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BANDAGING

Objectives: After 1 hour of varied learning activities, the Level III students will be able to: 1. define the following terms: 1. 2. 3. bandage cravat sling

4. bandaging

2. state the importance of bandaging 3. identify different types of bandages


4. enumerate turns available for bandaging 5. discuss general principles in technique of bandaging

6. cite the different injury sites and its bandaging technique 7. demonstrate beginning skills in bandaging

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Bandage -

is a strip of cloth used to wrap some part of the body available in various widths, most commonly 1.5 to 7.5 cm (0.5 to 3 in.) usually applied in rolls for easy application to a body part

Cravat Sling -

a bandage folded several times

a very useful in first aid work and consists in reality of a triangular bandage applied by placing the base of the triangle under the wrist and the apex toward the elbow the arms of the sling are then carried upward around the neck and tied

Bandaging act of applying bandage

IMPORTANCE OF BANDAGING -

support or immobilize an injury to bones, joints, or muscles applying pressure to stop bleeding securing a dressing retaining warmth

TYPES OF BANDAGES adhesive compresses or strips for small wounds that combine a dressing with an adhesive bandage adhesive tape rolls tubular bandages for finger or toe elastic bandages

triangular bandages (or folded square cloths) any cloth or other material improvised to meet purposes of bandaging TURNS AVAILABLE IN BANDAGING

- Circular turns used to anchor bandages and to terminate them

- Spiral turns
-

used to bandage parts of the body that are fairly uniform in circumference, for example, the C

- Spiral reverse turns used to bandage cylindrical parts of the body that are not uniform in circumference, for example the lower leg or forearm

- Recurrent turns used to cover distal parts of the body, for example, the end of a finger, the skull, or the stump of an amputation

- Figure-of-eight turns used to bandage an elbow, knee, or ankle, because they permit some movement after application

GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN TECHNIQUE OF BANDAGING

The bandage must be applied snugly, since it stretches after a period of a few hours, particularly if there is motion of the part If the bandage is applied too tightly, the blood supply to the parts distal may be seriously interfered with, resulting in grave complications including gangrene and paralysis Most bandages should be reinforced with adhesive to prevent shredding of the edges and to prevent undue stretching of the gauze When an open wound is present on an extremity, a dressing will have been applied to the wound and fixation achieved with a bandage The bandage should be applied with the limb in the position in which it is to be carried Pain usually is experienced within a few minutes after the application of a tight bandage

A bandage which is too tight will produce coldness of the extremity and within an hour or two, perhaps numbness and tingling There are several turns available for bandaging: circular turn, spiral bandage, spiral reverse bandage, figure-of-eight turns, recurrent turns Whenever possible, bandage part in its normal position, with the joint slightly flexed to avoid putting strain on the ligaments and the muscles of the joint Whenever possible, leave the end of the body part exposed so that you will be able to determine the adequacy of the blood circulation to the extremity Always bandage body parts by working from the distal to the proximal end to aid the return flow of venous blood Bandage with even pressure to prevent interference with blood circulation Cover the dressings with bandages at least 5 cm beyond the edges of the dressing to prevent the dressing and wound from becoming contaminated Face the client when applying a bandage to maintain uniform tension and the appropriate direction of the bandage Pad between skin surfaces and over bony prominences to prevent friction from the bandage and consequent abrasion of the skin

DIFFERENT INJURY SITES AND ITS BANDAGING TECHNIQUE

HEAD BANDAGE Open out the triangular bandage. 1. Place the base of the bandage across the forehead so that the apex of the bandage falls towards the back of the head 2. Pass the straps formed by the base of the triangle around to the back of the head and cross them over the apex of the bandage at the neck. 3. Bring the ends around to the front again, and knot them over the forehead 4. Tuck the apex of the bandage over the straps to tighten the bandage

EAR OR CHEEK BANDAGE 1. Grasp the straps, and place the dressing vertically the ear 2. Pass the straps right around the head (over the and under the chin), and cross the straps above opposite ear 3. Pass the straps around the head horizontally around the forehead in front and the back of the and tie them over the dressing (not on top of injury) over top the

neck the

EYE BANDAGE Fold the triangular bandage into a wide strip. 1. Place the bandage diagonally across the injured eye. Bring the lower end around under the ear and the upper end over the other ear; then bring both ends around to the back of the head 2. cross the ends at the back of the neck 3. bring both ends forward above the ears, the forehead, and knot them on the forehead above the injured eye. to

BANDAGING AN EXTREMITY Open out the triangular bandage. 1. Place the bandage on the limb with the apex upwards. Fold the base of the bandage over, to produce straps at the bottom 2. Bring the straps so formed around to the back of the limb, cross them over, bring them back to the front, and tie them over the dressing away from the wound 3. Tuck the apex of the bandage under the knot to tighten the bandage

THE SLING - is not a bandage but is used to support for an injury to the shoulder or arm 1. Place the base of the triangular bandage vertically down the front of the chest with one end over the shoulder of the uninjured side. 2. Bend the arm and place the point of the bandage behind the elbow on the injured side. 3. Pick up the other end of the bandage and bring it upward over the neck on the injured side, picking up the lower arm in the process. 4. Tie the base ends together so that the knot is not resting directly on the spinal column in the back. 5. Make sure that the hand within the sling is elevated approximately four inches, above the level of the elbow. If not, readjust the knot. 6. Make sure the fingertips are exposed and that the hand is in a thumbs-up position within the sling. 7. Twist the point of the bandage and tuck it in at the elbow, or pin the point to the body of the sling.

SLING

BANDAGING FOREHEAD WOUNDS 1. Center the cravat over the wound. 2. Pass the tails around the skull and bring them back over the wound. 3. Tie directly over the wound (except in the case of eye injuries, when the tie will be above the bridge of the nose bow to allow for easy release should the victim vomit. BANDAGING CHIN WOUNDS 1. Cut off about three feet of four-inch gauze. 2. Split both ends, leaving intact a center area large enough to cover the wound adequately 3. Center the bandage over the wound. 4. Pass the two upper tails around the skull and tie in back below the level of the ears.
5. Pass the two lower tails upward and

tie at the top of the skull. Tie with a BANDAGING TRUNK

1. Place the point of the bandage over the shoulder on the injured side. 2. Place a one inch hem in the base and pass around the body. 3. Tie off the two ends of the base on the opposite side of the body, leaving one end longer than the other.
4. Tie the point to the longer tail of the base. If the point and base cannot be tied, tie a

second cravat between the point and base to bridge the space. Secure the bandage

BANDAGING SHOULDER OR HIP WOUNDS

1. Roll the point of the triangular bandage around the cravat several times to secure. 2. Place the cravat over the neck on the injured side and under the armpit on the uninjured side. The triangular bandage should be centered over the injured shoulder. (for the hip, the cravat is placed around the waist) 3. Tie the cravat just in front of the armpit. 4. Fold the base of the triangular bandage to the desired length. 5. Pass the ends around the arm (or leg) and tie.

BANDAGING THE KNEE OR ELBOW 1. Bend the elbow or knee slightly.

2. Center the cravat over the injury and carry the ends around the limb. 3. Pass the ends around to the site of the injury, with one end overlapping the upper margin of the bandage and one end overlapping the lower margin. 4. Continue around the limb, and tie off at the outside of the limb.

BANDAGING THE HANDS AND FEET Figure-Eight Bandage for the Hand 1. Anchor the bandage near the fingers and take two additional turns around the palm.

2. Carry the bandage across the back of the hand, around the wrist, and back across the palm. 3. Complete several turns, overlapping each by about two thirds of the bandage width. 4. Make two additional turns around the wrist, and tie.

For the foot, the figure-eight bandage is applied as follows: 1. Anchor the bandage at the instep and make 2 or 3 turns around the instep and heel. 2. Make several figure-eight turns by taking the bandage diagonally across the front of the foot, around the ankle, and again diagonally across the foot and under the arch. 3. Make additional turns around the ankle, and tie.

Pressure Bandage for the Hand 1. Have the victim squeeze a dressing tightly in the fist. 2. Center the cravat over the palm side of the wrist. 3. Pass one end behind the wrist and up over the clenched fist at the little-finger side. 4. Pass the other end behind the wrist and up over the fist at the thumb side. 5. Pull down firmly. 6. Cross the ends in opposite directions around the wrist and tie at the side.

Fingertip Bandage 1. Make several folds of gauze approximately twice the length of the injured part 2. Center the folds over the part. 3. Spiral the gauze over the folds to the end of the injured part and then spiral back to the base. 4. Pass the bandage around the part and make a split-tail tie-off at its base.