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UIC CODE

8th edition, May 2005 Translation

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Standard of quality for a European flat wood pallet, with four entries and measuring 800 mm x 1 200 mm
Norme qualitative pour une palette plate europeenne en bois a quatre entrees, de dimensions 800 mm x 1 200 mm Gutenorm fur eine Europaische Vierweg-Flachpalette aus Holz mit den Abmessungen 800 mm x 1 200 mm

UNION INTERNATIONALE DES CHEMINS OE PER INTERNATIONALE EISENBAHNVERBAND INTERNATIONAL UNION OF RAILWAYS

Leaflet to be classified in Volumes:


II - Freight Traffic IV Operating

Application:
With effect from 1 May 2005 All members of the International Union of Railways

Record of updates
1st edition, January 1960 6th edition, January 1987 7th edition, July 1994 8th edition, May 2005 First issue with one amendment and one amendment and two amendments Overhaul of leaflet

The person responsible for this leaflet is named in the UIC Code

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Contents
Summary ...............................................................................................................................1 1Technical design features............................................................................................2 1.1 - Dimensions 2 1.2 - Load-bearing capacity 2 1.3- Assembly ......................................................................................................................................... 2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 - Preparation of the wood and pallet 4 - Wood species 5 - Wood quality 5 - Marking 7 - Quality control.............................................; 8 2Approval.......................................................................................................................9 2.1 2.2 2.3 - Approving Railway Undertaking 9 - Approval of a manufacturer 9 - Withdrawal of approval 9 Appendix A -Plan and parts list........................................................................................10 Appendix -Nailing pattern..............................................................................................13 Appendix -Composite chipboard block........................................................................15 Appendix D -Accepted wood species and timber composites......................................16

Appendix E -Fasteners used .........................................................................17 Appendix F - Corner drop test...........................................................................................19 Appendix G -Basic drawing for tear strength measurements.......................................20 Appendix H -Test pieces for the tear strength tests.......................................................21 Appendix I - Standard marking for European flat pallets with four entries.................22 Appendix J - Quality control and random sample programme.......................................23

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Appendix - Conditions for the approval of manufacturers based in the territory of another RU ........................................................................................................................... 27 Appendix L - Pallet Organisations.......................................................................................29 Appendix M -Approved wood preservatives.......................................................................30 Glossary ..............................................................................................................................31

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Summary
This leaflet applies to the manufacture, inspection and marking of re-usable and repairable European flat wood pallets with four entries and measuring 800 mm x 1 200 mm.

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1 - Technical design features


1.1 - Dimensions
The nominal dimension of 800 mm x 1 200 mm is based on the standardised international packing unit of 400 mm x 600 mm. The manufacturing tolerances take account of the natural properties of the wood material used, which shrinks when drying. The dimensions with their permissible tolerances are set out in Appendix A - page 10. If the moisture content of the wooden parts is outside the prescribed limits, the shrinkage dimensions in the table in Appendix J - page 23 shall apply.

1.2-

Load-bearing capacity

The (fug) flat pallet is designed to withstand the following loads when stacked on a shelf or on the fork of a fork-lift truck: 1 000 kg (nominal load), if the load is distributed randomly across the surface of the pallet;

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500 kg, if the load is evenly distributed across the surface of the pallet; 000 kg, if the load is compact and evenly distributed across the whole surface of the pallet.

When stacked, the lower pallet must withstand: a maximum additional load of 4 000 kg, if it is resting on a flat, horizontal and rigid surface and if the load is exerted horizontally and across the whole surface of the pallet.

1.31.3.1-

Assembly Fastener quality

Only those fasteners complying with the provisions set out in Appendix E - page 17 and guaranteeing the pallet strength stipulated in point 1.3.4 - page 3 shall be used for assembly. They must be tested and accepted by the approving RU or Pallet Organisation as specified in Appendix L - page 29 . Fasteners tested and accepted by an RU or Pallet Organisation as specified in Appendix L may be accepted by other RUs.

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1.3.2-

Assembly method

All fasteners shall be positioned in such a way as to ensure that they do not protrude sideways beyond a board or block. Their depth of penetration must be such that the heads do not protrude from the board surface but are lodged at a maximum of 3 mm below the surface for a minimum pallet height. For each block, a minimum of three fasteners must be used on both the top and bottom surfaces of the pallet. These fasteners must not be embedded in the same wood fibre and must be spaced as far apart as possible. A minimum distance of 20 mm must be kept from the edges of the board or block and from manufacturing cavities in a composite (chipboard) block. At least three fasteners must be used for fixing each stringer board to an intermediate topdeck board. The topdeck lead boards and, where necessary, the central topdeck board shall be fixed to the stringer board by means of at least one fastener. Any fasteners protruding out from the underside of the stringer boards must be bent back. An example of a nailing pattern together with a sample list of fasteners complying with the above conditions is given in Appendix A - page 10 and - page 13. 1.3.3Other assembly methods

Other methods of assembly (e.g. bonding, screwing, riveting) may not be used unless they have received UlC approval. 1.3.4Pallet strength

For the strength tests, the moisture content of the fully-grown timber must be 20% 2%. The pallets must be able to withstand the strength tests indicated below: 1.3.4.1Diagonal rigidity

The diagonal rigidity of the pallet shall be tested by means of corner drop-tests as shown in Appendix F - page 19. Tests must be carried out on 3 pallets. After dropping the pallet six times on the same corner the distance between the reference points must not have decreased by more than 3% compared with the initial distance. 1.3.4.2 Tear strength of pallet joints/assemblies

Tests to check the tear strength of joint assemblies shall be carried out using the test device shown in Appendix G - page 20 on at least 10 test-pieces in accordance with Appendix H - page 21 During tests, the tensile force must be applied gradually, slowly and smoothly. The test device must offer a measurement precision of at least 4%.

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The arithmetic mean tear strength and at least 75% of the values recorded must be greater than or equal to those given below:

block/stringer board/topdeck board assembly block/bottomdeck board assembly stringer board/intermediate topdeck board assembly

6,0 kN 5,5 kN 3,0 kN

These values can be achieved by using ring shank nails or twisted nails in particular. For the approval of new assembly methods and new fasteners, the tear strength tests must be carried out on 20 test-pieces for each method of assembly and for each type of wood and wooden material used. 1.3.4.3 Pallet strength testing

The strength of the pallet must be tested by the approving RU with each manufacturer at the start of production and whenever the manufacturing process, wood species or fasteners are changed, or when the approving RU deems it necessary. The strength test can be dispensed with if the approved fasteners are suitable for all wood species and are clearly identifiable by a marking on the head.

1.4 - Preparation of the wood and pallet


1.4.1 Boards

All boards must consist of a single piece of wood. The top and bottom surfaces of the pallet boards must be rough (unplaned). 1.4.2Blocks

The wood fibres in the blocks must be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pallet, except for 145 mm x 145 mm blocks. Blocks may be made from: a single piece of wood, chipboard (composite block). 1.4.3Chamfers

The top edges of the bottom boards and the four corners of the pallet must be chamfered as shown in Appendix A - page 10. If chipboard blocks are used, the inner corners must not be adapted to match the chamfered edges of the blocks.

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1.5-

Wood species

Acceptable species of wood are indicated in Appendix D - page 16. Other wood species may be used provided their mechanical properties are at least equal to those of the wood species listed in Appendix D.

1.61.6.1-

Wood quality
General requirements

The wood shall be free of all traces of unauthorised wood preservatives and blue stain treatment. Authorised preservatives against mould and blue stain are listed in Appendix M - page 30. If phytosanitary treatment is required by national or international law, this shall be done by heat-treating the pallet. The following are not permitted: decay (mould, stain, canker), bark pockets, active infestation. 1.6.2Moisture content

The moisture content shall not exceed 22% of the weight of the wood in an anhydrous state (dried weight). 1.6.3Wane

There shall be no wane in cases where oak is used. For other wood species, wane is tolerated on two edges of each part, provided that there is no bark, that the wane is on the upper surface and that, when measured obliquely, it does not exceed 15 mm. Wane is not permitted on the stringer boards, the central bottomdeck board and on the outer edges of the topdeck and bottomdeck lead boards. 1.6.4Knots

Knots up to 10 mm may be ignored. Fully adhering knots shall be accepted; knots shall also be considered as adhering if at least 3/4 of their circumference adheres properly on one side. The diameter of a knot shall not exceed the following value on each length of board equal to its width: 1/4 of the width for the stringer boards, 1/3 of the width for the other boards, and the aggregate diameter of knot clusters shall not exceed: 1/3 of the width for the stringer boards, 1/2 of the width for the other boards. For blocks, the diameter of a knot must not exceed 1/4 of the height of the block on its visible sides. 5 435-2

1.6.5- Shakes Only superficial shakes resulting from seasoning shall be allowed on the blocks. A single split per board, not exceeding a length equal to the width of the board and not caused during assembly operations, shall be allowed. 1.6.6Stain

Seasonal stain and slight discolouring shall be acceptable. However, stain caused by bad drying or storing conditions shall not be allowed. 1.6.7 Resin pockets

There shall be no resin pockets on the upper surface of the topdeck boards nor on the underside of the bottom boards. Resin pockets measuring up to 50 mm shall be tolerated elsewhere. 1.6.8 Slope of the grain of the wood

The slope of the grain in relation to the corresponding longitudinal edge must not exceed: 5% in the boards, 20% in the blocks. 1.6.9 Insect holes

Insect damage that has ceased to spread (e.g. black holes) shall be accepted provided the number of holes is limited and the diameter a maximum of 3 mm. 1.6.10Sapwood

Healthy sapwood shall be accepted for: hardwood varieties, if it does not exceed 1/4 of the width and 1/2 of the thickness of the board, and softwood varieties. 1.6.11 Heartwood

Enclosed heartwood shall be permitted in the blocks; heartwood within the wood shall only be permitted for pine in general and, for other species, in a maximum of three of the nine blocks in a pallet (preferably in the 145 mm x 145 mm blocks).

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1.7- Marking
1.7.1 Markings

( EUR ) flat pallets must bear the following marks on the blocks of the two longitudinal sides of the pallet: on the right-hand corner block: the (fug) registered mark described in Appendix I - page 22; on the left-hand corner block: the logo (initials) of the approving RU or Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L - page 29 in letters at least 40 mm in height; on the middle block: the manufacturer's code and, when applying the provisions of Appendix L, the logo of the approving RU plus the national code of the country of manufacture, in characters at least 20 mm in height. When phytosanitary treatment is carried out, the markings required by the authorities for phytosanitary heat treatment shall be applied to both the middle blocks on the longitudinal sides (1 200 mm sides). One line beneath should be added the manufacturer's code (including the year and month of manufacture) and possibly also the logo/initials of the RU or Pallet Organisation, legibly and in characters of at least 10 mm in height. The manufacturer's code 000-0-00 indicates: in the first group (alpha-numerical): the approved manufacturer, in the second group: the last digit of the year of manufacture and the month of manufacture. The markings must be made with a branding iron and must be complete. The wood may also be stamped with a colouring agent at the same time; the stamp must be at least 0,3 mm deep in dark brown or black; it must be waterproof, light-resistant and non-toxic. 1.7.2 R Illegal use of markings

) mark defined in Appendix I - page 22 and the initials of the RU/Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L legal action shall be taken by the approving RU. The approving RU shall make the necessary arrangements for prosecution accordingly. If an RU fails to fulfil its obligations under the provisions of this leaflet, its entitlement to award the registered mark (fug) will be withdrawn. The validity of any claims for compensation and illicit use remains unaffected. 1.7.3 Removal of markings

Where the marks have been illegally used or when the quality inspections carried out in accordance with Appendix J - page 23 reveal that the pallets do not comply with the provisions of the leaflet, these pallets may not be used in traffic as (fug) pallets. The markings must be rendered permanently unrecognisable with black waterproof ink. 1.7.4 Additional markings

Additional markings are only permitted if they serve to indicate that the quality control was carried out according to the provisions of the leaflet, and if they are approved by the RU.

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1.7- Marking
1.7.1 Markings

(EUR) flat pallets must bear the following marks on the blocks of the two longitudinal sides of the pallet: on the right-hand corner block: the (fug) registered mark described in Appendix 1 - page 22; on the left-hand corner block: the logo (initials) of the approving RU or Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L - page 29 in letters at least 40 mm in height; on the middle block: the manufacturer's code and, when applying the provisions of Appendix L, the logo of the approving RU plus the national code of the country of manufacture, in characters at least 20 mm in height. When phytosanitary treatment is carried out, the markings required by the authorities for phytosanitary heat treatment shall be applied to both the middle blocks on the longitudinal sides (1 200 mm sides). One line beneath should be added the manufacturer's code (including the year and month of manufacture) and possibly also the logo/initials of the RU or Pallet Organisation, legibly and in characters of at least 10 mm in height. The manufacturer's code 000-0-00 indicates: in the first group (alpha-numerical): the approved manufacturer, in the second group: the last digit of the year of manufacture and the month of manufacture. The markings must be made with a branding iron and must be complete. The wood may also be stamped with a colouring agent at the same time; the stamp must be at least 0,3 mm deep in dark brown or black; it must be waterproof, light-resistant and non-toxic. 1.7.2 Illegal use of markings

In the event of illegal use and imitations of the (EUR) mark defined in Appendix 1 - page 22 and the initials of the RU/Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L legal action shall be taken by the approving RU. The approving RU shall make the necessary arrangements for prosecution accordingly. If an RU fails to fulfil its obligations under the provisions of this leaflet, its entitlement to award the registered mark (EUR) will be withdrawn. The validity of any claims for compensation and illicit use remains unaffected. 1.7.3 Removal of markings

Where the marks have been illegally used or when the quality inspections carried out in accordance with Appendix J - page 23 reveal that the pallets do not comply with the provisions of the leaflet, these pallets may not be used in traffic as (fug) pallets. The markings must be rendered permanently unrecognisable with black waterproof ink. 1.7.4 Additional markings

Additional markings are only permitted if they serve to indicate that the quality control was carried out according to the provisions of the leaflet, and if they are approved by the RU.

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1.8- Quality control


The approving RU must check the quality of finished pallets on the manufacturer's premises (quality control). The random sample method described in Appendix J - page 23 shall be considered a minimum. The necessary measuring devices shall be provided by the manufacturer. If no pallets are available for quality control testing (no production), then a check should be carried out at least once a year to establish whether the conditions for production in accordance with this leaflet are still met, or whether the approval should be withdrawn. If the manufacturer has produced satisfactory pallets for a period of 12 months and has its own quality control system that is recognised by the RU or Pallet Organisation responsible and which is at least as effective as the random sample method described in this leaflet, the approving RU shall check that it is being properly applied as part of its regular verification of compliance with the rules governing pallet construction and markings (production controls). These checks are to be carried out at least once a month and without advance warning. After a further 12 months of satisfactory production (no pallets rejected with critical flaws), the interval between checks can be extended to at least once every 3 months. Imported pallets An RU on whose territory imported pallets are used in traffic for the first time is authorised to inspect them in accordance with the random sample method (Appendix J). If the results are not satisfactory, the markings must be rendered unrecognisable. The approving RU shall be advised accordingly and shall take action as appropriate.

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2 - Approval
2.1 - Approving Railway Undertaking
Each UIC member RU has the basic right to authorise a manufacturer within its territory to produce (EUR) flat pallets. Subject to compliance with the provisions of Appendix - page 27, this right can also be extended to manufacturers outside its territory. The approving RU is entitled to avail itself of the services of a Pallet Organisation as specified in Appendix L - page 29 to carry out these tasks.

2.2 - Approval of a manufacturer


Approval may only be granted if: the technical manufacturing conditions have been met, the manufacturer gives a written commitment to abide by the provisions governing manufacture and to comply with the quality control and inspection procedures; the inspection of a batch of 100 test pallets gives confirmation of compliance with the provisions of the leaflet. Approval shall be granted through the formal authorisation and obligation to use the (fug) registered mark plus the initials of the approving RU or Pallet Organisation in accordance with Appendix L and the allocation of the manufacturer's code number.

2.3 - Withdrawal of approval


The approval must be withdrawn in the following cases: non-compliance with the provisions of this leaflet, illegal use of the initials of another RU or Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L, cessation of production, closure of the company. Termination of the approval shall lead to a ban on further use of the marking tools and their confiscation or destruction by the approving RU.

Appendices
Quantity Number Description Nominal dimensions (mm) Material (tensile strength of fasteners) N/mm2 Restrictions on use

2 2 1 3 1 2 6 3 27 27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9

Bottomdeck lead board Topdeck lead board Central bottomdeck board Stringer Central topdeck board Intermediate topdeck board Block Block Split-resistant screw nail Ring shank naill

1 200x100x22 1 200x145x22 1 200x145x22 800x145x22 1 200x145x22 1 200x100x22 145x100x78 145x145x78 5,2 x 90 4,2 x 38

(see Appendix - page 13)

Steel/min. 700 Steel/min. 700

Hardwood blocks Blocks of softwood, chipboard and poplar

24 24 24 24 27 27

10 10 10 10 11 11

Clip Nail for nailing machine Anchoring nail (ring shank nail with cut-off tip) Ring shank nail Split-resistant screw nail Ring shank nail

2, 2 x 14 x 53 2,5 x 60 2,8 x 56 4,2 x 38 5,2 x 70 4,2 x 70

Steel/min. 760 Steel/min. 800 Steel/min. 800 Steel/min. 600 Steel/min. 650 Steel/min. 650 Movable nailing bar Fixed nailing bar Hardwood stringers Hardwood blocks Blocks of softwood, chipboard and poplar

Drawings of the corresponding fasteners should be obtained from the approving RU.

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Appendices

Appendix D - Accepted wood species and timber composites


D.1 - Wood species
Softwoods soft fir spruce pine larch hemlock alder birch poplar aspen Hardwoods hard oak ash beech elm acacia maple plane chesnut
a. b. For soft woods and poplars, the mean annual growth measured over 10 growth rings must not be greater than 7 mm. Not accepted for piece 4 (stringer board).

Other wood species shall only be accepted if their mechanical properties are at least equal to those of the species listed in the above table.

D.2 - Timber composites


Timber composites shall only be accepted for pieces 7 and 8. General D.2.1 - The only bonding substances acceptable in this context shall be glues that: guarantee permanent cohesion of the material; give off no more than 0,1 ppm formaldehyde per cubic metre of air. When the glues used can constitute a hazard during application or disposal, this must be indicated by the manufacturer. D.2.2 - After 24 hours' immersion in water at 20C, the swelling measured on 10 test pieces must not exceed: length and width: 2%, height: 4,5% (maximum swelling on one of the 10 blocks tested of between 4,5% and 5,5%). D.2.3 - After the following series of tests, the material strength must be retained and no cracks may appear on the surface and no shavings become detached: a 2-hour immersion in water at 100C under ambient pressure, 2 hours drying at 65 ( 3C).

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Appendices Appendix E - Fasteners used


E.1 - Minimum specifications for fasteners
E.1.1 - For block/stringer board/topdeck board assemblies. Length: Size of nail head: Ratio of nail head diameter to shank diameter: > 2:1 Shank design: Tensile strength: Point design: E.1.2 - For block/bottomdeck board assemblies. Length: Size of nail head: Shank design: For lengths of less than 88 mm, the nail head should be marked with a circle of diameter 2,7 mm + 0,5 and depth 0,3 mm Tensile strength: minimum 650 N/mm2 Point design: diamond or chisel shape E.1.3 - For stringer board/intermediate topdeck board assemblies. Fasteners that are bent back on the underside of stringer boards: Length: Size of nail head: Ratio of nail-head diameter to shank diameter: > 2:1 Shank design: Tensile strength: Point design: minimum 53 mm minimum diameter 5,5 mm or cross-section 24 mm2 plain, twisted, grooved, notched, or equivalent minimum 800 N/mm2 diamond or bevel-cut shape minimum 68 mm minimum 88 mm minimum diameter 8,4 mm or cross-section 55 mm2 twisted, grooved, notched or equivalent minimum 700 N/mm2 diamond or chisel shape.

Fasteners which do not pierce the stringer board (preferably when the stringer board is of hardwood): Length: Size of nail head: Ratio of nail-head diameter to shank diameter: > 2:1 Shank design: Tensile strength: Point design: minimum 36 mm, maximum 41 mm minimum diameter 5,5 mm or cross-section 24 mm2 twisted, grooved, notched or equivalent minimum 600 N/mm2 diamond shape

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Appendices
Fasteners - clips - that are bent back on the underside of stringer boards: Length: Inner width: Wire diameter: Shank design: Tensile strength: Point design: minimum 53 mm minimun 14 mm minimum 2,2 mm plain, twisted, grooved, notched or equivalent minimum 760 N/mm2 diamond shape

E.2 - Approval of fasteners


Three pallets shall be manufactured (under the conditions specified) from each species of wood using the fasteners to be approved and 20 test pieces cut from them, as shown in Appendix H - page 21 of this leaflet. The pallets shall be tested in accordance with point 1.3.4,1 - page 3 and the test pieces in accordance with point 1.3.4.2 - page 3. The test results shall be written up in a report with the following details: type, dimensions, material and minimum tensile strength of the fasteners, wood species used for the boards and blocks, specifying the density (timber composites) and the distance between the annual rings, the moisture content measured on each pallet and on each test-piece, the results of each of the drop tests, indicating any damage sustained, the individual values obtained for the tear strength tests, the arithmetical mean tear-strength of each wood species, a drawing showing all the fastener dimensions and tolerances, with details of the material in question. If the results are satisfactory (in accordance with points 1.3.4.1 und 1.3.4.2), the approving RU may approve the fastener in question for the wood species tested.

E.3 - Permanent inspection


During each inspection and quality control operation (see points 1.3.4,3 - page 4 and 1.8 - page 8) a check shall be carried out to ensure compliance of fastener dimensions, shank design (e.g. sharpness of the edges) and their utilisation with the prescribed wood species. In the event of failure to adhere to the dimensions or if the approving RU deems it necessary, the inspections stipulated in point 2 - page 9 shall be repeated. If the inspection values are not achieved during this test, approval of the particular fastener shall be withdrawn.

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Appendices

Appendix F - Corner drop test


Two points A and shall be marked out on the top deck of the pallet at a distance of approx. 40 mm from two diagonally opposite corners. The pallet shall then be suspended in such a way that the diagonal between the measuring points is vertical.

7777777777777777777777777777777777777
The pallet must be allowed to fall freely from a height of 1 m onto a level, hard, stiff and horizontal surface. The distance between measuring points A and shall be measured before the first drop and after the sixth. With the exception of local damage within 50 mm of the point of impact, the pallet must remain undamaged.

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Appendices Appendix G - Basic drawing for tear strength measurements

Measuring device Tear strength F (kN)

The test mechanism shall consist of two stirrups. Stirrup A grips the block. Stirrup pushes down on the board. The tear strength F generated between the two stirrups is measured.

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Appendices

Appendix H - Test pieces for the tear strength tests


The test pieces shall be cut from complete finished pallets from the current production run. The wooden parts must not contain any knots or cracks. At the time of testing, the moisture content must not exceed 22 % of the weight of the wood in an anhydrous state (dry weight). The fasteners must meet the minimum requirements set out in Appendix E - page 17.

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Appendices Appendix I - Standard marking for European flat pallets with four entries

Right corner block

Authorisation to use branding irons or stamps bearing this mark may only be granted by RUs to approved manufacturers. The (EUR) mark has been registered as a trademark with the Bureau International de I'Organisation Mondiale de la Propriete Intellectuelle (OMPI) in Geneva under number 430 337.

Appendices Appendix J - Quality control and random sample programme


J.1 - For the quality control operation, a statistically selected sample from a batch of pallets is inspected against a set of quality characteristics in a sample programme. In this way the quality of a complete set of flat pallets submitted for inspection (batch) can be assessed by means of a detailed examination of a group of pallets (sample) taken from the batch. Inspections based on a random sample programme may only be used if a constant manufacturing standard is guaranteed. J.2 - The size of the sample (n) shall depend on the size of the batch (N), as indicated in Table 1 -page 24. Where the batch size is greater than 10 000 units, several batches shall be formed. J.3 - The flat pallets that are to make up the sample shall be taken at random from the complete batch by the inspector before the test begins. J.4 - The sample shall be tested according to the provisions of this leaflet, by visual inspection and by measurement of the main dimensions and of those of the different parts of each pallet. The inspector shall record all defects noted in the sample, not the number of defective pallets. If a given defect is the cause of one or more additional defects as listed in the random sample programme described in Appendix J, only the highest-level defect shall be recorded. On completion of the inspection, the defects shall be grouped together and classified as critical, major or minor defects. J.4.1 - Critical defects are defects which constitute a safety hazard or prevent the pallets from being used. J.4.2 - Major defects are defects which substantially curtail the useful life of the pallet or severely restrict its use. J.4.3 - Minor defects are defects which do not seriously affect the use of the pallet. J.5 - The complete batch shall be assessed against the criteria given in Table 2 - page 24. If the maximum permitted number of defects specified in Table 2 is not exceeded for the sample under consideration, the whole of the corresponding batch shall be accepted. If only one of the limit values (maximum number of defects) is exceeded, the whole of the corresponding batch shall be rejected as non-compliant and the markings on the rejected pallets shall be removed (see, however, the procedure described in point J.6 below). J.6 - The random sample procedure may be repeated with the agreement of the inspector, if the manufacturer removes the defective pallets from the complete batch before the procedure is repeated. The pallets that have been removed shall be presented to the inspector, along with the new batch, once they have been repaired or had their markings removed. The new batch shall then be inspected according to the provisions of points J.1 to J.5.

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Appendices
J.7 - Shrinkage values of the most frequently used wood species. The average shrinkage or swelling value perpendicular (tangentially and radially) to the grain of the wood, for a 1 % variation in moisture content, shall be (only valid for a moisture content of up to 30%): 0,24% for oak, spruce, pine, fir 0,32% for beech Table 1 : Size of sample Batch size (N) N<150 151 < N<280 281 < N < 500 501 < N < 1 200 1 201 < N<3 200 3 201 < N<10 000 Sample (n) 8 13 20 32 50 80

Table 2 : Assessment of the complete batch Sample (n) 8 13 20 32 50 80 Maximum number of defects permitted Critical defects 0 0 0 0 0 0 Major defects 5 7 10 14 21 30 Minor defects 10 14 21 30 44 70

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Appendices
Table 3 : Minimum dimensions in relation to measured humidity

Dimension

22 0,32

78 0,24 0,32

100
0,24 0,32

100
0,24 0,32

145 0,24 0,32

Shrinkage % 0,24 Moisture content


%
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 22,4 22,4 22,3 22,3 22,2 22,2 22,1 22,1 22,0 21,9 21,9 21,8 21,8 21,7 21,7 21,6 21,6 21,5 21,5

22,6 22,5 22,4 22,4 22,3 22,2 22,1 22,1 22,0 21,9 21,9 21,8 21,7 21,6 21,6 21,5 21,4 21,4 21,3

79,5 79,3 79,1 78,9 78,7 78,6 78,4 78,2 78,0 77,8 77,6 77,4 77,3 77,1 76,9 76,7 76,5 76,3 76,1

80,0 79,7 79,5 79,2 79,0 78,7 78,5 78,2 78,0 77,8 77,5 77,3 77,0 76,8 76,5 76,3 76,0 75,8 75,5

98,9 98,6 98,4 98,2 97,9 97,7 97,5 97,2 97,0 96,8 96,5 96,3 96,1 95,8 95,6 95,4 95,1 94,9 94,7

99,5 99,2 98,9 98,6 98,2 97,9 97,6 97,3 97,0 96,7 96,4 96,1 95,8 95,4 95,1 94,8 94,5 94,2 93,9

101,9 101,7 101,4 101,2 101,0 100,7 100,5 100,2 100,0 99,8 99,5 99,3 99,0 98,8 98,6 98,3 98,1 97,8 97,6

102,6 102,2 101,9 101,6 101,3 101,0 100,6 100,3 100,0 99,7 99,4 99,0 98,7 98,4 98,1 97,8 97,4 97,1 96,8

144,7 144,4 144,0 143,7 143,4 143,0 142,7 142,3 142,0 141,7 141,3 141,0 140,6 140,3 140,0 139,6 139,3 1-38,9 138,6

145,6 145,2 144,7 144,3 143,8 143,4 142,9 142,5 142,0 141,5 141,1 140,6 140,2 139,7 139,3 138,8 138,4 137,9 137,5

Anything lower than these minimum values shall be considered as a defect.

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Appendices

Flat wood pallet with four entries and measuring 800 mm x 1 200 mm Inspection report UIC Leaflet 435-2, 8th edition Manufacturer: Order: Number of pallets: Checklist of defects Batch size N 1 -150 Sample size n 8 Critical defects 0 Major defects 5 Minor defects 10 Critical defects - Description of defects Main dimensions: length Main dimensions: width Thickness of stringer board 1) Unpermssible wood species, knots, wane, bark pockets and decay in stringer boards Isolated knots (stringer board) Total knots (stringer board) Unpermissible fasteners Critical defects 151 -280 281 - 500 501 - 1 200 13 20 32 0 0 0 7 10 14 14 21 30 UIC Leaflet 435-2 Characteristics of defects upper/lower (mm) pp.A 1 200+8 pp.A pp.A App. DPts 1.6.1, 1,6.3, 1,6.4 Pt 1.6.4 Pt 1.6.4 App. E 800+8 22+a
X

1 201 - 3 200 3 201-10 000 50 80 0 0 21 30 44 70 Number of critical defects z

> 1/4 width > 1/3 width Yes Total defects Characteristics major defects/ minor defects upper/lower (mm) 1200 800 1000 Major defects Nu m ber of Minor defects

Major defects - Minor defects - Description of defects

Main dimensions: length Main dimensions: width Height of entry Distance from intermediate topdeck board Distance from central block Distance from central block Length of board Length of board Width of stringer board 1) Width of board 1) Width of board 1) Thickness of board 1) Length of block Width of block 1) Width of block 1) Height of block 1) Wood preservatives, rot, bark pockets, insect damage, annual rings Humidity of wood Wane Unacceptable knots Isolated knots Total knots Shakes Shakes in assembly Stain Resin pockets Slope of grain Insect holes Sapwood Heartwood Processing of boards Processing of blocks Chamfers Protruding fasteners Missing or twisted fasteners Distance between fasteners (nailing pattern) Incomplete marking, more than one railway logo (per pallet, more than one EUR marking) Conditions fulfilled : Yes/no: 1)See point J.7 place:

App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. A App. D Pt 1.6 Pt 1.6.3 Pt 1.6.4 Pt 1.6.4 Pt 1.6.4 Pt 1.6.4 Pt 1.6.5 Pt 1.6.5 Pt 1.6.6 Pt 1.6.7 Pt 1.6.8 Pt 1.6.9 Pt 1.6.10 Pt 1.6.11 Pt 1.4.1 Pt 1.4.2 Pt 1.4.3 Pt 1.3.2 Pt 1.3.2 Pt 1.3.2 Pt 1.7

187
min. 325 min. 525 <1 200 <800 145 145 100 22 145 145 +3 78 Yes > 26 % > 1 /2 b >2/3 b Yes Yes > 50 mm 5 %, 20 % Yes Yes Yes
X X X X X X

> 22 % > 15 mm > 1/3 b >1 /2 b


X

. f

Yes

111
Major defects Inspector: Minor defects.

Total number of defects: Date

26

435-2

Appendices

Appendix - Conditions for the approval of manufacturers based in the territory of another RU
K.1 - General
K.1.1 - When a manufacturer's production site is located on the territory of an RU that is not a UIC member, any UIC member RU may grant it the authorisation to manufacture (fug) flat pallets in accordance with the provisions of this Appendix. K.1.2 - When a manufacturer's production site is located on the territory of a UIC member RU, any UIC member RU may grant it the authorisation to manufacture (EUR) flat pallets in accordance with the provisions of this Appendix. In this case, however, the RU on whose territory the manufacturer is located must also be informed.

K.2 - Requirements to be met prior to approval


K.2.1 - An approval application must be made, giving the following details: company name of applicant, company name of the manufacturer with details of production site, planned date for launch of production, planned production volumes, proposed quality control organisation, approvals previously obtained. K.2.2 - In addition, the applicant must agree to comply with the provisions in point K.3 in a declaration to this effect.

K.3 - Provisions concerning the approval to use the logo (initials) of an RU/Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L and the (EUR) mark for the manufacture of (EUR) pallets abroad
This authorisation is only issued on request. The application should be addressed to the RU whose logo is required. This authorisation, if granted, does not give the applicant and the manufacturer an exclusive right of use, because: several applicants may receive authorisation to use the logo of the same RU/Pallet Organisation for the pallets of a given manufacturer and a given manufacturer may receive authorisation from several RUs/Pallet Organisations as per Appendix L.

27

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Appendices
The applicant shall propose a recognised quality control organisation, based either in the country of production or elsewhere, to carry out regular inspections and quality control once approval has been granted along with permission to use the marks in compliance with the provisions of UIC leaflets. Regular inspections and quality controls shall be understood to mean the batch tests and unannounced production inspections described in point 1.8 - page 8. The costs associated with the inspections and quality control shall be borne by the manufacturer. The applicant shall agree to take upon itself any damage resulting from misuse of the registered marks (logo of RU/Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L - page 29 and (EUR) mark) by the manufacturer in a foreign country. The applicant must also accept the principle that approval will be withdrawn if these provisions or those of the UIC leaflets are not respected. The applicant and the manufacturer shall undertake to submit a further application for any other production sites. The applicant and the manufacturer shall use only those marking tools (stamps, branding irons) which have been entrusted to them by the owner of the mark or by a third party empowered by the owner, and shall return the mafks to the owner if the approval is withdrawn or production is discontinued. The marking tools shall remain the property of the registered owner of the marks. The applicant and the manufacturer are only entitled to use of the mark. The applicant shall bear all costs and expenses associated with the approval inspection (in particular travel expenses, board and lodging and administrative costs, including when the test results are negative and the operation must be repeated). Costs and expenses shall be settled either on presentation of the invoice or as a lump sum, the amount of which shall be fixed by each RU. An advance payment may be agreed. The applicant shall make the necessary arrangements to present a sample batch and organise the inspection of the plant with the manufacturer and inspector. The manufacturer must have available all the measuring equipment needed for quality control. This equipment shall be placed at the inspector's disposal.

K.4 - Approval procedure


K.4.1 - Each RU, on receiving an application, shall: check to see that all formal conditions are complied with; advise the UIC member RU on whose territory the approval has been requested; advise Rail Cargo Austria, as owner of the (fug) mark. K.4.2 - If this RU authorises use of the mark it shall be responsible for: granting authorisation only if the applicant has met all the conditions (compliance with UIC Leaflet 4352 in particular); carrying out or arranging for the unannounced plant inspections and quality control operations on the batches presented, as described in point 1.8 - page 8; withdrawing the right to use the mark, when the conditions are not respected. -

28 435-2

Appendices Appendix L - Pallet Organisations


A Pallet Organisation is a body: which can be commissioned by an RU to carry out the tasks described in this leaflet, whose competence in the field of quality control of pallets is recognised by UlC, which has an organisational structure commensurate with international activities, which has its own registered trademark and which has a legal status that enables it to take action before the courts for trademark infringements. Pallet Organisations: as at 1.1.1997: EPAL European Pallet Association e. V. D58010 Hagen

(EFAL)

29 435-2

Appendices Appendix M - Approved wood preservatives


Wood preservatives approved to date are:

as at 25.9.2003

TC 3 Address: Timberclean Products GMBH Stockmatt 16 D - 77740 Bad Peterstal Tel:+49/(0)7806 98 88 13 Fax: +49/ (0) 7806 98 88 22 E-Mail: info@tc-3.com Internet: www.tc-3.com

30

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Glossary
Applicant Approval The applicant is a natural or legal person who requests approval from a railway. Approval refers to the authorisation and obligation, for EUR flat pallets produced in accordance with the provisions of this leaflet, to apply the markings described in point 1.7.1. An EUR flat pallet is a re-usable and repairable flat pallet made of wood with four entries, produced, quality-controlled and marked in accordance with the provisions of this leaflet. The manufacturer is a natural or legal person who produces pallets in accordance with this leaflet. The principal markings on an EUR flat pallet are: - the registered mark (EUR) shown in Appendix l; - the registered logo (initials) of the approving RU or Pallet Organisation as per Appendix L on the left-hand corner block; -the manufacturer's code on the central block (point 1.7.1). Additional markings can be used to indicate that the quality control operation has taken place. Quality control is an operation involving all necessary measures to be taken to ensure a uniform minimum standard of quality.

EUR flat pallet

Manufacturer Markings

Quality control

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No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or distributed by any means whatsoever, including electronic, except for private and individual use, without the express permission of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The same applies for translation, adaptation or transformation, arrangement or reproduction by any method or procedure whatsoever. The sole exceptions - noting the author's name and the source - are "analyses and brief quotations justified by the critical, argumentative, educational, scientific or informative nature of the publication into which they are incorporated". (Articles L 122-4 and L122-5 of the French Intellectual Property Code). International Union of Railways (UIC) - Paris, 2005 Printed by the International Union of Railways (UIC) 16, rue Jean Rey 75015 Paris - France, May 2005 Depot Legal May 2005

ISBN 2-7461-0954-9 (French version) ISBN 2-7461-0955-7 (German version) ISBN 2-74610956-5 (English version)