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DOC/ SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY explanation of behavioral patterns History and Orientation In 1941 Miller and Dollard proposed the theory of social learning. In 1963 Bandura and Walters broadened the social learning theory with the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning. The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding. Core Assumptions and Statements The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs. Environment refers to the factors that can affect a persons behavior. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behavior (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a persons behavior. The situation is a persons perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al, 2002). The three factors environment, people and behavior are constantly influencing each other. Behavior is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behavior (Glanz et al, 2002). The environment provides models for behavior. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives (Bandura, 1997). The concept of behavior can be viewed in many ways. Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behavior he must know what the behavior is and have the skills to perform it. Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory Source: Glanz et al, 2002, p169. Environment: Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support Situation: Perception of the environment; correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms Behavioral capability: Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery learning through skills training Expectations: Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior Expectancies: The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present outcomes of change that have functional meaning Self-control: Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward Observational learning: Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior Reinforcements: Responses to a persons behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of reoccurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives Self-efficacy: The persons confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success Emotional coping responses: Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management Reciprocal determinism: The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and personal change. Conceptual Model Source: Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. 12-8-04. From Favorite Methods Surveys, experiments and quasi-experiments are used. See for therapeutical techniques Bandura (1997) and Glanze et al (2002) Scope and Application The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant for designing health education and health behavior programs. This theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns. The theory can also be used for providing the basis for intervention strategies Example A project was started to prevent and reduce alcohol use among students in grades 6 till 12 (ages 11-13). The program took three years and was based on behavioral health curricula, parental involvement and community task force activities. The conclusion was that students were less likely to say they drank alcohol than others who did not join the program. With observational learning, negative expectancies about alcohol use and increased behavioral capability to communicate with parents the results were obtained. However, at the end of the 10th grade the differences were no longer significant. A new program in the 11th grade was started in which reduced access to alcohol and the change of community norms to alcohol use for high-school age students were key elements. With (1) community attention (2) parental education (3) support of alcohol free

events (4) media projects to dont provide alcohol and (5) classroom discussions the program started. After the 12th grade a significant result showed that the alcohol use decreased. Furthermore, the access to alcohol was reduced and the parental norms were less accepting of teen alcohol use at the end of the study. The outcomes of the SCT show that actions of the community level to change these constructs resulted in less drinking among teens. The community level appears to have success in changing the environment and expectancies to alcohol use by reducing teen access to alcohol, changing norms and reducing alcohol use among high school students. Example form Glanz et al, 2002, p 176-177 (summarized) Banduras theory Albert Bandura is well regarded for his Social Cognitive Theory. It is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by watching what others do, and that human thought processes are central to understanding personality. This theory provides a framework for understanding, predicting and changing human behaviour.

The main tenets of Banduras theory are that:

different times

people learn by observing others the same set of stimuli may provoke different

responses from different people, or from the same people at

the world and a persons behaviour are interlinked personality is an interaction between three factors: the environment, behaviour, and a persons psychological

processes. Social Cognitive Theory revolves around the notion that learning correlates to the observation of role models. In education, for example, teachers play the role of a model in a childs learning acquisition. In everyday life, the model could be media sources or those with whom you interact. Effective modelling teaches general rules and strategies for dealing with different situations. Through his research, Bandura established that there are certain steps involved in the modelling process: Attention You need to pay attention to learn something new. The more striking or different something is (due to colour or drama, for example) the more likely it is to gain our attention. Likewise, if we regard something as prestigious, attractive or like ourselves, we will take more notice. Retention You must be able to retain (remember) what you have paid attention to. Imagery and language pay a role in retention: you store what you have seen the model doing in the form of verbal descriptions or mental images, and bring these triggers up later to help you reproduce the model with your own behaviour. Reproduction At this point you have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behaviour. You must have the ability to reproduce the behaviour in the first place. For instance, if you are watching Olympic ice skating you may not be able to reproduce their jumps if you cant ice skate at all! Our abilities improve even when we just imagine ourselves performing. Motivation Unless you are motivated, or have a reason, you will not try to imitate the model. Bandura states a number of motives, including:

past reinforcement promised reinforcement vicarious reinforcement.

Albert Bandura has had a large impact on personality theory and therapy. His action-oriented, problem-solving approach appeals to those who want to make changes, rather than simply philosophise.