit position Generator High voltage Internal Cable Short circuit Single-pole short circuit current Two-pole short circuit current Two-pole short circuit with contact to ground Three-pole short circuit current Double ground fault .g. : DC E F G HV i K k k1 k2 k2E k3 kEE Cut-off Description of position.c.

upper right. network Overcurrent protective equipment Overvoltage Limiting dynamic value Protective ground conductor Network connection point Rated value Smoothing choke Connection box to on-site power Transformer Maximum current-independent time relay Undervoltage Component of positive-phase system Component of negative-phase system Component of zero-phase system Secondary symbols. L3 LV M max min MV n N OPE OV pS PE Q r S SP T UMZ UV 1 2 0 Length Conductor External conductor Low voltage Motor Maximum Minimum Medium voltage Nominal value Neutral conductor.XVI Symbols and Indices l L L1. left ² ¢ ¢ * Subtransient value Transient value Resistance or reactance per unit length Relative magnitude . L2.

132 computer programs 151 current converters 146 current limiting 70 cut-off energy 131 IEC 60 909 11. Ismail Kasikci Copyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 101. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30482-7 (Paper). heat transfer 119 l d DC aperiodic component 2. 193 generators 76 power plant block 77 transformers 79 impedances asynchronous machines 71 capacitors 72 network feed-ins 47 non-rotating loads 72 static converters 73 synchronous machines 49 transformers 51 insulation. 3-527-60046-9 (Electronic) 261 Index a i asynchronous machine 71. arrangement 45 neutral point treatment 39 h HH fuses 131 o operational equipment 189 . calculation 31 fuses 112 g ground fault tripping 132 ground loop impedance 30 networks grounding compensation 43 isolated free neutral point 42 low impedance neutral point 44 network types 21 low voltage 21 medium voltage 23 neutral conductor 30 neutral point. 3. 105 impedance 106 b batteries 147 breaking current 127 c cables and overhead lines 58 calculation tools 197 capacitors 148 circuit breakers 112. 7 n f fault currents. 12 impedance corrections 75.Short Circuits in Power Systems: A Practical Guide to IEC 60909. 49 DC motors 149 DC systems 143 disconnectors 112 load-break switches 112 load interrupter switches 112 m e making current 127 mesh diagram 4 meshed networks 19 equivalent circuit diagrams 36 equivalent electrical circuit 2 equivalent voltage source 2.

3. 102 symmetrical breaking current 2 time behavior 3 short-time current 127 short-time delay release 132 single source 17 software programs Elaplan 199 KUBS plus 251 steady-state condition 9 step voltages 40 superposition method 2. 93 types 5 zero-sequence impedance 2 short circuit current 1 calculation 21. 7. 8 voltage regulating transformers 57 . 6. 9 supply networks 17 surge arrester 191 symmetrical components 81. 7. 99 systems IT 35 TN 29 TT 34 p PEN conductor 29 power generator 143 protective functions 132 protective ground conductor 30 r radial networks 18. 3. 153 t three-phase networks 39 three-phase synchronous generator 143 touch voltage 39 transformation ratio 57 transient method 10 u v undelayed release 132 voltage factor 2. 7. 94 symmetrical breaking current 99 thermal 111. 91 asynchronous motors 105 calculation 7. 153 RCD 34 reference variables 10 ring networks 18 s short circuit 1. 97 self-quenching 42 steady state 2. 127 far-from-generator 5 impedance 2 low voltage switchgear 128 mechanical 111 near-to-generator 2.262 Index overcurrent protection 131 overcurrent protective equipment 34 overloading 131 overload tripping 132 initial symmetrical 1. 151. 91 two-pole 6. 6 negative-sequence impedance 2 positive-sequence impedance 2 positive-sequence system 4 single-pole 6. 112 three-phase networks 6 three-pole 4. 82 impedances 85 synchronous machines 49. 3 limitation 120 peak 2.

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