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Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.
Oriental Institute of Management, Vashi, Navi Mumbai
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Project work carried out at
Under the guidance of
Sushma Patil Internal Guide Shri. Madhukar Devkar External Guide
Gage Sushant Nitin 1108
Oriental Institute of Management, Vashi Navi Mumbai
It is not just the formality, but it is my duty to say thanks to all those person, who guided and co-operated with us directly or indirectly, during training and preparation of this project report. First we express our sincere thanks to my project guide Mr. Madhukar devkar for their timely and valuable suggestion and co-operation during the completion of the dissertation work Special thanks to managing director Mr. kakade S.D For their helpful co-operation entire training period. Very special thankful to Mr. Bhanudas murkute chairman of ASSK for their cooperation and giving Permission for training and site visit Lastly, I would like to thanks my parents as their blessing are always works for me. My friends also need thanks as there as there continuous encourage me net leads me complete the seminar work.
MR. GAGE SUSHANT NITIN
I hereby declare that this report titled “STUDY OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.” is a record of independent work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Sushma Patil, Shri. Madhukar devkar towards the partial fulfilment of requirements for the M.M.S. degree course UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
I further declare that this Project Report is the result of my own efforts and that it has not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of a degree or diploma or any other similar title of recognition.
This is to certify that Sushant Gage, 1108, is a bonafide student of Master of Management Studies course of the Institute (2011-2013), affiliated to University of Mumbai. Project report on “Manufacturing Process Management” is prepared by his/her under the guidance of Sushma Patil in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Management Studies of University of Mumbai.
The project is about the study of Manufacturing Process Management of Ethanol at Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana (ASSK). The project incorporates basics of Process at ASSK. In ASSK production control process starts with marketing department, where it get demands on the basis of current market trends and it acts as a basis for developing production plan. It involves coordination with various departments of ASSK, like it starts with marketing department and ends with logistics. ASSK‟s main focus is on customer building by fulfilling their demands on time with great quality. Overall Production Process in ASSK is carried out – Marketing department: Marketing department forecasts the demand and gives it to other departments which are directly involved in production activities. Production department: Production planning is carried out here based on the availability of the raw materials, finished goods in stock. Logistics: Logistics of ASSK works in coordination with production and marketing department where it gets Minimum Demand – In this, if the demand in the market is low then the ASSK must produce minimum demand to sustain in the market. Import finished products - ASSK thinks of its customer very much. If the plant is under shut down because of certain reason, the company delivers the finished products by importing from other companies to maintain good relationship with their customers. Focused customers – ASSK gives discount to customers who are taking the Products in bulk quantity and to its regular customers. Overall project learning is about understanding all above aspects which are required for the smooth functioning of the production planning and control.
A.1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4 5 6 B.1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2 3 4 5 Content INDUSTRIAL PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE Background Nature of Business Carried Vision, Mission, Policy Product and Services Area of Operation Ownership Pattern Competitors Achievement & Awards Work Flow Model MCKENSY’S 7’S Strategy Structure Skills Style System Staff Shared Value SWOT ANALYSIS ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION LEARNING EXPERIENCE GENERAL INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Objective of Study Scope of Study Methodology Limitation of the Study ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE Case study List of Table ,Graph Page No.
1. INDUSTRIAL PROFILE:The discoveries of sugar from sugarcane have originated in New Guinea, and was spread routes to Southeast Asia and India. The Sugar Industry is the second largest agro-based industry next to textiles in India. In India, sugarcane is the key raw material for the production of Sugar. Sugar is produced from Sugar Cane & Sugar Beet, App. 70% sugar is produced from Sugar Cane & 30% produced from Sugar beet. Sugarcane is grown in semi-tropical region; Beet is grown in temperate climate. The Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro industry located in the rural India. The Indian sugar industry has a turnover of Rs.500 billion per annum and it contributes almost Rs.22.5 billion to the central and state as tax, and excise duty every year. It is the second largest agro processing industry in the country offers cotton textiles. About 50 million sugar cane farmers and a large number of agricultural labourers are involved in sugar cane cultivation and ancillary activities, constituting 7.5% of the rural population. Besides the industry provides employment to about 2 million skilled/semiskilled workers and others mostly from the rural areas. The industry not only generates power for its own requirement but surplus power for export to the grid based on by product- bagasse. It also produces ethyl alcohol, which is used for industrial and potable uses, and can also be used to manufacture Ethanol, an ecology friendly and renewable fuel for blending with petrol. The sugar industry in the country uses only sugar cane as input; hence sugar companies have been established in large sugar cane growing states like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. In the year 2003-04 these six states contribute more than 85% of total sugar production in the country. Sugar production is spread across the globe; it is produced in over 122 countries. Globally, two distinct raw materials are used for producing sugar via sugar beet and sugarcane. The use of sugarcane or sugar beet for producing sugar highly depends on the climatic conditions of the country. The tropical climate is apt for growing sugarcane whereas temperate regions are suitable for growing sugar beet. Thus, countries in the tropical or sub- tropical belts like Brazil, India and Thailand use sugarcane whereas in countries like the US and EU, sugar beet is used for producing sugar. Globally, almost 70 per cent of the sugar is produced from sugarcane and the rest of the 30 per cent from the sugar beet. It was expected that the global sugar supplies would be back to comfortable levels after two years of shortfall, however extreme weather in Australia and Indonesia will lead to shortfall in production. World sugar production is estimated at 161.9 mn tonnes for the marketing year 2010-11 down by 1.9 mn tonnes of early estimates. The consumption is estimated at 158.9 mn tonnes, up by 1.2 mn tonnes of early estimates. Sugar production in Australia may plunge to its lowest level in 19 years to 3.58 mn tonnes due to Cyclone Yasi hitting Queensland coast. Queensland accounts for about 90 percept of Australian sugar production. The crop condition in Brazil, the largest producer and exporter of sugar, is not very good due to poor rains. The entire South Brazil crop which meets two- third of total global raw sugar requirement is rain-fed. As a result of these, global sugar prices have been
rising since February 2011 and we expect the prices of global raw and sugar prices to remain firm over the next quarter due to tight demand supply situation. Fig 1:-Global Production and Consumption (Sugar Season-Oct-Sep)
Global Production and Consumption (Sugar Season –
Source: United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”)
India Sugarcane and Sugar – Area, Yield and Production (Sugar Season – October – September) 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10* Area Under Sugarcane (Mn Hectares) Production of Sugarcane (Mn Tonnes) Number of Factories in operation Total Cane Crushed (Mn Tonnes) Total Sugar Produced(Mn Tonnes) Sugar Recovery (%) Molasses Production (Mn Tonnes) Molasses (% cane) *Provisional India Sugar Consumption The sugar consumption in India has grown at a steady pace over the years. It has grown at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (“CAGR”) of 4.3 percent during the period from SS1995-96 to SS2008-09. CARE Research expects the sugar consumption at 22.8 mn tonnes in SS2010-11 and 24.5 mn tonnes in SS2011-12. The growing population coupled with growing per capita income will help the country achieve the projected growth rate. Due to the inelastic nature of the sugar demand and comparatively lower per capita sugar consumption, there will be minimal impact on sugar consumption owing to rising sugar prices.
4.20 281.17 455.00 188.67 19.26 10.21 8.54 4.53
5.15 355.52 69.00 504.00 279.29 28.36 10.16 13.11 4.69
5.05 348.18 68.90 516.00 249.90 26.35 10.55 11.31 4.53
4.41 285.02 64.60 489.00 144.98 14.53 10.03 6.54 4.51
4.20 277.75 66.10 490.00 185.54 18.91 10.19 8.40 4.53
Yield of Sugarcane (Tonnes per Hectare) 66.90
Source: National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories
Fig.2. Sugar Production - Million Tonnes(Sugar Season – October – September)
Source: National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories (NFCSF), CARE Research
Fig.2. Sugar Consumption - Million Tonnes(Sugar Season – October – September)
Source: National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories Ltd (“NFCSF”), CARE Research
India sugar Import & Export CARE Research expects that with rising stock-to-use ratio and higher international sugar prices due to production shortfall globally will lead to sugar exports to the tune of 1 mn tonne during SS2010-11e. Recently, the Government of India (“GoI”) allowed export of 0.5 mn tonnes of sugar under the Open General License (“OGL”) during March 2011 for SS2010-11.
India Sugar Exports and Imports (Financial Year – April to March) Exports Imports FY Exports (Mt) Exports (Rs. Crore) Imports (Mt) Imports (Rs. Crore) 2005-06 651.59 2006-07 3.49 2007-08 2.24 0.32 1.64 4.68 569.11 3127.47 5412.16 0.56 0.00 0.00
Source: Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (“DGCIS”) 2008-09 3.33 4448.74 0.39 583.11 State-wise Sugarcane and Sugar Production (Sugar Year 2009-10) 2009-10 0.04 110.23 2.42 Sugarcane Production Sugar Production 5961.24
Source: (NFCSF) Sugar Production Cycle The Indian sugar industry is highly cyclical in nature. The production of sugar in India completely depends on the acreage under sugarcane and the availability of sugarcane in the country. Higher sugarcane and sugar production. Results in fall in sugar prices and thereby fall in the margins of the sugar companies. Decreased profitability of sugar companies increases sugarcane dues to the farmers. This compels farmers to switch to other crops thereby causing a shortage of sugarcane and sugar, consequently increasing sugar prices and profitability of the mill owners, resulting in prompt payment to the farmers. With the fall in the sugarcane arrears, farmers switch back to the production of sugarcane and the cycle continues. The typical duration of this cycle is around 4-5 years. The cyclicality of the Indian sugar industry is fully supply-driven, as steady growth is observed in sugar consumption. The cyclicality is also attributable to the regulated nature of the industry, primarily in respect to the pricing of sugarcane.
Sugar Production Cycle
Source: CARE Research
Regulation Sugar being an essential commodity and on account of the higher weightage in the Wholesale Price Index (WPI), the entire value chain of the sugar industry is kept under the tight control of the Central and State governments. The sugar industry in India is regulated right from cane procurement to cane pricing, allocation of cane area to distribution of sugar by the Central government and the respective state government. During every SS, the Central government decides the price at which sugar mill owners are to procure sugarcane from the farmers and also the proportion of the sugar to be sold in the open market. Apart from fixing the levy quota, the government also controls the quantum of sugar to be sold in open market by each mill every month, in order to regulate the price and the supply of the essential commodity. The Indian sugar industry is the most regulated industry across the globe.
The Bagasse based co-generation The Bagasse based co-generation projects helps the sugar mills in arresting the cyclicality of the sugar industry through generating stable source of revenue. Power is insulated from the price fluctuations and is not cyclical in nature. This helps the sugar mills to shield their margins during the down cycle of the core sugar business. Over the years, GOVERMENT has given various incentives in the form of soft loans, tax rebates and capital subsidies to encourage Bagasse-based co-generation projects. The co-generated power projects help the country to switch from fossil fuels to renewable source of energy and to control the greenhouse gas emissions. In August 2002, GoI had signed Kyoto Protocol (it is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) for combating against the global warming by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. Under this mechanism, for each tonne of carbon dioxide emission avoided, the entity is likely to get a Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) or carbon credits which can be sold to developed countries. Sugar mills are entitled to receive such CERs or carbon credits as they generate renewable source of energy. This helps the sugar mills to generate additional source of revenue. State-wise annual co-generation capacity in India
Co-generation capacity State Uttar Pradesh Bihar Punjab Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka Total
No. of Units 57 2 3 21 13 24 27 147
Installed Exportable Cpacity (in Mw) 1255 23 41 416 195 527 610 3067
In the span of three to four years, the co-generation capacity of the sugar mills in India increased by more than four times. However, due to the various road blocks in setting Bagasse-based cogeneration projects and selling power, the industry could not realize its full potential. As per the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, the sugar industry has a potential to generate 5,000 MW of surplus power through Bagasse-based cogeneration projects. During the same period, cogeneration capacity in MAHARASHTRA has increased substantially from 100 MW to 1,255 MW as most of the UP-based sugar mills have succeeded in entering into long-term power purchase agreements with SEBs for supply of surpluselectricity.
Alcohol Industry Overview The alcohol production in India is estimated at 1,680 million kls in FY10. The changing perception of the people towards alcohol, rising youth population in the country coupled with rising acceptability of alcohol consumption among the female population is driving the growth story of alcohol in India. CARE Research expects the Indian alcoholic beverage industry to grow at a CAGR of 9 percent to 2,175 million kls, during the period of FY1013. Currently, there are about 325 distilleries in the country with the total production capacity of 3,540 mn litres. However, the licensed capacity is majorily concentrated in three states of U.P., Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Alcohol Production in India (MN Kls)
Source: Business Brains, CARE Research
The Alcoholic Beverage Industry in India can be broadly classified into four segments Beer, wine, Indian Made Foreign Liquor (“IMFL”) and country liquor. Alcohol Industry Segmentation
Rectified Spirit (RS) – Production in India RS is produced from molasses, a by-product of sugar, and finds applications in three main areas - chemical sector, fuel oil and potable alcohol. RS is widely used as intermediates for manufacturing various chemical acidic products such as acidic acid and other chemicals such as mono ethylene glycol (“MEG”), which is used to make fibre. The production of RS remained range bound before falling by 25 percent in FY10. The RS production in India stood at 1.01 mn kls in FY06 which grew to 1.14 mn kls in FY08 and then fell to 0.72 mn kls in FY10. This was due to the high molasses prices in off seasons 2009 and boiler shutdown in off season 2010. Sugarcane crushing is expected to be much higher than the previous season in FY11. Therefore, the total molasses availability will also be higher, which may lead to a substantial drop in the prices of molasses. Due to this, the production of Rectified Spirit is expected to be higher during FY11. Rectified Spirit – Production in India
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (“CMIE”)
Production and Consumption of IMFL India Made Foreign Liquor – Production & Consumption
IMFL Imports & Exports India’s IMFL import grew at a CAGR of 11 per cent over the FY06 and FY10 period. The imports grew from 0.012 million kls in FY06 to 0.019 million kls in FY10. Only 5-6 per cent of India’s consumption is met through imports. On the other hand, the exports of IMFL from India declined at a CAGR of 1.1 per cent from 10.2 per cent of the production in FY06 to 6.3 per cent of the production in FY10. The fall in exports can be attributed to the rise in domestic demand. India Made Foreign Liquor – Imports & Exports
Source: CMIE (Center for Monitoring Indian Economy)
Now as per data this are very biggest industry related to sugar and their by product.
2. COMPANY PROFILE
2.1 INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND: The factory is situated in Ashoknagar Village. It is an integrated manufacturing company with strategic focus on sugar and its allied products in power and ethanol. The company’s registered office is in Shrirampur, Maharashtra and corporate office is at Shrirampur. The factory is 10 Kilo Meter from Shrirampur. Ashok sahakari sakhar karkhana was established in 1954 at Co-Operative Basis. Ashoknagar Industries was founded by late nivruttibhau Narayan P.Bankar with late Bhaskarrao Sadashiv P.Galande. Initially it acquired 1060 TCP (Ton Crushing Per day) Permission from the Maharashtra Government in 1952. This unit asset base was moved to its own location in Ashoknagar and expanded its capacity to 1500 TCP in 1965. Indian technology machines and equipment are installed those were provided by walchand industries. Then at year 1968 company was expand sugar mill capacity up to 2600 TCP. As considering company progress in year 1987 government of Maharashtra gives permission for 2800 TCP. In year of 2002 as per sugar mill improvement and sugar &their by-product a special act for ethanol give permission for distillery. Power plant was established in 2010. Power plant machines and turbines are of BHEL. A distillery and ethanol plant of 60 kiloliter per day capacity was added in 2002. The sugar refinery was set up to progress raw sugar to produce refined sugar meeting European specification. The current capacity of the sugar plant in Ashoknagar is 2800 TCD and 100 MT (Million Ton) of raw sugar per day. The co-generation power plant is 15 MW plant. It is growing very fast in industry. It is dynamic achievement of entrepreneur Mr.Bhanudas Murkute. The company manufactured and traded over 500000 MT (Million Ton) of sugar in 2010-11 .Total trade flow puts the Company in the top 10 of sugar producers/marketers in Maharashtra. This plant is so designed that sugar can be produced not only from sugarcane but also from raw sugar. This unit manufactures EC-II grade sugar conforming to European standards, with negligible sulphur content. Its distillery is among the few, to manufacture fuel ethanol from ethanol. Government of India is encouraging the use of fuel ethanol as mortar fuel since it is considered to be less polluting and also a renewable source.
2.2 NATURE OF BUSINESS CARRIED: Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana is integrated manufacturing company with Strategic focus on sugar and its allied products in Power and Ethanol. Business is seasonal in nature. sugar and co-generation units are operational during the sugar season i.e. October to April. Further, any disturbances or disruptions caused due to extreme climatic conditions in a particular season may lead to a drop in availability and supply of sugarcane to our Company which in turn reduces the number of days of operation leading to reduction in revenues. The Group's principal activity is to manufacture and market sugar. It also provides power generation and ethanol production. The Group operates through four segments. They are Trading, Sugar, Cogeneration, Distillery and Other. Manufacturing Division: Sugarcane processing capacity 2800 TCD. Refining Capacity 2900 TPD. Primary Alcohol (Distillery) 1,20,000 litres per day. Ethanol Dehydration 60,000 litres per day. Cogeneration Power Plant 15 MW.
2.3 VISION, MISSION , POLICY: Vision The company’s vision is to become the most efficient processor of sugar and the largest marketer of sugar and ethanol in the country. Mission “In our endeavour to be the torch-bearers of the Indian sugar industry, we are specially committed to our farmers, workforce and shareholders. It is our endeavour to provide our farmers the agreed price in time and to provide a transparent system of sugar cane procurement. We also seek to provide a congenial atmosphere and work place for the employees of the company, who are our lifeline. Adherence to the best corporate governance practices and a deep-rooted commitment to excellence is our resolve. All these culminate in our permanent effort to enhance shareholder value and wealth through growth of the company.” To expand its installed capacity, achieve end-to-end integration for all its plants to improve margins and reduce cyclically of business. Achieve greater raw material security. Increase its focus of corporate and high value consumers. To reduce price risk in sugar by hedging. Maintain a strong presence in export market and expand market for ethanol. Objectives: Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana, aims to become the most efficient and market driven integrated processor of sugarcane in the world. To enable the team to grow in a learning and motivating atmosphere. To participate in the all-round development of the community & delivering consistently on returns to all its shareholders. Commitment to keep process environment friendly. Environment policy: Environment policy has become a serious matter in the industrial scenario in India. Central and State Governments have many guidelines, to be followed by Industries. Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana commits to incorporate environmental issues an integral part of management philosophy in sugar and distillery operations. Towards this Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana., will 1. Produce ethanol in a clean, green and safe environment. 2. Comply with all relevant statutory regulations. 3. Train and motivate employees on environmental and safety through participation. 4. Maintain the motto of continual improvement management 5. Strive for pollution prevention by optimizing resources.
2.4 PRODUCT & SERVICES PROFILE: SUGARSugar is sweetly, white or brown, usually crystalline substance obtained chiefly from sugarcane or sugar beets and used commonly in food products. Sugar means something sweet in form of taste. Formula: 12CO2 + 11H2O = C12 H22O11 + 12O2 Carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen In chemistry sugar refers to any of the class of carbohydrates to which this substance belongs Glucose, lactose, and maltose are sugar most plants manufacture sugar is soluge in water, sweet to the taste and either directly or indirectly for men table. The chemist knows as “sucrose” one of the family of sugars otherwise known as saccharides as the name implies, contain carbon and hydrogen plus oxygen in the same ratio as in water. Sugar is controlled commodity in India under the essential commodities Act, 1955. The government controls sugar capacity additions through industrial licensing and determines the price of the major input sugar cane, decides the quantity that can be sold in the open market, fixes the prices of the levy quarter sugar and determines maximum stock levels for wholesalers etc. Ashoknagar sahakari sakhari karkhana produced sugars is their main product under sugar they produced various type like Raw sugar are produced for export oriented approach for several countries like Russia, japan etc. Brown sugar is often produced by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugars are granulated sugars with the grains coated in molasses to produce a light, dark or Demerara sugar. They are used in baked goods, confectionery and toffees. Ashoknagar sahakari sakhari karkhana produced M type sugar for domestic uses. Granulated sugars are also called as Medium type are used at the table to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to cooked products. They are also used as a preservative to prevent micro-organisms growing and perishable food from spoiling as in jams, marmalades and candied fruits. L type sugars are granulated sugars with the grains their size is large. This are made for various approaches . In food processing industries and customer want for special purpose like in festivals various sugar type made from this by crushing. Ashoknagar sahakari sakhari karkhana produced M type sugar for domestic and food industries uses. In the market after M type there should be more demand of S type sugar Invert sugars also called S type and syrups are blended to manufacturer’s specifications and are used in breads, cakes and beverages for adjusting sweetness, aiding moisture retention and avoiding crystallization of sugars. Harvesting and processing season: Harvesting and processing season may vary from country to country and area to area and factory to factory depending on the convenience. Usually the harvest starts in July/August and continues to April/May. Some factories have the continuous supply of cane throughout the year, and they process throughout the year without keeping the factory idle.
Handling and transport of cane: The bulk of the world’s sugarcane is harvested and loaded by hand and transported by trucks, Lorries, tractors, and bullock carts from growing place to factories. Some factories have railway track for the purpose of transporting sugarcane and sugar. By-Products of sugarcane: The sugar mill produces many by-products along with sugar. A typical sugarcane complex of 2800 TCP capacity can produce 345 ton of sugar, 6000 liters alcohol, 3 ton of yeast, 15 ton of potash fertilizer, 25 ton of pulp, 15 ton of wax, 150 ton of press-mud fertilizer and 750KW of power from bagasse. Molasses: Molasses is the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization. It is the end product from a refining process carried out yield sugar. Sucrose and invert sugars constitute a major portion (40 to 60%) of molasses. The yield of molasses per ton of sugarcane varies in the range of 3.5% to 4.5%. Molasses is mainly used for the manufacture of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), yeast and cattle feed. Ethanol is in turn used to produce portable Liquor and downstream value added chemical such as acetone, acetic acid, butane, acetic anhydride, MEG, etc. Some of the alcohol based chemicals like MEG, acetic acid, and acetone etc., face stiff competition from production through the petrochemical route. Nearly 70% of molasses produced are consumed by the industrial alcohol manufactures and the remaining 30% is consumed by the portable alcohol sector. After alternating between control and decontrol, the government adopted the policy of partial decontrol in 1967-68, which has since been the mainstay of government policy except for two short periods of decontrol in the 1970's Under this policy, the government procures 40% of production at controlled prices based on the Statutory Minimum price for sugar cane, for supply through the public Distribution System and the balance 60% is allowed to be sold by the mills in free market subject to the monthly release mechanism. The levy quota for sugar mills has been brought down from the peak levels of 70% in 1968-69 to the present levels of 40% as a gradual process of deregulation of sugar industry. Bagasse’s: Bagasse is a fibrous residue of cane stalk that is obtained after crushing and extraction of juice. It consists of water, fibre and relatively small quantities of soluble solids, the composition of bagasse’s varies based on the variety of sugarcane, maturity of cane, method of harvesting and the efficiency of the sugar mill, the usual bagasse’s composition is given in exhibit 5 as shown below. Content Range % Moisture 46-52 Fibre 43-52 Soluble solids 2-6 Bagasse is usually as a combustible in the furnaces to produce steam, which in turn is used to generate power. It is also used as raw materials for production of paper and as feedstock for
cattle. By making use of bagasse, sugar mills have been successful in reducing dependence on State Electric Board for electric supply. In the process of crushing of sugar cane, Bagasse, a fibrous by-product is produced which is used in the boilers to generate steam. Ethanol:The Company produces alcohol from the molasses (Molasses is the brown coloured residue after sugar has been extracted from the juice. Molasses still contains some quantity of sugar, but this sugar cannot be extracted by usual technology) left after the extraction of sugarcane juice, which can be used both for potable purpose as well as an Industrial chemical. Further, this alcohol can again be purified to produce fuel grade ethanol that can be blended with petrol. Bio-fertilizers: The residue product from distillery operations blended with chemicals is being sold as bio-fertilizers. Power: The Company has a power plant with a capacity of 15 MW at its Ashoknagar Unit and is using 4 MW for captive consumption in manufacture of sugar and balance 11 MW is supplied to MSEB for domestic and industrial use. The Company produces power from Bagasse, which is used in the manufacturing process as well as sold to the state electricity boards. Further, this Bagasse based cogeneration plant is eligible for carbon credit compensation under the Kyoto protocol.
2.5 AREA OF OPERATION:Registered office: Ashok Sahakari Sakhar karkhana LTD, Ashoknagar, Tal. Shrirampur, Dist. Ahmednagar Corporate Office: 2nd floor, kesharPrem complex, Shrirampur, Dist. Ahmednagar Sugar and co-generation: Ashok Sahakari Sakhar karkhana LTD, Ashoknagar, Tal. Shrirampur, Dist. Ahmednagar Sugar refinery: Ashok Sahakari Sakhar karkhana LTD, Ashoknagar, Tal. Shrirampur, Dist. Ahmednagar
2.6 OWNERSHIP PATTERN Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana is running on the Co-Operative pattern of the ownership. Current director body is Shri. Suresh Machindra Galande(Chairman) Shri. Manik Barku Shinde(Vice Chairman) Shri. Bhanudas Kashinath Murkute(Guidence) Shri. S.D.Kakade (Managing Director) 2.7 COMPETITIORS Shri Bhogawati SSK LTD. Shri Datta Shetkari SSK LTD. Shri Tatyasaheb Kore Warana SSK LTD. Adivasi S.S.K. Navapur Nandurbar Vibhag Ltd (Tal. Navapura, Dist. Nandurbar) Bahganga Sahkari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd. (Bhum, Dist.- Usmanabad) Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje Sakhar Udyog Ltd. (Sambhajinagar (Aurangabad))
Dongarai Sagreshwar Shetkari SSK Ltd (Kadepur (Raigaon)) Gurudatta Sugars Limited (Takliwadi, Tal. Shirol, Dist. Kolhapur) Jai Mahesh Sugar Industries Ltd. (Pawarwadi, Tal. Majalgaon, Dist. Beed) Khandoba Prasanna Sakhar Karkhana Ltd. (Tal. Karad, Dist Satara) Mahadik Sugar And Agro Product (Radhanagri, Dist. Kolhapur) Nira Bhima S.S.K. Ltd. (Tal:Indapur Dist.:Pune) Priyadarshini Shetkari SSK Ltd (Shivaji Chowk, Udgir, Dist. Latur) Saibaba SSK Ltd (Tal.Jintur, Dist.Parbhani, At Mankeshwar, Teh.Jintur, Dist.Parbhani) Sarvodaya S.S.K. Ltd (Karandwadi, Tal. Walwa, Dist. Sangli) Shree Ambadevi SSK Ltd (Nityanandnagar, Dahigaon (Recha) Road, Tal. Anjangaon, Dist. Amaravati) Sidhapana S.S.K. Ltd (Patoda Dist. Beed) Yogeshwari Sugar Industries limited (Limba, Tq. Pathri Dist. Parbhani) Sanjivanee S.S.K. Ltd (Kopergoan, Dist. Ahmednagar)
2.8 ACHIEVEMENT AND AWARDS: The company is working as per ISO 9001 quality standards. The company is working as per ISO 14000 environ mental standards. The company has also been awarded a 2 star export house status by the Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), Government of India. The company’s Bagasse based cogeneration plant at Ashoknagar has qualified as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The modern technology of Re-boiler cuts down quantity of effluent produced 14% helping management of spent wash. Remarkable reduction in generation of spent wash through various measures. Zero discharge status for Distillery. Recycle and reuse adaptability in sugar plant, co-generation and distillery. Ashok Industries has taken up an ambitious program of planting 30,000 trees in the campus of factory and has successfully implemented it which improves the environment and adds to the beautification of the sugar mill.
2.9 WORK FLOW MODEL:Sugar Production process: Traditionally, sugar is produced from sugarcane, which is procured from the farmers of the sugarcane command area. However, sugarcane is a seasonal crop available only during a fixed period of the year i.e. from September-April. This limits utilization of the machinery, especially the process house. Company set out below the flow chart enumerating the sugar production and allied products (electricity, ethanol and bio-fertilizers) process: Juice Extraction: Harvested sugarcane is transported to the factory, weighed and prepared for crushing. The cane is prepared to expose the sugar cells, for effective extraction of juice. Prepared cane is then crushed in a series of mills and juice is extracted. Bagasse, which is the fibrous residue, is used as fuel in the cogeneration plant.
Juice Treatment and Evaporation: Juice from the mills is screened and heated in various heat exchangers. The juice is then treated with Milk of Lime, which reacts with the impurities in juice. Sulphitation of the juice is done by passing SO2 gas through the juice. The treated juice is further heated and let into a clarifier where the impurities settle at the bottom and clear juice floats up and is decanted. Water from the clear juice is evaporated in a series of evaporators. Steam from the cogeneration power plant is used as heating media for the evaporation. Condensate from the evaporators is recycled back to the boilers where it is again converted into steam. Crystallization: Concentrated juice (syrup) after evaporation is further subjected to sulphitation and thereafter vacuum boiling in pans is done for complete exhaustion. Once the crystals are formed in the pan, a mixture of molasses and sugar crystals known as massecuite is formed. The process of crystallization starts taking place in the pans and is completed in the crystallizers. The Massecuite is then centrifuged in centrifugal machines to separate sugar and molasses. Molasses, another by-product, is sent to the distillery for alcohol production. Sugar Drying and Grading: Sugar from the centrifugal separators is conveyed to a rotary drier. The lumps and very fine powder are separated in the sugar grader. The segregation is done by vibratory process and different grades of sugar are collected in different silos.The sugar from the silos are packed in bags of 50/100 Kgs by auto weighing and bagging machines and conveyed to the godowns
by belt conveyors, where they are stored and thereafter sold as per the allocation made by the Government.
Spirit Production Process Fermentation: Molasses containing 48% to 50% fermentable sugars from the sugar plant is diluted with water in the ratio of 1:3. During the fermentation, yeast strains of the species saccharomyces cerevisiae, a living micro- organism belonging to class fungi converts sugar present in the Molasses, such as sucrose or glucose to Ethanol. Normally one (1) ton of Molasses containing 50% fermentable sugars give an alcoholic yield of 250 litres. Optimum parameters like pH and temperature control and substrate concentration are required for fermentation.
Distillation: The fermented wash is pre-heated and pumped to the top of analyser column. Steam or vapors are indicted at the bottom of the analyser column, which strip the Ethanol from the fermented wash. The vapours coming from analyser column consist approximately 50% Ethanol and 50% water with impurities such as higher alcohols, aldehydes, acids, sulphur dioxide, etc. Spent wash from the analyser column bottom is sent for treatment to the Effluent Treatment Plant. The vapour draw from top of the analyser is fed to pre-rectifier column for removal of low boiling impurities. The vapours coming out of the top of the prerectifier column are fed to the condenser. The condensed liquid is collected in the prerectifier reflux tank. Impure spirit draw is taken from the reflux and fed to the T.A. mixing bottle where it is mixed with the impure spirit coming from rectified cum exhaust and fuel oil column. Ethanol water mixture from the pre-rectifier column bottom is fed to the rectifier cum exhaust column. This column serves to strip out Ethanol from liquid stream flowing down. Steam is sullied at the bottom of the column. The rectified spirit vapors coming out from top of the column are condensed in the analyzer reboiler. Balance Ethanol vapors are condensed in the analyzer vent condenser. The condensate from reboiler and vent condenser are collected in rectifier reflux tank. Condensed liquid is pumped back to the Rectifier cum exhaust column from the rectifier reflux tank by reflux pump. Impure spirit draw is taken to the T.A mixing bottle. The rectified spirit is drawn from upper tray of the Rectifier cum Exhaust column and sent to rectified spirit storage via rectified spirit cooler. High Fusel Oil and Low Fusel Oil are drawn from Rectifier cum Exhaust column at the required rate. These draws are taken to the fusel oil cooler and taken to the fusel oil column for further concentration. Spent lees coming out of the Rectifier cum Exhaust column bottom is used to pre-heat the feed to Rectifier cum Exhaust column in the rectifier feed pre-heater. A spent lee is drained to gutter in a controlled manner by the level in the Rectifier cum Exhaust column bottom. Fuel Oil Column basically is concentrating the fuel oil received from the rectifier column so as have effective separation of heavy fuel oils. Steam is supplied as a heat source to concentrate fuel oil. The Ethanol both pure and impure is first led into separate receivers. The quantity of Ethanol produced is assessed daily in the receiver and it is finally transferred to respective storage vats in the warehouse. The spirit from storage vats will be issued for sale. There is strict control of State Excise Department on raw material used, Ethanol produced, issue of Ethanol and losses of Ethanol, during storage and transfer from one tank to other tank.
Co-generation In the processing of sugarcane, Bagasse, a fibrous by-product is produced which is used in the boilers to generate steam. Excess Bagasse from the mills is conveyed to the storage yard by conveyors. This bagasse stored in the yard is used on two occasions, first whenever there is any stoppage in the crushing and second during off season. Steam which is produced by burning Bagasse is subsequently fed to steam turbines where it expands and rotates the turbine rotor at high speed, which in turn rotates the alternator to generate power. This power is used to meet the power requirements to operate the plant and the excess power generated is fed to the grid after upgrading it to 110 KV. The exhaust steam from the turbine, which is at a very low-pressure of 1.5 kg/cm2, is used for boiling in the sugar process. Bagasse is the dry, fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of juice from the crushed stalks of sugarcane, which is used as a fuel for boilers to generate steam which is used in production of sugar and for power generation. Production Capacity & Installation:Company have an installed capacity of 15 MW co-generation plant at our production facility. Company use Bagasse as a fuel in our boilers to generate steam, which is used to produce electricity. Company co-generation unit having an installed capacity of 15 MW generates upto 14.1 MW of which 4 MW is used for captive consumption. Out of the surplus of 10.1 MW is sold on a merchant sale basis under a Power Purchase Agreement through Maharashtra state electricity company now called as mahadistribution & maha-tranco.
3. MC-KINSEY’S 7-S MODEL:The 7-S Framework of McKenzie is a management model that describes 7 factors to organize a company in a holistic and effective way. Together these factors determine the way in which a corporation operates. Managers should take into account all seven of these factors, for the successful implementation of strategy large or Small. They are all interdependent organizational variables that need to be taken into account in organizational design. So if management of an organization fails to pay proper attention to one of them, this may affect all others as well. On top of that, the relative importance of each factor may vary over time. Origin: The 7-S Framework was first mentioned in “The Art of Japanese Management” by Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos in 1981. They had been investigating how Japanese industry had been so successful. At around the same time that Tom Peters and Robert Waterman were exploring what made a company excellent. The Seven S model was born at a meeting of these four authors in 1978. It appeared also in “In Search of Excellence” by Peters and Waterman, and was taken up as a basic tool by the global management consultancy company McKinsey. Since then it is known as their 7-S model. Key – Elements: There are seven interdependent key – elements in the McKinsey 7-S Model. These are: Strategy, Structure, System, Style, Staff, Skills, and Shared Values. These seven elements are distinguished in so called Hard S’s and Soft S’s. The Hard – S elements (Strategy, Structure and System) are feasible and easy to identify. They can be found in strategy statements, corporate plans, organizational charts and other documentations.
The Soft – S elements (Style, Staff, Skills, and Shared Values) however, are hardly feasible. They are difficult to describe since capabilities, values and elements of corporate culture are continuously developing and changing. They are highly determined by the people at work in the organization. So it is much more difficult to plan or to influence the characteristics of the soft elements. Although the soft factors are below the surface, they can have a great impact of the hard Structures, Strategies and Systems of the organization. STRATEGY:By “strategy” we mean those actions that a company plans in response to or anticipation of changes in its external environment, its customers and its competitors. Strategy is the way; a company aims to improve its position vis-a-vis completion, perhaps through low cost of production or delivery perhaps by providing better value to the customer, perhaps by achieving sales and services dominance. It is, or ought to be, an organization way of saying, “here is how we will create unique value.” As the Sugar company’s has chosen route to competitive success, strategy is obviously a central concern in many business situations – especially in highly competitive by industries where the game is won or loose on share points. But “Structure follows strategy” is by no means the be all and end all of the organization’s wisdom. ASSK is providing ample opportunities to the people at various levels to impart their skills and expertise in order to enhance growth by taking positive strategic decisions. The management wants to empower the greater heights of achievements and each one should be given opportunity to excel and show their potential, effective and efficient performance. Now I am going to explain the pricing strategy of ASSK. Pricing Policy: Unlike other consumer or other goods, sugarcane will not be differing because it is subject to control of Government. Government will fix the sugar price. Price for exporting will be fixed by the firm. It is management's policy to fix the price for exporting. Sugar Prices: Sugar is a controlled commodity in India under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955. Sugar prices in the country can be classified into two broad categories at the user end as free market prices and prices of sugar through public distribution system. The GOI (Government of India) announces PDS sugar prices based on levy sugar prices fixed by it and the subsidy to be provided through budgetary system. The realization to sugar mills from government levy quota is called levy prices. Levy prices are fixed by the GOI based on SMP for the year. But usually levy prices are very low and fall below the cost of production. Therefore the producers are left with only free sale sugar quota to run the business profitably. GOI controls extend to free market prices also through the issue of monthly dispatch orders to all the sugar mills in the country based on demand supply situation in the country. In September 1998, PDS sugar prices were increased from Rsll.40 per kg to Rs.12 per kg. The sugar price range in the country for last few years is given below. The sugar prices move in close relation to production of sugar and the inventory in the country. Sugar prices are the lowest in India when compared to the leading sugar consuming countries in the world. Converted into Indian rupees the price equivalent in Japan is of the order. Rs.64.8 per kg. USA. Rs.31.5 per kg. China. Rs.25.78 per kg. Indonesia. Rs.18.62 per kg. Brazil and Pakistan. Rs.17.9 per kg. Sri Lanka, Thailand and Malaysia. Rs.7.18 per kg.
1) Increasing our revenues from sugar, power and distillery products in the State of Maharashtra. Company propose to increase the capacity of our sugar unit from the present 2800 TCD to 5000TCD.Company believe this increase in the sugarcane crushing capacity will enable us to become one of the largest sugarcane crushers in the State of Maharashtra at a single location thereby leading to increase in revenues from all our business segments. Company also proposes to increase its co-generation licensed capacity from the existing 15 MW (installed capacity of14.4 MW) to 25MW in future. Pursuant to this increase in the capacity, we believe our Company shall become one of the largest power generating company from a single location in the State of Maharashtra. 2) Sale of surplus power generated by the co-generation unit. Company have installed a power generation unit with 1 boilers and 1 turbines. It utilize bagasse from the sugar unit as fuel in the boilers to generate steam for running the turbines which generate an aggregate power of approximately 15 MW. Our co-generation unit having an installed capacity of 15MW generates upto 14 MW of which 4 MW is used for captive consumption. Out of the surplus of around 10 MW, 14 MW is sold on a merchant sale basis under a Short Term Open Access (STOA) arrangement under a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) through Maharashtra state electricity board. The proposed expansion of our integrated facility includes the installation of a new boiler with 150 TPH capacity of 110 kg/cm2 pressure and a turbine 25 MW. These additional installations will enable our Company to increased capacity of 40MW which will generate around 35-40 MW of power during the sugar season. 3) The proposed expansion of the co-generation unit of our integrated production facility will lead to cost effective power generation. Company proposes to install a 150 TPH boiler with operating parameters of 110 kg/cm2 pressure and temperature of 540 +- 5C. This high pressure boiler is much more efficient than the existing 67 kg/cm2 pressure boilers being operated by our Company. The proposed boiler will lead to lower consumption of fuel by more than 10% for steam generation as compared to the existing boilers. Overhand above the fuel savings, the steam temperature from this boiler is higher than the existing boiler which will generate more power per ton of steam consumed in the turbine. 4) Expansion of our distillery unit will enable higher production and sale of IMFL products. 5) Increase the sale of IMFL products by entering into contract manufacturing arrangements with licensed manufacturers. ASSK’s existing business segments or revenue verticals include sugar, distillation (alcoholic spirits, IMFL and ethanol) and co-generation. Presently, IMFL contributes nearly 32% to the revenues of Company.
To understand this model of organization change better, let us look at each of its dimensions, as most organizations do. The central problem in structuring today is not the one on which most organization designers spend their time that is, how to divide up tasks. It is one of emphasis and coordination how to make the whole thing work. The challenge lays
not so much in trying to comprehend all the possible dimensions of organization structure as in developing the ability to focus on those dimensions which are currently important to the organization’s evaluation and ready to re-focus as the crucial dimensions shift. The activities are classified and based up on the job profile. The mangers perform the various functions of the concerned departments. There is vertical communications in the organization. The manager has a span of control on 10-20 members in a particular section. The departmentalization in company as a whole is based on the Function because each department has to perform their respective functions. The decision making is partly centralized and partly de-centralized. The employees have to follow according to the instructions given by their higher authorities. Departmentation is a process of dividing the large functional organization into small and flexible administrative units. The basic need of department ion arises because of limitation on the number of subordinates that can be directly managed by superior. Basis for Departmentation: Departmentation may be on the basis of function, products region, customers, process time, and marketing channel. Functional basis is very popular method of departmentation. It refers to grouping of actives of organization into major functional department like, production, purchase, marketing etc. In ASSK’s departmentation is on the basis of Function. The major Functional departments of Shri Renuka Sugars Ltd are as follows. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: The department deals with the production activities in the production floor where men and machines are employed to convert the cane and chemical into finished product (sugar) for handling them over to sales department. For sugarcane the production process is carried in the following steps. Pressing of sugarcane to extract the juice. Boiling the juice until it begging to thicken and sugar begins to crystallize. Spinning the crystals in a centrifuge to remove the syrup, producing raw sugar. Shipping the raw-sugar to a refinery where it is washed and filtered to remove remaining non-sugar ingredients and colour. Crystallizing the drying and packing the refined sugar. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT: The head of the department’s heads is the purchasing department. Purchasing decisions are divided into two. One for purchase of capital assets and another is regular purchase. Purchase of capital assets: It requires approval of management. Considerable point while purchasing capital assets are, Life duration of the assets. Cost of the assets. Capacity etc. Regular Purchases: Indent from the user is original document to issue purchase order for regular purchase of materials and goods. Process: Receiving indent from the users Calling tenders if necessary. Preparing purchase order. Ordering to suppliers. Making purchase return if the material does not match the order. STORES DEPARTMENT: Stores department holds the entire inventory required in the organization all the materials coming are subject to record at stores and holds them at stores until they are issued to the required department. Functions: Receipt of materials. Inspect it with ordered quantity, quality and any specification. Some of the materials like chemicals are to be sent to laboratory for inspection and testing. Getting the indents from the departmental head and issuing it. To make the purchase returns if the materials are rejected. Maintain minimum level of
materials. Informing purchase department when materials require. Materials Handled: Engineering tools spares. Raw materials. Stationary. Packing materials. ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT: The administration controls and monitors the activities of the time office and security personnel. Human Resource Development is the challenging function in- front of the administration department. PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT: Functions. Recruitment and selection: The advertisement for recruitment of employees is made through leading newspaper. Apart from this as statutory obligation, the company appoints trainee also among the application received eligible candidates appointed for the job. Training and development: Training imparts skills to newly employee. Training is necessary in production, mechanical and electrical department. On the job training is arranged at the plant. Remuneration: Remuneration refers to the reward for labor and service. Basically remuneration is on the basis of hours worked. Each shift is of 8hours and 3 shifts a day. Fringe Benefits Canteen facility. Transportation facility. . Housing facility. . Free electricity. . Excreta (A type of bonus given during deepawali.). . KLE’S Health Card (Rs.1 lakhs for the employee and Rs. 50,000 for spouse.) . Workmen compensation policy depending upon the age and position of the employee. TIME OFFICE: Objectives of time office are. . Keeping attendance records for administration and payment purposes. . Maintains records for giving increment and promotion (Promotion is on the basis of Merit.) FINANCE DEPARTMENT: Finance is the life blood of the business. One cannot imagine a business without finance department because it is the central point of all business activities. Finance department of ASSK plays a very important, as it is here that decision with regard to procurement and utilization of funds are taken. Such decision includes the preparation of various budgets, allocation of funds for various activities or division of the firm as well as distribution of profits etc. Bankers : MS CO-OP BANK, BANK OF BARODA, NABARD, SBI ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT: Introduction: ASSK is an Industrial organization manufacturing sugar, power and ethanol accounts department of ASSK plays a vital role in achieving company's objectives. Need for accounting system: . To ascertain the profit / loss of the business . To ascertain the financial position of the business . To provide control over assets and properties of the company . To provide information to tax authorities like, sales tax, income tax, control excise etc., . Assistance to management on: 1. Decision-making 2. Forward Planning and budgeting. . To provide information to government central, state and various local bodies CANE DEPARTMENT: Cane is the only raw material for producing sugar. The department keeps a direct link with farmers and helps the farmer to develop the cane. Objectives of Cane Department: . To procure the cane at proper time and proper condition. . To look after the transportation of cane from farmers through trucks tractors and carts. To develop the cane and giving proper guidelines to grow. . To keep and maintain concerned land database. . Hiring trucks and tractors. . Harvesting cane. Circle office: Assistant cane development officer heads the circle office there are 20 circle officers located at different places surrounding from where cane is being produced. Supervisor assists circle officer. There is
one supervisor for 1500 acre. Supervisors are to report corresponding circle offices. Weekly report has to be sent the cane manager. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT: This department takes care of all repairs and maintenance of fittings and fixtures of the plant. The electrical engineer is the head of the department. Assistant electrical engineer and junior engineer assist him. Functions: . To repair & maintenance of machines. . To develop power for prime movers & lighting. . Attending electricity related works. . Maintenance of switch board etc SALES DEPARTMENT: Sales manager is in-charge of the sales department. The sales department takes care of all the sales. The Assistant sales manager has to supervise the states. Marketing and advertisement are not necessary in sugar industry because the customer do not ask for specific company produced and that not separable. Anyhow the contacts with dealers and agents are maintained and developed. About 40% of the sugar produced by the company is used for domestic consumption and the rest 60 % is exported. Functions: As mentioned above, marketing and advertisement efforts are not made as mentioned above, marketing and advertisement efforts are not made to promote sales. But the sales department has to keep in contact with dealers and agents. . Getting orders from parties. . Arranging for delivery to parties. . Maintains records of sales. . Sending reports to managing director (head office). CHEMICAL DEPARTMENT: Chemicals department is directly concerned with production. When the production is on process, mixing proper quantity and proper chemicals is necessary. Chemicals department is the production department here. Important Chemical: Lime and sulphur dioxide. POWER PLANT: Power plant uses the fiber of processed sugarcane (biogases) as fuel to generate electricity in an environmentally responsible manner. An integrated 35MW power plant generates and supplies electricity to the state grid produced from sugarcane waste. Steam used to rotate turbines. DISTILLERY: Distillery Plant was located in the year 2002 at the same location. Spirit is produced at the distillery plant. Molasses converted into rectified spirit. Molasses is waste product from sugar juice. It is the by-product in the sugar industry. Production of spirit is subject to control of excise department (Maharashtra state government). The same department makes distribution and sale of spirit only. Ethanol is also subject to control of excise department. In India 5% ethanol is used in petrol. Industrial buyers for ASSK: Product Customers Sugar.
SKILLS: A skill is the ability, knowledge, understanding and judgment to accomplish a task. Skills may be defined as what the company does best; the distinctive capacities and competencies that reside in the organization. The skills of employees of organization are very appropriate, as the business needs. The skills needed are both technical and clerical (finance and marketing related). Sales executives are mainly from the branches of B.Com, BBM, and MBA. And skilled people are mainly engineers. The firm knows what is its responsibility in the market and complete knowledge in order to satisfy its customer delightfully. ASSK consists of the personnel, having high technical and managerial skills. Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana is having distinctive capabilities in comparison with the competitors. Training is provided to all level of the employees, on specific tasks related to job and also on various other broad aspects. They also contribute to the total customer value. The technical personnel are sent Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Pune each year for up-gradation and post-graduation courses and further choosing them on merit. Training: ASSK’s HR strategies focus on providing need based training to its employees to develop their knowledge, skills and attitude in compliance with ISO 9001/14000 standards. During the year, 49 in-house trainings were organized covering: . Operation. . Maintenance. . Instrumentation. . Electrical. . Finance. . Information Technology. On-the-job training was provided to 100 employees in Key areas of operation.86 Executives were nominated for 60 external training programmes on various topics. Awareness programme on Internal Quality Auditor Training on ISO 9001 (Quality Management System), ISO 14001 (Environmental Management System) were conducted to train 38 Executives in the above standards.
STYLE: This part of McKinsey 7-S framework includes the leadership style of top management and the overall operating style of the organization. It also includes the motivational style used in the company. Some other important areas which come under style are: 1. How does top management make decisions (Ex participatory v/s top-down)? 2. How do manager spend their time (Ex: informal meeting, informal conversation in the field with customer)? Leadership Style Leadership is different to management. Management relies more on planning, organizing and communication skills. Leadership relies on management skills too, but more so on qualities such as integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, confidence, positivity, wisdom, determination, compassion and sensitivity. Some people are born more naturally to leadership than others. Most people don't seek to be a leader. Those who want to be a leader should develop leadership ability. Leadership can be performed with different styles. Some leaders have one style, which is right in certain situation and wrong for others. Some leaders can adapt and use different leadership styles for the given situation. A number of leadership styles are given below. . Authoritative Leadership. . Democratic Leadership. . Participative Leadership. ASSK Perspective: In the modern business situation of ASSK, the company is using “Democratic Leadership style”. Anyone in the firm can directly meet any one. Daily meetings will be held between the sales team and the team manager to solve the problems of the teammates and to collect the sales details. Team manage will report to the AGM (Assistant General Manager) on the same day. Once in a week AGM will meet the sales executives. Once in a month Vice-Chairmen of the organization meets all the managers. The decision power is handled By CEO. He will take major decisions regarding developmental activities and relationship with other dealers and corporate buyers. Each department is given power and responsibilities to operate and take decisions. ASSK has instituted adequate internal control procedures commensurate with the nature of business and size of its operations. ASSK has also prepared an ‘Internal Control Procedure Manual’ for all the departments to ensure that the control procedures are followed by all departments. Internal controls are supported by internal audit and management reviews. The Board of Directors has an Audit Committee chaired by an Independent Director. The Audit Committee meets periodically the management, . External-internal auditors . Internal-internal auditors . Statutory auditors and reviews the audit plans . Internal controls . Audit reports and the management response to the observations and recommendations emanated from the audit. All significant observations and follow-up actions are reported to the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee has met seven times during the financial year. 3.7
SYSTEM: System refer to the formal process and procedure used to manage the PRESIDENT organization including the management control system, performance management, measurement and reward system, planning, budgeting, resource allocation, MIS, distribution system, accounting system, trading system etc. Systems maintained by the ASSK: The firm has both manual and also computerized systems. . Financial system/ Accounting System: Currently they are using Tally 7.2 as the accounting software. Each
branch and department is divided and each have their own files maintained, and at the end of the day the data will be transferred to the main branch which will be processed together by the finance manager. 2. Customer data base system: The details of the customers are maintained in the software called SAP which helps in maintaining long relationship with the customers, and also help in the process of any difficulty arises. This will help them to shortlist the deliveries and timely delivery of cars. 3. Compensation system/ Reward system: The salary details of various designations, payment dates and payments made are recorded and also the incentives given are also maintained here. The software used for this purpose is SAP. 4. Attendance System: The VB* Punching Machine is used to record the attendance of the employees. The employees has to insert there thumb on the machine when they comes to the company and at the time of going again they has to insert his thumb on the machine. This enables the company to have proper recording of the attendance.
STAFF Staff (in the sense of people, not line / staff) is often treated in one of two ways. At the hard end of the spectrum, we talk of appraisal systems, pay scales, formal training program, and the like. At the soft end, we talk about moral, attitudes, motivation, and behaviour. People are one of the most important assets of the company. The technologies, Products and structures of a company can be copied by competitors but no one can match the highly charged, motivated people who care these things. People are firm’s repository of knowledge and they are central to company’s competitive advantage. Well educated, coached and highly motivated people are critical to the development and execution of strategies, especially in today’s faster- paced, more perplexing world, where top management alone can no longer assure firm’s competitiveness. The staff of ASSK – Top, middle and lower management have nurtured following qualification thereby being able to meet the expectations of their valuable customers. . Quality: ASSK staff maintains professional attitude among all employees. . Line & Staff Relationship: Line refers to those positions of an organization, which have responsibility, authority and is accountable for accomplishment of primary objectives. The relationship existing between two managers due to delegations of authority and responsibility and giving or receiving instructions or orders is called line relationship. Line authority represents uninterrupted series of authority and responsibility delegating down the management hierarchy. ASSK has adopted Line & Staff organizational structure that offers individual the opportunity to meaningfully learn & participate across diverse business processes. The Managing Director of the company responsible for the Quality Management System. He is overall in-charge overseeing the overall growth of the company, whereas plant heads look after day -to -day activities. The business process heads, as shown in overall organization chart, are treated as top management to establish, implement, maintain & continually improve effectiveness of Quality management to establish, implement, maintain & continually improve effectiveness of Quality Management System. The Deputy General Manager follows the Managing Director. The team leaders of various departments report to the Deputy General Manager. According to the company the As of November 30, 2011, we had 1,191 full-time employees of which 111 are managerial, 158 supervisory, 288 are skilled and 562 are
workmen/trainees/semi-skilled workmen. Most of our employees are from nearby area of factory. Company hired 709contract labour as on November 30, 2011.The average age of our senior management team and skilled employees is approximately 42 years. Employees are not currently unionized, and there have been no work disruptions, strikes or other employee unrest to date. Our Company believes that it has maintained good relations with its employees. We also sponsor our engineers, chemists, and other employees for various advanced courses in sugar engineering, sugar technology and alcohol technology at various institutes.
SHARED VALUE Shared values are what engender trust and link an organization together. Shared values are also the identity by which an organization is known throughout its business areas. These values must be stated as both corporate objectives and individual values. Every organization and every leader should have a different set of values that are appropriate to its business situation. How To Establish Shared Values? Ensuring employee's understanding of organization's values and vision requires the organization to have clearly defined values. Without this, organization can get itself into real trouble. . Defining shared value is more than putting words on the paper. Most organizations have values statements or mission statements, yet many do not follow them. Winning organizations create successful cultures in a systematic way using various approaches that may include visual representations, training seminars, and/or socializing events. Unlike the other six ‘S’s, super ordinate goals (Shared Values) don’t seem to be present in all, or even most organizations. They are, however, evident in most of the superior performers. The different values system of subordinates is to be responsible to their departmental duties as delegated by the functional / departmental managers. The organization can work effectively and efficiently if there is proper co-ordination. Culture of the company practice integrity, honesty, commitment, promoting salesmen’s.) . The company promotes Team Work. . The company value leadership. (Result oriented and innovative, positive attitude). The company have a passion for excellence (competing with global standards). The company reward and recognize the standard
SWOT ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION: SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for assessing and communicating the current position of an organization or a particular reform option in terms of its internal Strengths and Weakness and the external Opportunities and Threats it faces. 4.2 SWOT ANALYSIS: SWOT analysis came from the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from 1960-1970. The background to SWOT stemmed from the need to find out why corporate planning failed. The Research Team was Marion Dosher, Dr Otis Benepe, Albert Humphrey, Robert Stewart, and Birger Lie. The research carried on from 1960 to 1969. 1100 companies and organizations were interviewed and a 250- item questionnaire was designed and completed by over 5,000 executives. During the research, initially SWOT analysis was called SOFT (Satisfactory, Opportunity, Fault, and Threat) analysis which was nothing but good and bad about operation in its present and future. “What is good in the present is Satisfactory, good in the future is an Opportunity, bad in the present is a Fault, and bad in the future is a Threat”. This was called the SOFT analysis. Afterward in a Long Range Planning in Switzerland, the ‘F’ of SOFT changed to ‘W’ and then it called as SWOT analysis. Strengths -Fully integrated player -Reduced impact of seasonally. -Excellent relationship with Sugarcane farmers. - Registering co-generation plant proper roads & highways leads to for carbon credits. -Right products, quality and outputs. -Superior product performance as compared to competitors. - New technology in Manufacturing. -Well planned infrastructure -Abundant and Assured plan of Sugarcane -Power Supply to state grid -Lowest Process Losses -Highly skilled and motivated workforce -Self-sufficient in power and water -ASSK is the second largest producer of sugar in the north nagar region after sanjivani. Opportunities -Integrated distillery. -Well placed for exports. -Superior Technology. – Focus towards corporate and supply of sugar-cane. - Track record of successful acquisitions. -Machinery that can be upgraded for higher capacities -Opportunity to get into value added business -Opportunity to set up bagasse based paper plant -High value of by-products for down stream industries.
-Huge potential to increase the productivity of cane and sugar recovery rate. -Technology upgradation, new advanced technology available for the by-product utilization. -Develop closer ties with the community and stakeholders -Educate the community about local industry issues. - Superior utilization of fixed assets. Weaknesses - Extra cost of exporting raw sugar. -Non availability of raw sugar in excess -Cyclical Industry -Highly regulated Industry -Virtually No control over Raw Material Price -Lackadaisical attitude of government in providing infrastructure such as roads etc -They have found difficult to pay for the sugar cane supplied by the farmers. -Most of the machinery (Nearly 50%) is more than 30 years old and still using the old technology Threats - Competition from other Sugar Mills. -Pricing policy of the government. -Dependent on farmers for the industrial buyers. -Import of Sugar -Frequent changes in Government Policies -Sugar sector is vulnerable to political interest. -Ground water availability for irrigation. -Quality of soil deteriorates due to overuse of fertilizer and pesticides to increase Sugarcane yield. -Increasing urbanisation in Ashoknagar areas.
Analysis of financial information
2010-11 A) Source of Fund 1.Share Capital 2.Reserve &Surplus A.etc 3.Secured Loan 4.Unsecured Loan TOTAL DEBT 5.Total Liabilities TOTAL 2546112325 1803692104 93957994 1045745741 734541138.8 660838670.1 11028781.08 2009-10 76122475 307730817.9 633834297.3 766204896.7 19799617.08
B) Application of Fund 1.Gross Block 2.Investment 3.Current Asset C.A. Capital 4.missleneus Expenses Adv. P L Ac
1222002761 24672415 972708590.2 79198446.31 214858480.8 32671634.95 2546112325
452911602.7 56321415 915050812.1 121902314.1 176883360.4 80622600 1803692104
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2009-10 A PROFIT LOSS ACCOUNT INCOME 1 Sale sugar by- product 2 Other income by- product Profit TOTAL B EXPENDITURE 1 R.M. 2010-11
12749199.94 71279301.4 31028984.04 7215653.89 1384443890
1510773154 73641556 47402913.48 16612166.58 1648429790
excise duty transport supply development salary strore selling expence administration interest EBITDA Depreciation EBT
26055458 105881586 3077727.86 25313594.93 117129303.4 65838341.53 12233469.01 26299972.87 31921398.31 16723057
29212044 168076259 7182190.51 42822640.21 137853830.5 86553777.96 20919651.88 34435833.97 81655206.81 18104992
SHORT TERM RATIO 1)Current 2)Quick LONG TERM RATIO 1)Debt. Equity PROFITABILITY RATIO 1)Interest cover 2)Return on investment 3)Net profit TURNOVER RATIO 1)Return on Asset 2)Inventory Turnover 3)Deposit Turnover 4)Capital Employed
2009-10 Current Asset Current Liabilities Liquid Asset Liquid liabilities Long Term Debt Equity EBIT & Depreciation Interest Net Profit Capital Employed Net Profit Sale Net Profit Total Asset Cost of goods sold Avg. Inventory Sale Avg.Debators Sale Capital Employed 2.5 0.31
2010-11 1.71 0.13
41% 7.59 44.66 4.48
15% 6.66 22.45 1.76
LEARNING EXPERIENCES It is a wonderful experience of being able to observe the working of an organization first hand as it is my first time experience. This exposure to the corporate working will help us in comparing the standards in other companies. It will also help us in choosing our specializations and the career which one is planning to get into in the long run. As my first exposure to the corporate word, the things which I have learned as a trainee in this organization are as follows. The first thing I learned as a trainee is to be punctual. First few days I was not punctual. One day I did not go to the company and failed to inform the Senior Administrative officer. The next day I went to the company, the officer asked me not to come for the next 2 days. I realized my mistake and I was punctual for the rest of my training programme. Human Resource: . The company recruits its manpower through various sources such as internal sources, campus recruitments, advertising, etc. . The selection process consists of Collection of applications blanks, Screening of applications, written tests (aptitude & technical Personal interview, Technical interview, medical Examination, job offer, Placement and induction). . Training is based on the requirements of the employee. Each employee is given a questionnaire which consists of the various skills required to perform a particular job. The employee rates himself on various aspects. Based on the ratings, the area in which training is to be given is decided and a training calendar is prepared every year. . The employees are appraised on their performance once in every 6 months. The appraisal method is based on ‘Rating Scale’. The appraiser rates his subordinate based on the targets set and how far the subordinate is able to achieve his set targets. Marketing: . Marketing department is considered as the key department in this organization as it is responsible for generating orders for the company’s product range. These work orders are sent to respective department for processing. . At present the company is using pull strategy for marketing its products. The company fixes to both distributors as well as to marketing personnel to meet the desired objectives. If they achieve the target it provides incentives to sales personnel. Production: The Company has sugar laboratory which conducts tests and check for suitability of product to health care. . All employees have to wear uniform on all working days. This shows the discipline of workers. . The plant is designed in the shop floor and the movement of materials from one machine to another is easily understood by me. General: The company uses VB* punching machine to record the attendance of the employee. The company has a strict security department. They will not allow any outsider to enter the company unless the Administrative department gives permission. The trucks and tractor are allowed to enter inside the company only after checking the invoice and the license of driver. The depreciation is calculated on the Reducing Balance Method. . The company follows more of an Organic type of structure which develops self-reliance and decision making abilities among the departments. . The department’s functions as individual
teams. This creates a sense of team spirit among the group members in each of the division. This also creates a competitive environment with in the organization. . The subordinates are encouraged by their superiors to take initiatives in production planning and control which could lead to reduction in cycle time. CONCLUSION:-ASSK have state of art equipment and a highly competent technical team that produces one of the highest quality sugars. It is growing very fast in the industry. It is dynamic achievement of entrepreneur Mr. Bhanudas Murkute. ASSK is not only concentrating in production of quality sugar, but also engaged in developing new seeds which will be more suitable to the climate. Irrigation planning by ASSK is appreciable. It arranges loans from banks for pipeline facilities to fanner's fields. Lots of irrigation is being done under this scheme repayment to banks is made from the bill of concerned farmer. Sugar industry is agro based and monsoon season hits the production. The reason as to why sugar factories will be closed is because of inconvenience of harvesting and even transporting the cane to the factory. Indian sugar industry is highly fragmented with organized and unorganized players. The unorganized players mainly produce Gur and Khandsari, the less refined form of sugar. The Company is the only one in the industry today with a formal risk management system in place. As a significant step forward in hedging own sugar price risk as well as that of customers, the company became an active corporate member on NCDEX dealing in sugar commodities to trade in spot market and in futures. With an able management and robust vision, Ashok SSK Ltd today is one of the fastest growing sugar manufacturers in the country.
Aim Study of process management & control and analysis of process improvement in Ashok Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Nature and Scope of the study. Manufacturing process management (MPM) is a collection of technologies and methods used to define how products are to be manufactured and Optimized manufacturing process. MPM differs from ERP/MRP which is used to plan the ordering of materials and other resources, set manufacturing schedules, and compile cost data.A cornerstone of MPM is the central repository for the integration of all these tools and activities aids in the exploration of alternative production line scenarios; making assembly lines more efficient with the aim of reduced lead time to product launch, shorter product times and reduced work in progress (WIP) inventories as well as allowing rapid response to product or product changes Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) is a business strategy for the collaborative development and optimization of manufacturing processes in enterprise.
MPM allows multiple alternative and resources to collaborate as one single enterprise throughout the entire development of a manufacturing process. MPM leverages specific technologies and methodologies to create a collaborative environment for authoring, simulating and managing manufacturing processes. MPM is a critical component of Automised-Manufacturing, a broader business strategy that addresses the full industrial process, from the initial concept of a new product until it is delivered to the customer. MPM enables manufacturers to use their product designs to define how the product is going to be manufactured and then to deliver these processes to the shop floor. Simply stated, MPM transforms “what” into “how” and hands it off to “when” and “where”. While the product design process defines an electronic bill of materials - the “what” 46
MPM defines an Automized Manufacturing processes - the “how.” This information is stored on a one source that allows easy access and management of data throughout the enterprise. MPM enables the optimization of the manufacturing process chain, significantly cutting time-to-market and time-to-volume and production costs. .Objectives of the study
1) To understand the nature of the ASSK ‘S existing Manufacturing Process Management &
its environment 2) To understand benefits and challenges of Manufacturing Process Management respectively of ASSK. 3) Implementation of Manufacturing Process Management 4) To suggest the implementation of Manufacturing Process Management model for effectiveness in ASSK. 5) The Primary objective of MPM is to study the scope and application of MPM in the Organization. 6) The Secondary objective is to understand the benefits of MPM and the factors affecting the successful implementation of MPM in Organization. 7) The sub objective is to Proposed a Model in Organization for effective Production.
Statement of problem In Ashok Industries existing model of manufacturing process management of distillery as well as sugar is not flexible with production. To enhance production of distillery proposed new manufacturing process model.
Meaning of Research methodology. The system of collecting data for research projects is known as research methodology. The data may be collected for either theoretical or practical research for example management research may be strategically conceptualized along with operational planning methods and change management. Some important factors in research methodology include validity of research data, Ethics and the reliability of measures most of your work is finished by the time you finish the
analysis of your data.Formulating of research questions along with sampling weather probable or non-probable is followed by measurement that includes surveys and scaling. This is followed by research design, which may be either experimental or quasiexperimental. The last two stages are data analysis and finally writing the research paper, which is organised carefully into graphs and tables so that only important relevant data is shown. The research work was conducted by participatory method using focused groups, key informants, individual interviews, as well as observation by researchers. Data collection covered technical, social, economic and environmental impact made by the installed equipment. Participants in the research included owners of the sugar processing plants, Sugarcane farmers (including out growers), employees in the sugar plant (operators), and the surrounding communities. Action oriented research was adopted so as to feed solutions to the problems relevant to the participating research partners. Sites for carrying out the study were identified as in Ashoknagar regions, making a sample size of. These fall into two main categories, namely those ones supplied with sugarcane from out growers and those utilising sugarcane from their own farms. It was expected that the socio-economic characteristics of the two categories would be different. The basic information required for the study was collected as per sample questionnaire. Separate questionnaires were also prepared for surrounding village governments, sugarcane out growers, sugar consumers, and supporting mechanical workshops
Types of research technique The various types of research which a researcher can apply in order to achieve one’s desired objective. Therefore to achieve the objectives of my research I have used Qualitative Descriptive along with scientific research. This is based on proper research design to meet the objectives of the study. Sampling is done with combination of judgement & Convenience The process of judgement, or purposive, sampling is based on the assumption that the researcher is able to select elements which represent a ‘typical sample’ from the appropriate target population. The quality of samples selected by using this approach depends on the accuracy of subjective interpretations of what constitutes a typical sample. It is extremely difficult to obtain meaningful results from a judgement sample because no two experts will agree upon the exact composition of a typical sample. Therefore, in the absence of an external criterion, there is no way in which in the research results obtained from one judgement sample can be judged as being more accurate than the research results obtained from another. A sample of convenience is the terminology used to describe a sample in which elements have been selected from the target population on the basis of their accessibility or convenience to the researcher.
Convenience samples are sometimes referred to as ‘accidental samples’ for the reason that elements may be drawn into the sample simply because they just happen to be situated, spatially or administratively, near to where the researcher is conducting the data collection. The main assumption associated with convenience sampling is that the members of the target population are homogeneous. That is, that there would be no difference in the research results
obtained from a random sample, a nearby sample, a co-operative sample, or a sample gathered in some inaccessible part of the population. As for judgement sampling, there is no way in which the researcher may check the precision of one sample of convenience against another. Indeed the critics of this approach argue that, for many research situations, readily accessible elements within the target population will differ significantly from less accessible elements. They therefore conclude that the use of convenience sampling is likely to introduce a substantial degree of bias into sample estimates of population parameters.
What Is a Real Hypothesis? A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. A hypothesis should not be confused with a theory. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. 1) According to process Management H0 = Manufacturing Process Management is not effective for improving the performance of industries. H1 = Manufacturing Process Management is effective in Sugar industries. 2) Application- Process Management in distillery In sugar mill integrated plan for sugar as well as ethanol/spirit production. Company want to improve the production in distillery. But basically it required large amount of steam. As per steam generation with respect to Cost Analysis Company Want alternative solution for production process. Following hypothesis for that H0= Arrangement of Separate Boiler for optimized process. H1= Sharing with Co-Generation Boiler for steam purpose. H2=Tie up with 4 steam boiler for steam sharing purpose. H3=Combined H1 & H2 Hypothesis H4=Seasonal Production
Data collection The data collection was done mostly during crushing season, which usually takes 180-210 days (6-7 months) a year, starting from the month of June or July. A good research required for comprehensive data collection and analysis and also to investigate the dynamics of the sugar industry in and the village level sugar processing plants in particular. Data collected was analysed qualitatively as well as quantitatively by computer coding using Microsoft Excel programmes. Descriptive statistics, mainly the frequency
distribution was used to analyse the level of impact made by the installed equipment. Conferences, seminars and workshops were utilised to discuss and evaluate the existing problems facing the sugar industry. Participants in those included key players in the sugar industry and technology in general. These include international experts and officials from government ministries (Industries and Trade, Agriculture, Planning Commission, Research Institutions and Finance), and the private sector (potential entrepreneurs and traders). The framework for technological appropriateness in rural development in The project was to check the opinion of the Manufacturing Process Management users about whether it helps in developing effectiveness in the business using primary as well as secondary data. The primary data was obtained through observation, direct communication with the people in industries. Data Collection Tool The data collection tool that I have used is Questionnaire & technical information of industry . I have selected questionnaire as a data collection tool primarily because of descriptive nature of sampling & secondly it was the most suitable tool that could help in achieving all the objectives of the study & to do the analysis deeply and effectively. I directly communicate with management body and employees working in Engineering, Production department of the firm.
Primary data Direct communication with people in the industries which are from various department. Secondary data Secondary data was collected from other organisations involved with the technology such as Sanjivani SSK & other chemical industries/ distillery, relevant regional and district government offices etc. Secondary data is also collected from industries documents
2. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
What is Process Management? Process management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a process. The term usually refers to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes. Business process management (BPM) and business process reengineering are interrelated, but not identical. Process management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define, visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to meet customer requirements profitably. It can be differentiated from program management in that program management is concerned with managing a group of inter-dependent projects. But from another viewpoint, process management includes program management. In project management, process management is the use of a repeatable process to improve the outcome of the project. ISO 9001 promotes the process approach to managing an organization. ...promotes the adoption of a process approach when developing, implementing and improving the effectiveness of a quality management system, to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements. Source: clause 0.2 of ISO 9001:2000 Manufacturing process management (MPM) is a collection of technologies and methods used to define how products are to be manufactured. MPM differs from ERP/MRP which is used to plan the ordering of materials and other resources, set manufacturing schedules, and compile cost data. A cornerstone of MPM is the central repository for the integration of all these tools and activities aids in the exploration of alternative production line scenarios; making assembly lines more efficient with the aim of reduced lead time to product launch, shorter product times and reduced work in progress (WIP) inventories as well as allowing rapid response to product or product changes. Manufacturing process management (MPM) Solutions for Process Industries are integrated applications that provide process manufacturers with the means to plan and schedule, track and analyse, and direct and operate their operations. The global manufacturing economy seems to be back on track with just about all regions of the world ramping up spending, after a tumultuous couple of years. Over the past several years, the market has been delayed due to the economic conditions and there is pent up demand for MPM solutions that were postponed during the recession. Companies are continuing to look for ways to improve operational efficiency, meet regulatory compliance regulations, improve visibility, and reduce costs. Succeeding in today’s global climate requires innovation and operational excellence along several dimensions such as dynamic value creation, supply chain synchronization and visibility, and
achieving cost efficient operations. Manufacturers are using MPM to enhance their ability to innovate and adapt their products and services to changing market conditions. MPM provides the visibility to uncover opportunities for innovation and demand. It captures and automates business processes and can include operations intelligence, workflow management, so that they can be easily modified when needs change. Applications range from operations intelligence, recipe management, material tracking and more. The MPM market continues to grow because it improves visibility, track and trace, and the bottom line. Production Development Process The core element of MPM is the Production Development Process (PDP) which was developed in order to provide a global planning approach to our customers from the very first ideas to the production launch. This process encompasses three main steps with seven interdependent phases with specific tasks in each phase. The tasks ensure all areas of the production are planned to the same strategy and quality level. Concept Planning
General boundary conditions Initial process development Floor space / Plant layout / Head Count Equipment and Investment First indication of Production Cost
Supplier selection Process development Equipment build-up Pre-acceptance co-ordination
Installation management Production validation Ramp-up support
Each phase of the PDP has its own detailed process. Defined quality gates secure the fulfilment of the required activities and release to the interdependent phase. This enables us to ensure the production is developed in view of optimum manufacturing processes, quality, and investment.
Fig. MPM functional Area Process Development & Process Monitoring The analytical techniques and expertise available at MPM are suitable for more than just troubleshooting and addressing specific problems reactively, once they have occurred. They can also be used proactively, during research and development, to provide information on test or pilot samples as new processes are being developed. The use of good analytical experimental design early and often in the development cycle can avoid costly trial-anderror repetition and may uncover potential issues at an early process stage. Once a process is up and running, EAG can provide on-going monitoring during the production cycle, to help customers catch process deviations before they lead to potentially very costly manufacturing issues. Routine testing of production samples can help detect issues and quality variations in material suppliers, equipment vendors, and cleaning and maintenance procedures before they become major problems. Potential Use Scenarios
Routinely monitor incoming material batches from suppliers before they enter production Use routine analyses to monitor incoming and in-use process Monitor control samples to evaluate changing environmental conditions or contaminants in a production facility Spot-check mid-production samples for characteristics such as layer thickness, doping uniformity, or the presence of contaminants Compare new material parameters with an established baseline
Fig. MPM from concept to customer Manufacturing processes within the production and quality areas such as assembly, inspection, testing, receiving, fabrication, sterilization, packaging, and others all require a careful process development method. Taking a project from concept to the manufacturing floor allows flexibility to provide for a carefully planned and thought out process enabling a smooth transition from engineering to manufacturing. Each development project with the eventual serial production process in mind. Managers & engineers develop the process sequence, labor requirements and operator work assignments in accordance with ISO 13485 / ISO 9001 and FDA to achieve an efficient and safe production operation. This is ensured through the following process development steps: Proven Process gives you the opportunity and the confidence to outsource your entire project. Proven Process can take a product from inception to delivery. Because we take the time to fully understand and properly specify your requirements, Proven Process creates the right design for your product. PROVEN PROCESS seamlessly transitions from product concept through product approval and production. The process provides the assurance of market delivery. Concept to Customer Turnkey Service includes every step in the process that leads you to your own customer’s door:
Benefits of MPM 360 degree view of business Organizational-level data sharing Reduce cost on customer acquisition Centralized process interaction Improved processes support Increase product & service quality High rate of customer retention Boost new business Increase revenue at low cost
1) H0= Arrangement of Separate Boiler for distillery to optimized process.
According to this option the following subcategories are explain A) Cost COST Operational cost INCLUDE Production ,manufacturing Overall APP.COST REMARK Increase because Highly increased boiler system is upto 30% Budget increase upto Highly increased 10-16 crores Extra boiler fuel upto 25% 20% Highly increased
Boiler, civil work ,pipeline
B) Technical Aspect TECHNICAL ISSUE Steam Economy STATUS Good LIMITATION REMARK Good for medium scale boiler Highly increase in efficiency of process effective -
Efficiency of Process
Effectiveness of Process Flexibility of Process
Optimization of Process Maintenance
Good High maintenance
Extra maintenance for boiler & system
3) Analysis of process SUGAR Good Good 6-7 month Warehouse ALCOHOL Good Good 6-7 month depend tank MOLLASES Good Good 6-7 month depend
PRODUCTION PROCESS SEASON OF PRODUCTION STORAGE
2) H1= Sharing with Co-Generation Boiler for steam purpose.
A) Cost COST Operational cost INCLUDE Co-Gen Boiler and Production ,manufacturing Overall cost APP.COST 10% REMARK Slightly Increased
Increased by 20%
For boiler only
Extra worker supervisor Various parameter
Steam supply system ,pipeline
B) Technical Aspect TECHNICAL ISSUE Steam Economy STATUS Not good LIMITATION Sharing with co-gen boiler it not match steam parameter Sharing purpose is not good purpose REMARK Not good for boiler steam economy Efficiency Is decreased both system No
Efficiency of Process
Effectiveness of Process
Flexibility of Process
Optimization of Process
Not flexible you have shared system that affect both -
Two aspect that difficult
3) Analysis SUGAR Average Average 6-7 month Warehouse ALCOHOL Average Average 6-7 month Storage Tank MOLLASES Average Average 6-7 month -
PRODUCTION PROCESS SEASON OF PRODUCTION STORAGE
3) H2=Tie up with 4 steam boiler for steam sharing purpose. A) Cost COST Operational cost INCLUDE Boiler, Production ,manufacturing Overall APP.COST Increased up to 30% REMARK high operation cost increased because 4 boiler & system High
Up to 30%
Up to 20%
steam supply system, 15% civil construction, other installation
B) Technical Aspect TECHNICAL ISSUE Steam Economy STATUS Not good LIMITATION 25% of steam on each boiler is for distillery is affect main production REMARK average
Efficiency of Process
Effectiveness of Process Flexibility of Process
Optimization of Process
3) Analysis of process SUGAR Average Average 6-7 month warehouse ALCOHOL Average Average 6-7 month Storage tank MOLLASES Average Average 6-7 month -
PRODUCTION PROCESS SEASON OF PRODUCTION STORAGE
4) H3=Combined H1 & H2 Hypothesis
COST Operational cost
INCLUDE Boiler, Production ,manufacturing Overall
APP.COST Up to 45%
Up to 35%
steam supply system, 26% civil construction, other installation
B) Technical Aspect TECHNICAL ISSUE Steam Economy STATUS Good LIMITATION REMARK average
Efficiency of Process
Effectiveness of Process Flexibility of Process
Optimization of Process
3) Analysis of process SUGAR Nice Nice 6-7 month Warehouse ALCOHOL Nice Nice 6-7 month Storage tank MOLLASES Nice Nice 6-7 month -
PRODUCTION PROCESS SEASON OF PRODUCTION STORAGE
5) H4=Seasonal Production
A) Cost COST Operational cost INCLUDE Boiler, Production ,manufacturing Overall APP.COST 10% REMARK Low
steam supply system, 25% civil construction, storage tank, other installation
B) Technical Aspect TECHNICAL ISSUE Steam Economy STATUS Good LIMITATION REMARK Excellent
Efficiency of Process
Effectiveness of Process Flexibility of Process
Optimization of Process
3) Analysis of process SUGAR Excellent Excellent 6-7 Month Warehouse ALCOHOL Excellent Excellent After sugar season 56 month Storage tank MOLLASES Excellent Excellent 6-7 Month Storage Tank
PRODUCTION PROCESS SEASON OF PRODUCTION STORAGE
Existing model is 3:1 type means 3 boilers for sugar mill 1 boiler for distillery. HYPOTHESIS A) 1. 2. B)H0 H1 H2 H3 H4 ADVANTAGE HIGH Process Process &finance Process ,finance, production DISADVANTAGE HIGH LOW Finance Process , production Process , production Process , production Time SELECTION PRIORITY LOW HIGH HIGH low low good HIGHEST
3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
According to the various factors it suggests that Process management have assumed importance as tools for creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The integration strives to satisfy and promptly deliver the products, ensuring availability of product and maintaining profitability of the manufacturer. It ensures that better quality is offered, technology is implemented in a phased fashion and the connection from customer to supplier is extended. The evolution and implementation of Manufacturing Process Management is discussed. A Manufacturing model for efficiency of fully integrated organization and its implementation is discussed. A case study of Process Management is discussed to show the advantages of integration.
www.wikipedia.org www.microsoft .com/dynamix A Typology of Production Control Situations in Process Industries Jan C. Fransoo Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Process industry supply chains: Advances and challenges Nilay Shah Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London
1. Kochalka, T.S., “MRP in a Process Industry – Why Wait?”, Production and Inventory Management Journal, Vol. 19 No. 4, 1978, pp. 17-20. 2. Duncan, R.M., “The By-product Bill of Material”, APICS Conference Proceedings, 1983, pp. 288-92. 3. Nelson, N.S., “MRP and Inventory and Production Control in Process Industries”, Production and Inventory Management Journal, Vol. 24 No. 4, 1983, pp. 15-22. 4. Taylor, S.G., Sewart, S.M. and Bolander, S.F., “Why the Process Industries Are Different”, Production and Inventory Management Journal, Vol. 22 No. 4, 1981, pp. 9-24. 5. Connor, S.J., Process Industry Thesaurus, American Production and Inventory Control Society, Falls Church, VA, 1986. 6. Wallace, T.F. (Ed.), APICS Dictionary, 5th ed., American Production and Inventory Control Society, Falls Church, VA, 1984. 7. Sepehri, M., Silver, E.A. and New, C., “A Heuristic for Multiple Lot Sizing for an Order under Variable Yield”, IIE Transactions, Vol. 16 No. 1, 1986, pp. 63-9.
What strategy you used to improve your process? Are you using Process management in your company? Do you think it is effective? How do you keep track of your production? How do you know, which process are useful in your production? Is there any improvement in the profits of business after you start working on MPM? How it is helpful in Production? Do you have any substantial increase in benefits with respect to profit? What do you think MPM is related to Production? If YES how it is related? Can the integrated model of MPM and Finance be implemented in future? How?
Process Control Management at British Sugar’s Allscott Sugar Factory
British Sugar, part of the Associated British Foods (ABF) group is the leading sugar supplier in the UK, providing sugar for the top brand names in sugar confectionery, chocolate confectionery, soft drinks and preserves etc.
British Sugar has six sugar factories across the UK, and each factory is split between a “beet end” and a “sugar end”. Typically, a factory processes “beet” between September and March, termed the “Campaign”. The “beet end” employs various processes to create “thick juice” a liquid which has a 65% sugar content. The “sugar end” boils the “thick juice” and seeds it with tiny sugar crystals which provide the nucleus for larger crystals to form and grow to create sugar. The business of processing beet gives rise to several interesting challenges which directly affect process efficiency, sugar yields from the beet, and ultimately factory profitability. British Sugar needs to consider several factors: They must carefully manage relationships with beet growers so that the sugar content in the beet is at the highest percentage at the time of harvest; The process plant needs to be thoroughly tested and operational in time for commencement of the campaign and factory managers must quantify and schedule the amount of beet which can be received at the factory to match process plant capacities, knowing that once the beet is harvested, the sugar content in the beet reduces over time. Outside of the “campaign” a factory undergoes an extensive maintenance programme. If a factory can store the
“thick juice” the “sugar end” processes can continue to produce sugar long after beet harvesting has finished. This enables the factory to utilise its sugar end equipment, therefore maximizing a greater Return on Capital Employed (ROCE). As part of a strategic business development program to maximize economies of scale and usage of process plant across each sugar factory, the sugar factory at Allscott, Shropshire was identified for major expansion to meet overall business objectives. The planned expansion would approximately double capacity to 850,000 tonnes of sugar beet every year and extends the production cycle of the “sugar end” processes beyond the end of the campaign. This daunting target was met by enhancing 50 percent of the factory (beet end) over a two-year time frame. The expansion of the beet end processes involved the construction of two “thick juice” storage tanks, and associated process control. These new tanks have a combined storage capacity of 86,000 tonnes. The scheme also involved the implementation of replacement process control schemes for another six sub processes, 2001/2002 Allscott factory Upgrade 1 - Beet Intake 2 - Pre Scalder 3 - Wet Pulp 4 - Lime Kiln 5 - Rotary Vacuum & GP Filters 6 - Falling Film Evaporators (FFE) 7 - Factory Wide Heating Duties 8 - Thick juice import & export Pre 2000 Process Enhancements 9 - Pelleting 10 - Boiler & Turbine Control 11 - Pans 12 - Sugar Screening 13 - Sugar Silo Air Conditioning The Allscott factory has been producing sugar since 1927, and to date this project is the largest in the history of the site. The selection of the correct process control specialist was critical to achieving a smooth implementation, therefore particular emphasis was placed on proven project management and in-depth knowledge of disparate control systems. In this case Rockwell Allen Bradley for sequence control, and Eurotherm for complex continuous control. The process control aspects required the re-configuration of redundant control equipment coupled with the integration of new control equipment. Process control programming software was used to configure nine control panels located geographically around the site, communicating over a fibre optic network to supervisor workstations. The nine control panels contain numerous distributed processors. To complement the changes carried out at the factory floor level the site’s supervisory systems were upgraded. Servers were enhanced and workstations added to provide operators with the high visibility required to control the new and modified processes. By factory startup over seventy graphic pages and windows had been created or modified, and in excess of a thousand tags had been added to the various databases. Like many advanced manufacturing plants British Sugar require significant amounts of data to be recorded for plant optimisation and product traceability. In this instance a dedicated, high-availability server was assigned to manage the collection and storage of factory floor data for various Manufacturing Execution System (MES) related tasks. These included: the configuration and presentation of key trend data; the management of the interface between factory data and the company’s Wide Area Network (WAN); the conversion and archive of data onto the company’s Oracle database and the backup of all the control server images and databases. The significance of this project did not allow for any compromise, delay or partial failure. Flexibility, reliability and best in class were the terms of reference. Any delay in factory start up would directly affect the supply chain, and process failure could result in customer commitments not being met and/or the implementation of costly alternative strategies. As before, British Sugar turned to Charter Tech, an independent systems integrator with proven experience of integrating disparate control systems and over ten years’ experience of providing solutions and services to British Sugar across the majority of its factories. Charter Tech personnel assisted with all stages of the project from initial consultation to final implementation and commissioning. Charter Tech engineers worked side by side with the British Sugar project team, during the entire project life cycle to ensure the final solution
met the business requirements and maximized plant efficiency. The flexibility and approach of Charter Tech personnel allowed British Sugar staff to develop solutions to problems as they occurred. The British Sugar Project Engineer commented “I enjoyed the way that the Charter Tech team responded, sometimes at short notice, to problems without fuss to ensure the job got completed”.
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