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Research Process • • • • • • • • • • • Formulating research problem Extensive literature survey Developing the hypotheses Preparing the research design

Determining the sample design Collecting the data Execution of the project Analysis of data Hypotheses testing Interpretation Preparation of the report

1.Formulating research problem It is the key to research process. For a researcher the problem formulation means converting the management problem to a research problem. Problem definition might refer to either a real life situation or it may also refer to a set of opportunities. Example: Management problem & Research problem Management Problem: Want to increase the sale of product A

Research Problem: What is the current standing of the product A? While problem is being formulated the following should be taken into account  Determine the objective of the study.  Consider various environmental factors  Nature of the problem.  Stating the alternative Determine the objective of the study The objective may be general or specific. General category- it would like to know how effective the advertising campaign was. There are two ways of determining the objectives  The researcher should clarify with the MR Manager “What effective means”. Does effective mean the awareness or does it refer to an increase in sales or does it mean it has improved the knowledge of audience, or the perception of the audience about the product? In each of the above circumstances, the question to be asked from the audience varies.  Another way to determine objectives is to find out from the MR Manager what action will be taken, given the specified outcome of the study?” For eg: if research findings the previous advertisement by the company was indeed ineffective, what course of action does the company intend to take? • • • Increase the budget for the next Ad. Use different appeal. Change the media.

Go to a new agency.

If the objectives are proper, the research question will be precise. Consider Various Environmental Factors: Environmental factors influence the outcome of the research and the decision. Therefore, the researcher must help his client to identify the environmental factors that are relevant. Example: Assume that the company wants to introduce a new product like ice tea or frozen green peas or ready to eat meals. The following environmental factors are to be considered:  Purchasing habits of consumer.  Presently who are the competitors in the market with similar product?  What is the people perception of other products of the company with respect to price, image of the company?  Size of the market & target audience. All the above factors could influence the decision. Therefore the researcher must work very closely with his client. Nature of the Problem By understanding the nature of the problem, the researcher can collect relevant data and help suggest a suitable solution. Every problem is related either one or more variables. Before beginning the data collection, a preliminary investigation of the problem is necessary for a better understanding of the same, initial investigation could be carried by using a focus group of consumers or sales representatives.

If a focus group is carried out with consumers, some of the following questions will help the researcher to understand the problem better  Did the consumer ever include this company’s product in his mental map?  If the customer is not buying the company’s product, the reason for his not doing so.  Why did the customer turn to the competitor’s product?  Is the researcher contacting the right target audience3? Stating the Alternative The researcher would be better served by generating as many alternatives as possible during the problem formulation hypothesis Example: Whether to introduce a sachet form of packaging with a view to increase sales. The hypothesis may state that acceptance of the sachet by the customer will increase the sales by 20%. Thereafter, the test marketing will be conducted before deciding whether to introduce the sachet variant. Therefore, for every alternative, a hypothesis has to be developed. 2. Extensive literature survey Literature survey involves reading and verifying the books, periodicals,journals, CD-Rom, microfilms on the topic research to identify the research gap. This is to know what work has already been carried out on the topic and what needs to be done by the researcher on the topic. It is called identifying research gap. The researcher's focus must be on filling this research gap which has social relevance, objectivity and utility. 3. Developing the hypotheses Hypothesis are tentative statements, the validity of which remains to be tested. It gives direction to carry out any research programme.

Example: “A sound leadership abilities in an organization guarantees wealth maximization ” “A proper promotion mix helps creation of more demand for a product” The above statements are tentative. To test whether these statements are true, data must be gathered and analyzed. Using statistical tools the validity of the statements are tested. This is called hypothesis testing. The researcher after the literature survey and identifying the researcher gap must construct a working hypothesis on the topic. The hypothesis gives the direction to the topic of the study. 4. Preparing the research design Research design can be thought of as the structure of research – it is the “glue” that holds all of the elements in a research project together. A research process cannot be completed without an effective research design. A research design precisely specifies particular means and methods through which required information’s can be collected for structuring the research as well as seeking specific practical solutions to the problem. Definition: A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed to structure or to solve problem. It is the overall operational pattern or framework The preparation of the research design appropriate for a particular problem involves the following consideration: i. The means of obtaining the information. ii. The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff. iii. Explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning leading to the selection.

iv. The time available for the research. v. The cost factor relating to research i.e the finance available for the purpose. 5.Determining the sample design Sampling is also called as sample design. A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population or sampling frame. It refers to the technique or procedure the researcher should adopt in selecting items for the sample from which inferences about the population is drawn. It has to be determined before data are collected. The sample design which is more reliable, appropriate should be adopted. 6. Collecting the data Collection of data involves gathering the primary and secondary data. For quantitative and experimental research a former is essential to examine the truth of hypothesis. Primary data can be collected by observation, personal interview,questionnaires, schedules, video conferencing, teleconferencing and such other devices. The secondary data can be gathered from published materials such as books, articles, survey reports, periodicals, journals, CD-Rom, internet, micro-film and the like. In quantitative research and experimental research the primary data are very crucial because they examine the truth contained in the hypothesis. 7. Execution of the project. Execution or completion of project is an essential step. The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time. The data must be collected adequately and processed accordingly. A careful watch should be kept for unanticipated risk in completing the project 8. Analysis of Data After gathering the data, the same have to be analyzed. Analysis of data involves statistical treatment of the data collected on a research topic. It involves coding, editing, decoding and drawing inferences subsequently.

9. Hypothesis-Testing After analyzing the data as stated above the researcher is in a position to test the hypothesis if any, he or she had formulated earlier. Hypothesis testing is done through statistical tests such as chi-square, ttest and F-test. It will result in either accepting the hypothesis or rejecting. 10. Generalization and interpretation Generalization refers to building a theory after testing hypothesis if any. If the researcher had no hypothesis then he might seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory. It is known as interpretation. 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis. The final and very important step in a research study is to write its report. The research report is medium for communicating the research experiences to others and adding them to the fund of knowledge. A research report is the formal statement of the research process and its results. It narrates the problem studied, methods used for studying and the findings and conclusions.