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pyrheliometer A pyrheliometer is an instrument used to measure the direct solar radiation at a given location.

Since they need to be pointed directly at the sun, pyrheliometers are typically mounted on a tracking device that follows the sun’s movements. After sunlight enters the pyrheliometer, it is converted to an electrical voltage by a thermopile. This voltage can then be calibrated to give units of watts per square meter, the standard units of solar irradiance.Pyrheliometers are used for scientific research and for placing solar panels. Solar irradiance is a measure of the flux of solar radiation, or the solar energy per unit time, per unit area. It depends on the location of measurement—solar irradiance near the surface of the sun will be much larger than at the distance of Earth. In fact, there are variations in solar irradiance across the surface of Earth; these depend on the amount of atmosphere sunlight must penetrate, and, to a lesser extent, differences in distance from the sun. The average solar irradiance at Earth’s distance from the sun is about 1,366 watts per square meter. Pyrheliometers positioned on the Earth’s surface measure the solar irradiance after it penetrates the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, some sunlight is scattered; this kind of diffuse sunlight can be measured by a different instrument, called a pyranometer. The sunlight that is not scattered enters the pyrheliometer and hits a thermopile. Humidity sensor Humidity is the presence of water in air. The amount of water vapor in air can affect human comfort as well as many manufacturing processes in industries. The presence of water vapor also influences various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Humidity measurement in industries is critical because it may affect the business cost of the product and the health and safety of the personnel. Hence, humidity sensing is very important, especially in the control systems for industrial processes and human comfort. Controlling or monitoring humidity is of paramount importance in many industrial & domestic applications. In semiconductor industry, humidity or moisture levels needs to be properly controlled & monitored during wafer processing. In medical applications, humidity control is required for respiratory equipments, sterilizers, incubators, pharmaceutical processing, and biological products. Humidity control is also necessary in chemical gas purification, dryers, ovens, film desiccation, paper and textile production, and food processing. I n agriculture, measurement of humidity is important for plantation protection (dew prevention), soil moisture monitoring, etc. For domestic applications, humidity control is required for living environment in buildings, cooking control for microwave ovens, etc. In all such applications and many others, humidity sensors are employed to provide an indication of the moisture levels in the environment. RELEVANT MOISTURE TERMS To mention moisture levels, variety of terminologies are used. The study of water vapour concentration in air as a function of temperature and pressure falls under the area of psychometrics. Psychometrics deals with the thermodynamic properties of moist gases while the term “humidity’ simply refers to the presence of water vapour in air or other carrier gas. Humidity measurement determines the amount of water vapor present in a gas that can be a mixture, such as air, or a pure gas, such as nitrogen or argon. Various terms used to indicate moisture levels are tabulated in the table below: WIND METER An anemometer is a device for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, meaning wind, and is used to describe any airspeed measurement instrument used in meteorology or aerodynamics. The first known description of an anemometer was given by Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.[1] Anemometers can be divided into two classes: those that measure the wind's speed, and those that measure the wind's pressure; but as there is a close connection between the pressure and the speed, an anemometer designed for one will give information about both weather station An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas.[1] An AWS will typically consist of a weather-proof enclosure containing the data logger,rechargeable battery, telemetry (optional) and the meteorological sensors with an attached solar panel or wind turbine and mounted upon a mast. The specific configuration may vary due to the purpose of the system.[1] The system may report in near real time via the Argos System and the Global Telecommunications System,[2] or save the data for later recovery.[3] In the past, automatic weather stations were often placed where electricity and communication lines were available. Nowadays, the solar panel, wind turbine and mobile phonetechnology have made it

It's that simple. Most standard rain gauges have a wide funnel leading into the cylinder and are calibrated so that one-tenth of an inch of rain measures one inch when it collects inside. . If an inch collects in the cylinder. remain unobserved. which can lead to erroneous estimates of climate trends. The funnel is 10 times the cross-sectional area of the tube.possible to have wireless stations that are not connected to the electrical grid or telecommunications networkMost automatic weather stations have      Thermometer for measuring temperature Anemometer for measuring wind speed Wind vane for measuring wind direction Hygrometer for measuring humidity Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure Some stations can also have[4]      Ceilometer for measuring cloud height Present weather sensor and/or visibility sensor Rain gauge for measuring liquid-equivalent precipitation Ultrasonic snow depth sensor for measuring depth of snow Pyranometer for measuring solar radiation Unlike manual weather stations. This standard rain gauge is shown in the following figure.000 years ago. Also. all phenomena that do not touch the sensor. have to be removed by homogenization. Anything under . and they're believed to have been used in India more than 2.01 inches can be measured with this instrument. such as fog patches.[6] The change in instrumentation. as the gauge must empty itself between observations. it means an inch of rain has fallen.01 inches is considered a trace. Weather-Speak A rain gauge is an instrument that measures the amount of rainfall at a given time interval. This change. precipitationmeasurements are difficult. Rain gauge—rainfall measurements. the measured temperature or precipitation values. especially for snow. for example. and related non-climatic changes. Rainfall as low as .[1] The change from manual observations to automatic weather stations is a major non-climatic change in the climate record. A rain gauge is really just a cylinder that catches rain. enclosure and location can lead to a jump in. automated airport weather stations cannot report the class and amount of clouds. For present weather. RAIN FALL MEASURE METER Rain gauges are thought to be the most ancient weather instruments.

you have to shovel it! Sometimes a foot of snow amounts to just a half-inch of water.4% 1° 0.14% 45° 3 30% 8° 1% 60° 4 >50%[5] . These little funnels tip each time rainfall amounts to .015% 30° 2 13. but there really isn't. In addition. so the standard versions are heated for the occasion. What about snowfall? When snow falls on these heated rain gauges. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam. it melts. Most recently.the diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day and increases as a proportion on cloudy days. The snow depth doesn't count—unless. and the other comes into place to do the collecting. the reflectance (averaged across all polarizations) is approximately constant for angles of incidence up to around 50°. it tips and spills out. which varies widely. the determination of three or more representative locations is not always easy. other times it amounts to three inches of water.01 inches. The energy contributed by the direct beam drops off with the cosine of the angle between the incoming light and the panel. 10 inches of snow is equivalent to one inch of rain. beyond which reflectance degrades rapidly. and the "diffuse sunlight" that carries the remainder . an observer can't automatically assume that 10 inches of snow has fallen. In standard photovoltaic applications. Doppler radar has been used to estimate rainfall. a common rain gauge is called the tipping bucket type. In flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) applications. The tip triggers a signal that is transmitted and recorded. You would think that there would be a better way. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels. Of course. A ruler is stuck into the snow. That depth is determined by taking an average of three or more representative spots. trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and a photovoltaic panel. If a rain gauge measures one inch of water during a snowstorm. these rain gauges have a problem when the temperature drops below freezing.[3] Direct power lost (%) due to misalignment (angle i ) i Lost = 1 . Because of blowing and drifting. SUN TRACKER A solar tracker is a device that orients various payloads toward the sun. lenses or other optical devices. maximizing collection requires the sun to be visible to the panels as long as possible. A bucket doesn't really tip—a pair of small receiving funnels alternate in the collection of the rain. Tracking systems are found in all concentrator applications because such systems do not produce energy unless oriented closely toward the sun. We'll take a look at this newest technology in the next section. It really depends on the water equivalent of the snow.cos(i) i hours[4] Lost 0° 0% 15° 1 3. When one fills up with water. and a water equivalent is determined.4% 3° 0. it is estimated that trackers are used in at least 85% of commercial installations greater than 1MW from 2009 to 2012.[1][2] In concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrated solar thermal (CSP) applications trackers are used to enable the optical components in the CPV and CSP systems. This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity. and its depth is recorded.In the more modern era. of course. The optics in concentrated solar applications accept the direct component of sunlight light and therefore must be oriented appropriately to collect energy. The recorded precipitation is always expressed in terms of rainfall or melted snow. On the average. but that's only an average. reflectors. the "direct beam" that carries about 90% of the solar energy. The snow depth can only be dete rmined the oldfashioned way—by measuring it. unlight has two components.

fall and winter). will lose 75% of the energy in the morning and evening. causing losses of 8. solar energy research. and exchange for recalibration.4°[6] 8. Rotating the panels to the east and west can help recapture these losses. Light plays a crucial part in plant and crop growth. The Light a plant uses for this process is called Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR).3% A tracker that accounts for both the daily and seasonal motions is known as a dual-axis tracker. making the effective motion about 150 degrees.6% of the energy delivered by the direct beam plus 100% of the diffuse light. The same set of panels set at the midpoint between the two local extremes will thus see the sun move 23 degrees on either side.[7][8] HORTICULTURE Radiometers specifically designed for horticultural and agricultural applications to measure PAR (photo synthetically active radiation). building physics. This biases collection toward the summer. Although the actual response differs depending on the plant or crop. Generally speaking. which was far less than the added costs of the dual-axis systems. the losses due to seasonal angle changes is complicated by changes in the length of the day. Pyranometers are radiometers designed for measuring the irradiance on a plane surface.3% 75° 5 >75%[5] For example trackers that have accuracies of ± 5° can deliver greater than 99. science and many other applications. increasing collection in the summer in northern or southern latitudes. climate control in greenhouses. Local horizon effects reduce this somewhat. This standardized response defines the PAR region between wavelengths of 400 nm and 700 nm where each photon within this region is equally absorbed. A solar panel in a fixed orientation between the dawn and sunset extremes will see a motion of 75 degrees on either side. The sun also moves through 46 degrees north-south over the period of a year.m².and dual-axis trackers makes the added complexity of a two-axis tracker worthwhile. so if the panels are tilted closer to the average summer angles. The CMP series of pyranometers have ergonomic features to facilitate installation. A sensor with equal absorption for photons of different wavelengths is often indicated as having a Quantum response. The Kipp & Zonen range of thermopile-based pyranometers has been in production for several decades and is respected around the world for the measurement of solar irradiance to World Meteorological Organisation and ISO 9060:1990 standards. according to the table above. The amount of PAR is commonly expressed is Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) with a unit of µmol/s. a standardized sensitivity has been defined (McCree. A recent review of actual production statistics from southern Ontario suggested the difference was about 4% in total. This compares unfavourably with the 24-32% improvement between a fixed-array and single-axis tracker. The sun travels through 360 degrees east-west a day. less. normally from solar radiation and lamps. maintenance. PQS 1 Highly accurate PAR Quantum Sensor for the measurement of photo synthetically active radiation for both outdoor and indoor agricultural environments. 1972).23. material testing. As a result. A tracker rotating in the east-west direction is known as a single-axis tracker. Absorption of light drives the photosynthesis process whereby CO2 and Water are photo chemically converted into glucose and Oxygen. high accuracy tracking is not typically used in non-concentrating PV applications. but from the perspective of any fixed location the visible portion is 180 degrees during an average 1/2 day period (more in spring and summer. the total yearly losses are reduced compared to a system tilted at the spring/fall solstice angle (which is the same as the latitude). and thus. . The instruments are used in meteorological research. There is considerable argument within the industry whether the small difference in yearly collection between single.

The larger screw on drying cartridge is easier to change at extended intervals. snow and frost. These are normally switched externally but an optional internal thermostat control is available. CMA albedometers are suitable for measuring global radiation and/or albedo over many differing types of surface. once in the afternoon and once in the evening. The temperature of the air changes with the time of day. The calculated direct irradiance value is also available. You will need to have a temperature chart for each day of the week. The upper pyranometer measure incoming global solar radiation and the lower sensor measures solar radiation reflected from the surface below. You will need: Temperature is measured using a thermometer. Air temperature sensor One of the most common things about the weather that people measure is how hot or cold it is . Write down the highest and lowest temperature of the day. A waterproof plug-and-socket cable connection for easy installation and servicing. Building on the proven CMP series design and measurement technology they add digital signal processing to improve performance and interfaces optimised for industrial data acquisition and control systems.the air temperature. The CMA albedometers are double pyranometers that measure both global and reflected solar irradiance in one instruments. From the two measurements the albedo can be simply calculated. . All instruments have environmental protection class 67. it's just like connect-the-dots. After you mark down the last temperature of the day. @@@@@@@ SD 3 measures sunshine duration. The humidity indicator shows clearly when a change of drying cartridge is necessary. CSD 3 operates from 12 VDC power and has built-in heaters to dissipate rain. Hang the thermometer in place that is not too sunny or shady. Our pyranometers are easy to use and are all supplied with calibration certificates that are traceable to WRR (World Radiometric Reference). o o o Make sure it is in a spot where it will be easy for you to see what the temperature is. Sunshine duration is defined by WMO as the time during which the direct solar radiation exceeds the level of 120 W/m². You should check the temperature at least once in the morning. All albedometers are supplied with a calibration certificate traceable to the World Radiation Centre. This means you will need to check the temperature many times each da y. It has no moving parts and uses 3 photo-diodes with specially designed diffusers to make an analogue calculation of when it is sunny. Thermometers can help you decide what to wear before you go outside. A hardware store or dollar store is a good place to look. join all of the circles together. make a small circle on the chart so it lines up with the time of day and what the temperature is. Every time you check the temperature.The SMP series are the world’s first smart pyranometers with built-in intelligence. The output is switched high or low to indicate sunny or not sunny conditions.