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Siti Kamariah Md Saat, Yong Ean Mong, Wan Muhammad Aliff Wan Mohd Azmin, Mohd Izwan Syafiq

Roslan, Ng Poh Hong, Khairul Azwan Abd Halim, Hafizul Amin Aris, Siti Noraishah Ahmad, Nurhidayah Nik Azmi, Syifa Syahida Alias, Siti Fatimah Hashim, Santhiya Peremel, Nurul Hani Md Zubir, Nur Azura Azlan, Norizan Ibrahim, Erma Masilla Kotiu


With industrial development growing rapidly, there is need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Ethanol from biomass, bioethanol is an attractive and sustainable energy fuel sources for transportation. Fuel bioethanol can contribute to cleaner environment, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production is based on optimized processes where utilization of cheap substrates is highly demanding. Utilization of different lignocellulosic materials can be considered for production of bioethanol. The production of bioethanol from waste biomass produced by agricultural industries (Mishima et al, 2008). Instead of terrestrial plants, aquatic plants are the next promising renewable energy sources due to easily availability and fast growing in the tropical water bodies.


From the experiment that had been carried out, the percentage yield of bioethanol from the fermentation for water hyacinth, duckweed and water lettuce are 17.39%, 15.22%, and 17.82% respectively. Alkaline pre-treatment is involved to remove lignin and a part of hemicelluloses to increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. Water hyacinth, duckweed and water lettuce has potential to act as new material sources of bio-fuel production because these plants do not compete with food crops for land diversification. Besides, they also grow well in water bodies even with the low nutrient regime and can be easily mechanically harvested. Therefore, it can be used for the bio-ethanol production to overcome the shortage of fossil fuel in the future.


Preparation of raw material i) Collection of water hyacinth, water lettuce and duckweed from river ii) Wash with water to remove soil and adhering dirt iii) Cut the stems/ leaves into pieces iv) Drying of the plant under sunlight and oven for 24 hours at 60oC


Water hyacinth, water lettuce and duckweed has a great potential for the
Enzymatic Hydrolysis

development of an environmentally friendly, economically viable ethanol production.For instance, it can be converted into a marketable product, then it might be economically advantageous.

Cellulose Fermentation

Hemi Cellulose


REFERENCES Kesaano, K, (2011). Sustainable management of duckweed biomass grown for nutrient in municipal wastewaters. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 879 Mishima, D., Kuniki, M., & et als, (2008). Ethanol production from candidate energy crops: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotez L.). Biosource Ganguly, A. Chatterjee, P.K., Dey, A. (2012). Studied on ethanol production from water A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. CONTACT INFORMATION: SCHOOL OF BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS 04-9798751 (T), 04-9798755 (F) Technology. hyacinthcontrol

Collecting ethanol