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HighwayEngineering(CIE306) Highway Engineering (CIE306)

AASHTOflexiblepavementdesign

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Pavementperformance Pavement performance


Structural / functional performance Structural/functionalperformance Relatedto

Roughness

Rutdepth

Pavementperformance Pavement performance


Related to Relatedto

Cracking

Patching

Pavementperformance Pavement performance


Present Serviceability Index (PSI) PresentServiceabilityIndex(PSI) PresentServiceabilityIndex 0 Poor 5 Excellent

Pavementperformance Pavement performance


Present Serviceability Index PresentServiceabilityIndex
Initial(pi) brandnew Terminal(pt) b f i l ( ) beforeresurfacing/ f i / reconstruction

R Recommendedvalue d d l
Initial 4.2or4.5 Terminal 2.5or3.0

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Traffic
No of ESAL No.ofESAL

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Subgrade material material


D Resilient modulus M r Resilientmodulus r

Subgrade material material


Estimation by CBR EstimationbyCBR ForfinegrainsoilswithCBRof10orless

M r (lb/in ) 1500 CBR


2

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Materialofconstruction Material of construction


Consider different material properties Considerdifferentmaterialproperties Thicknessofeachlayercanbereducedif materialstrengthisabovetheminimumvalue i l hi b h i i l

Structuralnumber Structural number


Thicknessofsurface(1),base(2),and subbase (3)

SN a1 D1 a2 D2 a3 D3
Strengthcoefficientofsurface(1),base(2),and S h ffi i f f (1) b (2) d subbase (3)

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Environment
Resilient of modulus of roadbed / subgrade Resilientofmodulusofroadbed/subgrade affectedby

Temperature T t

Rainfall R i f ll

Th Thermalstress l t Creepproperties Freezing/thawing

Watergets intopavement into pavement layers

Resilientmodulusof roadbedvarieswith / time/season

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Drainage
Drain fast Good for pavement Drainfast Goodforpavement Incorporatingafactorforthebaseand subbase s bbase coefficient ModificationtoSN

SN a1 D1 a2 D2 a3 D3
SN a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3

Quality of Drainage Excellent Good Fair Poor P Very Poor

Water removed within* 2 hours 1 day 1 week 1 month th (water will not drain)

*Timerequiredtodrainthebaselayerto50% saturation. t ti

Quality of Drainage Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor

Percent of Time Pavement Structure is Exposed to Moisture Levels Approaching Saturation Less than 1% 1.40 1.35 1 40 1 35 1.35 1.25 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.05 1.05 0.95 1 5% 1.35 1.30 1 35 1 30 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.05 1.05 0.80 0.95 0.75 5 25% 1.30 1.20 1 30 1 20 1.15 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.75 0.40 Greater than 25% 1.20 1 20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Reliability
Probability that the designed pavement Probabilitythatthedesignedpavement performedsatisfactorilyduringthedesign period. period 99%reliability=99%chanceforsuccessful pavementperformance pavement performance

Recommendedlevelofreliability Recommended level of reliability


Functional Classification Interstate and other freeways Principal Arterials Collectors Local Recommended Level of Reliability R d dL l f R li bilit Urban 85 99.9 80 - 99 80 - 95 50 - 80 Rural 80 99.9 75 95 75 95 50 - 80

Reliability
Other parameters Otherparameters
ZR =standardnormalvariate S0 = estimated overall standard deviation =estimatedoverallstandarddeviation

Reliability(R%) 50 60 70 80 90 95 96 97 98 99 99.9 99 9 99.99

ZR 0.000 0.253 0.524 0.841 1.282 1.282 1.645 1.751 1 751 1.881 2.054 2 054 2.327 3.090 3 090 3.750

99%oftheareaundercurve

ZR =2.327

S0
Account for variation in Accountforvariationin
Trafficforecast Actual pavement performance Actualpavementperformance

Flexiblepavement 0.40 0.50 Rigidpavement 0.30 0.40

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Designmethod Design method


Main objective determine the structural Mainobjective determinethestructural numberandthethicknessofeachlayer Use basic design equation Usebasicdesignequation

Or use chart Or,usechart

MR =5000psi
X103

PSI=1.9

95%reliability S0 =0.35 0.35 5x106 ESAL

SN=5.0

Suggestedminimumthickness Suggested minimum thickness


Traffic, T ffi ESALS Less than 50,000 50,001 150,000 150,001 500,000 500,00 500,001 2,000,000 ,000,000 2,000,001 7,000,000 Greater than 7,000,000 Asphalt C A h lt Concrete t 1.0 (or surface treatment) 2.0 2.5 30 3.0 3.5 4.0 Aggregate B A t Base 4 4 4 6 6 6

Content
Design factors Designfactors
Pavementperformance Traffic Subgrade material Materialofconstruction Environment Drainage Reliability

Designmethod Example

Example1 Example 1
Determineasuitableflexiblepavementstructureforan urbaninterstatehighwaywhichwilltocarryadesignESALof urban interstate highway which will to carry a design ESAL of 2x106.Itisestimatedthatittakesaboutaweekforwater tobedrainedfromwithinthepavementandthepavement p p structurewillbeexposedtomoisturelevelsapproaching saturationfor30%ofthetime.Thefollowingadditional informationisavailable.
Resilientmodulusofasphaltconcreteat68 F=450,000lb/in Resilient modulus of asphalt concrete at 68F = 450 000 lb/in2 CBRvalueofbasecoursematerial=100,Mr =31,000lb/in2 CBRvalueofsubbase coursematerial=22,Mr =13,500lb/in2 CBRvalueofsubgrade coursematerial=6

Assumptions
Reliability index (R) = 99% Reliabilityindex(R)=99% Standarddeviation(S0)=0.45(0.4 0.5for flexiblepavement) flexible pavement) Initialserviceabilityindex(pi)=4.5 Terminalserviceabilityindex(pt)=2.5

Parametersusedinthechart Parameters used in the chart


Reliability index (R) = 99% Reliabilityindex(R)=99% Standarddeviation(S0)=0.45(0.4 0.5for flexiblepavement) flexible pavement) Trafficload=2x106 ESALs MR ofsubgrade =1500x6=9000psi(forfine grainsoilswithCBRof10orless) PSI=pt pi =4.5 2.5=2.0

MR =9000psi
X103

PSI=2.0

99%reliability S0 =0.45 0.45 2x106 ESAL

SN=4.1

SN a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3
Itisestimatedthatittakesaboutaweekforwatertobe drainedfromwithinthepavementandthepavement structurewillbeexposedtomoisturelevelsapproaching structure will be exposed to moisture levels approaching saturationfor30%ofthetime.
Quality of Drainage Excellent Good Fair Poor P Very Poor
Quality of g Drainage

Water removed within within* 2 hours 1 day 1 week 1 month th (water will not drain)

m=0.80
Greater than 25% 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40

Percent of Time Pavement Structure is Exposed to Moisture Levels Approaching Saturation Less than 1% 1.40 1.35 1.35 1.25 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.05 1.05 0.95 1 5% 1.35 1.30 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.05 1.05 0.80 0.95 0.75 5 25% 1.30 1.20 1.15 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.75 0.40

Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor

SN a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3
Finda1,a2,anda3fromcharts

0.44 0 44

Resilientmodulusofasphaltconcreteat68F=450,000lb/in2

CBRvalueofbasecoursematerial=100,Mr =31,000lb/in2 , , /

CBRvalueofsubbase coursematerial=22,Mr =13,500lb/in2

SN1 SN2

. . . . . .. . . . . . . Surface Course . . . SurfaceCourse . . . . . . . . . . . .


BaseCourse Base Course

D1

D2

SN3

Subbase Course RoadbedCourse

D3

SN1 a1 D1 SN2 a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 SN3 a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3 =4.1 41

UsecharttofindSN2

ChangeMR totheoneofsubbase

MR =13,500psi
X103

PSI=2.0

99%reliability S0 =0.45 0.45 2x106 ESAL

SN2 =3.6

UsecharttofindSN1

ChangeMR totheoneofbase

MR =31,000psi
X103

PSI=2.0

99%reliability S0 =0.45 0.45 2x106 ESAL

SN1 =2.7

Values SN1 2.7 SN2 3.6 SN3 4.1 a1 a2 a3 0.44 0.14 0.10

SN1 =a1D1 2.7=0.44xD1 D1 =6.13in

Roundedupto6.5in (usuallyroundeduptothenearest0.5in) SN1*=0.44x6.5=2.86

*=thevaluethatwillactuallybeused. = the value that will actually be used

Values SN1 2.7 SN2 3.6 SN3 4.1 a1 a2 a3 0.44 0.14 0.10

SN2 =SN1*+a2D2m2 3.6=2.86+(0.14xD2 x0.80) D2 =6.61in Roundedupto7.0in SN2*=2.86+(0.14x7.0x0.80)=3.644

Values SN1 2.7 SN2 3.6 SN3 4.1 a1 a2 a3 0.44 0.14 0.10

SN3 =SN2*+a3D3m3 4.1=3.644+(0.10xD3 x0.80) D3 =5.7in Roundedupto6.0in

SN3*=3.644+(0.10x6.0x0.80)=4.124
ShouldbeclosedtotheSNthatyougotatthebeginning

Therefore,thepavementconsistsof 6.5inofasphalticconcretesurface 6 5 in of asphaltic concrete surface 7inofgranularbase 6inofsubbase 6 in of subbase

Thetrafficonthedesignlaneofaproposedfourlaneruralinterstate highwayconsistsof40%trucks.Ifclassificationstudieshaveshown hi h i f 40% k If l ifi i di h h thatthetruckfactorcanbetakenas0.45,designasuitableflexible pavementiftheAADTonthedesignlaneduringthefirstyearof operationis1,000andpi =4.2. Growthrate=4% Growth rate = 4% Designlife=20years Reliabilitylevel=95% Standarddeviation=0.45 pt =2.5 Thepavementstructurewillbeexposedtomoisturelevels approachingsaturation20%ofthetimeanditwilltakeabout1week fordrainageofwater.CBRofthesubgrade,subbase,andbaseare7, for drainage of water CBR of the subgrade subbase and base are 7 22,and70,respectively.MR fortheasphaltconcreteis450,000psi.